Fires - 2,022 entries found
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Basmer P., Seeger P.G., Bentz J.W.G., Fichtner M., Goschnick J., Ache H.J.
Analysis of smoke from burning packing material
Analyse des Brandaerosols von Verpackungsmaterial [in German]
Polystyrene chips treated with a flame retardant are used in packing goods. The composition of the gas and particle phases of smoke from burning chips was determined by experiments. The soot particles were classified according to size. The components at various depths in soot particles were identified. A large amount of respirable soot was found. The outer layers of the soot particles contained a large amount of organic and inorganic bromine compounds. In the gas phase, methyl bromide, which is highly toxic, and the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene were present in addition to a number of other harmful compounds.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, Feb. 1994, Vol.43, No.1, p.31-34. Illus. 13 ref.
Pohl K.D., Leisen K., Von Czerniewicz M., Wilkehl R., Wieneke A., Löbbert A.
Systematic studies for determining the flammability of vaporized mixtures of water and solvents
Systematische Untersuchungen zur Ermittlung der Zündfähigkeit fein vernebelter Wasser-Lösemittel-Gemische [in German]
The flammability of vaporized mixtures of water with n-butyl alcohol, butylene glycol, ethanol, methylpyrrolidone or n-propanol was tested. The selected substances are used as solvents in lacquers. The mixtures were vaporized with a pressure of 10bar to droplets with a diameter of about 50µm or less. In the ensuing flammability tests, the mists ignited at lower temperatures than was expected from the flashpoints of the unvaporized pure solvents or mixtures of water and solvents.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, Feb. 1994, Vol.43, No.1, p.23-28. Illus. 7 ref.
Lusa S., Louhevaara V., Kinnunen K.
Are the job demands on physical work capacity equal for young and aging firefighters?
The job demands on physical work capacity and the frequency of the fire fighting and rescue tasks were rated by 156 professional fire fighters (age 22-54 years) who responded to a questionnaire. Smoke-diving requiring the use of personal protective equipment was considered to demand most aerobic power. The clearing of debris with heavy manual tools, and roof work set the highest demands on muscular performance and motor coordination, respectively. During the past five years 83-88% of the respondents had performed these tasks on average four times a year. The rating and frequency of the tasks were not significantly affected by age. In other words, the job demands on physical work capacity remain the same throughout the occupational career of the fire fighters.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.70-74. 16 ref.
Training package including trainer's and presenters' manuals and questionnaires in addition to the audiovisual materials. Most everyday aspects of safety and health at the workplace are covered, as well as fire prevention measures.
Citizen Communication, Empire House, Beauchamp Avenue, Kidderminster, Worcs. DY11 7AH, United Kingdom, 1994. Videotape (length: 30min) + manuals + leaflets + overhead projection masters + (optional) 20 colour slides. Price: GBP 599.00 (GBP 649.00 with slides) + VAT.
Fire hazard testing - Part 2: Test methods - Section 4/sheet 2: 500 W nominal test flames and guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 2: Méthodes d'essais - Section 4/feuille 2: Flammes d'essai de 500W (valeur nominale) et guide [in French]
This technical report gives detailed requirements for the production of a nominal 500W, pre-mixed type test flame for use in fire hazard testing. Methods are given for a flame based on methane and a flame based on propane. The report should be used in conjunction with IEC 695-1-1 and IEC 695-4.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Mar. 1994. 39p. Illus.
Fire hazard testing - Part 2: Test methods - Section 1/sheets 0-3: Glow-wire test methods
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai - Section 1/feuille 0-3: Méthodes d'essai au fil incandescent [in French]
Section 1 of IEC 695-2 cancels and replaces IEC 695-2-1, 1991 (see CIS 92-1323), clause 7 of IEC 707, 1981 and clause 6 of IEC 829, 1988. It consists of 4 sheets: general glow-wire test methods; glow-wire end-product test and guidance; glow-wire flammability test on materials; glow-wire ignitability test on materials.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Mar. 1994. 4 vols. 23p., 17p., 15p., 15p. Illus.
Safer alternatives to fire and explosions in classroom demonstrations
Many classroom demonstrations involving fire and explosions have safer alternatives or hazards that can be greatly reduced by using commercially available materials or by using microscale quantities. A number of safer alternatives to fire and explosion demonstrations are described along with recommended safety precautions. The Minimum Safety Guidelines for Chemical Demonstrations as developed by the ACS Division of Chemical Education are listed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.149-158. Illus. 13 ref.
Turmo Sierra E.
Heat radiation in liquid and gas fires
Radiación térmica en incendios de líquidos y gases [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; fire resistance; fire; mathematical analysis; radiant heat; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 7p. Illus. 3 ref.
Sorensen G., Lando H., Pechacek T.F.
Promoting smoking cessation at the workplace - Results of a randomized controlled intervention study
In a study of a three-month smoking cessation programme, eight work sites were randomly assigned to an intervention or a comparison condition. The intervention programme included consultation for employers on the adoption of a nonsmoking policy, training for nonsmokers to provide assistance to smokers attempting to quit and cessation classes for smokers. Assessments carried out one and six months after the intervention was completed showed that smoking cessation rates were higher in the intervention companies than in the comparison companies. Cessation was highest among workers whose co-workers frequently asked them not to smoke, and among those who worked with a high proportion of nonsmokers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.35, No.2, p.121-126. 20 ref.
Bergbauer J., Alt F.
Manual of fire safety inspection
Handbuch der Feuerbeschau [in German]
A brief orienting introduction is followed by the texts of the Ordinance on fire safety inspection (Verordnung über die Feuerbeschau) of 12 Dec. 1980 and the Ordinance on fire prevention (Verordnung über die Verhütung von Bränden) of 29 Apr. 1981. The body of the manual presents provisions under 91 headings relating to inhabited or uninhabited spaces, potential hazards (e.g., refuse, flammable materials), fire safety equipment (e.g., extinguishers, fire doors), means of egress in case of fire and assurance of access by firefighters in an emergency. The reference section lists 22 Federal laws or regulations, 21 State laws or regulations, 51 German or European standards and 60 guidelines issued by professional associations.
Verlag W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Hessbruehlstr. 69, 70565 Stuttgart, Germany, 2nd. ed., 1993. 264p. Illus. 154 ref. Price: DEM 54.00.
Fire extinguishing agents - Properties, actions, uses
Feuerlöschmittel - Eigenschaften - Wirkung - Anwendung [in German]
An introduction on the history and principles of various fire extinguishing media is followed by chapters on properties and applications of each class of agent: water, foam, powder, halons, carbon dioxide and "other" (some, such as sand and salt, are useful in certain circumstances, while others are obsolete and noted only for completeness). Regulations and standards issued up to mid-1992 in Germany and the European Union, such as the gradual elimination of halons, are taken into account.
Verlag W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Hessbruehlstr. 69, 70565 Stuttgart, Germany, 5th ed., 1993. 167p. Illus. 15 ref. Index. Price: DEM 39.80.
Major hazard control: A practical manual - An ILO contribution to the International Programme on Chemical Safety of UNEP, ILO, WHO (IPCS)
La maîtrise des risques d'accident majeur - Guide pratique - Contribution de l'OIT au Programme international sur la sécurité des substances chimiques mené conjointement par le PNUE, l'OIT et l'OMS (IPCS) [in French]
French translation of the practical manual abstracted under CIS 89-118. Contents: introduction (description of major types of hazards; explosions, fires, toxic releases; components of major hazard control systems); identification of major hazard installations; role of management (assessment of hazards; causes of major industrial accidents; safe operation of major hazard installations; mitigation of consequence; reporting to authorities); role of authorities; role of workers and of workers' organizations; emergency planning; implementation of major hazard control systems; prerequisites for a major hazard control system. Appendices contain: list of dangerous substances and threshold quantities (derived from EC Directives 82/501/EEC, 87/216/EEC and 86/610/EEC); example of a rapid ranking method for the classification of units/plant elements; guide to hazard and operability studies; consequence calculation methods; storage of LPG at fixed installations; safety advice for bulk chlorine installations; storage of anhydrous ammonia under pressure in the United Kingdom; example of a safety report; example of an accident report form; land use near major hazard works.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. x, 301p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 45.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/1988/88B09_382_fren.pdf [in French]
Fires caused by acetylene gas cylinders
Brände von Acetylen-Gasflaschen [in German]
Five fires and explosions caused by acetylene generators or acetylene gas cylinders and the action taken by the fire fighters are outlined. Further experiments are needed to determine the fire behaviour of acetylene gas cylinders, the best use of explosion venting and the most relevant extinguishing agents.
Brandschutz, Oct. 1993, Vol.47, No.10, p.703-708. Illus. 14 ref.
Release of liquefied gases: Hazard analysis
Freisetzung druckverflüssigter Gase: Gefährdungsabschätzungen [in German]
Liquefied gas stored in tanks may explode by ignition of gas leaking from the tank (vapour cloud explosions) or by heating of the tank (boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions). Formulae are presented to permit calculation of safe distances and required volumes of cooling water.
Brandschutz, Oct. 1993, Vol.47, No.10, p.696-702. Illus. 40 ref.
Nuwayhid I.A., Stewart W., Johnson J.V.
Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters
The role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain among firefighters was studied. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building, climbing ladders, breaking windows, cutting structures, looking for hidden fires, and lifting objects of 18kg or over. Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers, and participation in drills. When further adjusted for exposure to smoke, the odds ratios associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the firefighter moved away from the firehouse.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Mar. 1993, Vol.137, No.5, p.539-548. 32 ref.
Eckhardt D., Otto J., Steidinger M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Fundamentals of a model safety analysis for the dismantling of ammunition
Grundzüge für eine Mustersicherheitsbetrachtung zum Delaborieren von Lagermunition [in German]
An optimized procedure for the dismantling of discarded large calibre ammunition is derived. The mistakes which can possibly be made at each step of the dismantling procedure and their consequences are analyzed and the possibilities of prevention or protection are indicated. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. ii, 109p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: DEM 23.00.
Jankovic J., Jones W., Castranova V., Dalal N.
Measurement of short-lived reactive species and long-lived free radicals in air samples from structural fires
This article constitutes part of a comprehensive firefighter exposure study undertaken by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the request of the US Fire Administration. It describes a chemiluminescence (CL)-based field methodology for detecting short-lived reactive intermediates in the fire atmosphere. The results demonstrate the presence of short-lived, hence reactive, chemical species even when no smoke was visible. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic measurements on filter samples collected from the same fires demonstrate the presence of long-lived (half-life of several days) organic-free radicals whose concentration correlates with the amount of smoke in the atmosphere. The presence of CL-detected short-lived reactive intermediates and ESR-detected long-lived radicals provides a plausible mechanism to explain the known phenomena of "incapacitation without cause" as well as chronic lung injury related to smoke inhalation.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 1993, Vol.8, No.7, p.650-654. Illus. 21 ref.
Materna B.L., Koshland C.P., Harrison R.J.
Carbon monoxide exposure in wildland firefighting - A comparison of monitoring methods
Three methods for assessing carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of wildland firefighters were tested and compared, and the activities and conditions under which this population may be exposed to hazardous CO levels were examined. Full-shift time-weighted average CO exposures, determined using passive diffusion monitors, were low for all employees monitored, with a mean of 8.2ppm (n=51). Real-time CO exposures for 12 individuals were monitored using electronic dataloggers. Two firefighters had one-minute exposures of, respectively, 339 and 212ppm, which exceeded the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ceiling limit of 200ppm. Full-shift TWAs measured with the dataloggers agreed fairly well with those determined using the passive dosimeters. There was a small but statistically significant increase in CO in end-exhaled air across the shift (mean change was 2.2ppm). Change in CO concentration in end-exhaled air across the shift did not correlate well with average airborne exposure.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 1993, Vol.8, No.5, p.479-487. Illus. 21 ref.
Legislation on flammable and explosive articles [Sweden]
Lagstiftning om brandfarliga och explosiva varor [in Swedish]
This 4th edition (for the 2nd ed., see CIS 90-717) of Swedish legislation concerning flammable and explosive articles contains the full texts of: Act on Flammable and Explosive Articles (SFS 1988:868; entry into force: 1 July 1989); Regulations on flammable and explosive articles (SFS 1988:1145, modified by SFS 1992:1308; effective 1 July 1989); extracts from the directives of the explosives' inspection concerning the handling and transport of explosive articles; two registers of flammable articles (list of flammable gases and liquids, list of other flammable articles); notification of the inspection of explosives concerning the labelling of flammable articles; tables of permits and notification of the storage of flammable articles.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 4th ed., 1993. 102p.
Woodruff B.A., Moyer L.A., O'Rourke K.M., Margolis H.S.
Blood exposure and the risk of hepatitis B virus infection in firefighters
This survey assessed personal and occupational risk factors among uniformed fire department employees by a self-administered questionnaire and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status by serological testing. Overall, 46 of 592 employees had past or current HBV infection. Employees reporting blood contact with skin had been infected more often than employees without this exposure. Prevalence of infection did not differ by age, years on the job, or job duties. The adjusted prevalence of HBV infection among male employees was not significantly different from its prevalence in American men.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.35, No.10, p.1048-1054. 13 ref.
Wyman J., Pitzer E., Williams F., Rivera J., Durkin A., Gehringer J., Servé P., von Minden D., Macys D.
Evaluation of shipboard formation of neurotoxicant (trimethylolpropane phosphate) from thermal decomposition of synthetic aircraft engine lubricant
Synthetic lubricants based on trimethylolpropane triheptanoate and tricresyl phosphate have been shown to form a neurotoxicant, trimethylolpropane phosphate (TMPP), during pyrolysis and/or combustion under laboratory conditions. This study examined whether TMPP is produced during an actual shipboard fire by placing the lubricant in a fire environment aboard a decommissioned US naval vessel. Both biological and chemical analyses were performed on the thermally decomposed lubricant to ensure detection of the neurotoxic material. The formation of TMPP was confirmed. The implications of this finding for safe management of post-fire cleanup are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol. 54, No. 10, p.584-592. Illus. 16 ref.
Fire and blast research in the wake of Piper Alpha
Research carried out into large-scale hydrocarbon fires and explosions in the wake of the Piper Alpha disaster will have great value for industrial plant both on and offshore. Aspects considered here include: the isolating of pipelines during and emergency by means of sub-sea valves; research into large-scale jet fires; improvements in methods of predicting the effects of gas-cloud explosions; implementation of new safety case regulations requiring operators to demonstrate that major hazard risks have been evaluated; compilation of a comprehensive set of guidelines for fire and blast engineering on offshore installations.
Fire Prevention, Sep. 1993, No.262, p.14-16. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
The fire at Allied Colloids Limited
A report of the HSE's investigation into the fire at Allied Colloids Ltd., Low Moor, Bradford, United Kingdom on 21 July 1992. The fire was preceded by the rupture of some azodiisobutyronitrile (AZDN) containers which were accidentally heated by an adjacent steam condensate pipe. The released AZDN came into contact with oxidizing agents causing delayed ignition followed by a series of explosions and an intense fire. The investigation showed the incident to be an example of a number of apparently unrelated errors, omissions and failures resulting in a major fire that had serious safety, environmental and financial consequences.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 45p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 9.00.
Twelve steps to the successful introduction of an information system on hazardous substances in a large company
Zwölf Schritte bis zur erfolgreichen Einführung eines Gefahrstoff-Informationssystems in einem Grossbetrieb [in German]
A German airline company created an information processing and retrieval system over a period of four years. It contains data on the hazards posed by 3,500 substances or products used by the company. It also provides information on exposure limits, physical properties, first aid, fire fighting and personal protection requirements. The information service can be accessed from all offices of the company around the world.
Die BG, Aug. 1993, No.8, p.474-478. Illus.
Lafon D., Garnier R.
Toxicity of the thermal degradation products of plastics
Toxicité des produits de dégradation thermique des matières plastiques [in French]
Literature survey on the hazards of thermal degradation products from plastics, and in particular on the health risks present when workers are exposed to: polyolefins, polyvinyl chloride, polytetrafluoroethylene, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, epoxy resins, phenoplasts, aminoplasts, polyurethanes.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications - Pathologie professionnelle, 1993, Vol.64, No.101, 8p. 52 ref.
Lusa S., Louhevaara V., Smolander J., Kivimäki M., Korhonen O.
Physiological responses of firefighting students during simulated smoke-diving in the heat
While wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, 35 healthy firefighting students aged 19-27 years performed smoke-diving (entry into a smoke-filled room) during a simulated shipboard fire. Neither ability to tolerate stress (as determined by the instructors) nor previous experience in smoke-diving tasks seemed to influence the heart rate or estimated oxygen consumption during the experiment. Smoke-diving was physically very demanding even for young and fit subjects, showing the importance of regular evaluation of the health and physical fitness of every firefighter who has to carry out smoke-diving tasks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.228-231. 19 ref.
Center for Chemical Process Safety
International process safety management conference and workshop
Papers presented at an international meeting in San Francisco, California, USA (22-24 Sep. 1993) organized by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the UK Health and Safety Executive, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the European Federation of Chemical Engineering and the Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan. Some of the 39 submissions discuss general management issues. Others describe the experience of individual countries or multinational companies, specific technical issues or the role of ISO standards.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1993. viii + 560p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 100,00 US and Canada; USD 140,00 elsewhere.
Small source, large effect; Combustion; The whys and hows of fire extinguishers; Emergency evacuations
Petites causes, grands effets; La combustion; L'extincteur - pourquoi? comment?; L'évacuation [in French]
Four videotapes aimed at the fire safety training of personnel within enterprises. Contents: 1 - How the most common behaviour may lead to fires. 2 - Study of fire behaviour in the presence of flammable gases, liquids and solids. 3 - How different extinguishing agents work for fire categories A, B, C and D; activation and application of portable fire extinguishers, what distance they should be applied from, precautions during use. 4 - Evacuation: why people should participate in evacuation exercises; how human behaviour can interfere with evacuation during a fire alarm.
CNPP, Médiathèque du risque, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1993(?). 4 videocassettes (10 + 15 + 14 + 20min). Price: FRF 2500 + 3000 + 3000 + 3500 (Taxes not included).
Center for Chemical Process Safety
Guidelines for engineering design for process safety
Process safety issues in the design of chemical, petrochemical and hydrocarbon processing plants are addressed. The goal is to prevent or mitigate the release of flammable or toxic materials leading to fire, explosion or environmental damage. A glossary and extensive list of abbreviations are followed by chapters entitled: introduction; inherently safer plants; plant design; equipment design; materials selection; piping systems; heat transfer fluid systems; thermal insulation; process monitoring and control; documentation; sources of ignition; electrical system hazards; deflagration and detonation; flame arresters; pressure relief systems; effluent disposal systems; fire protection; explosion protection.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1993. xxxii, 556p. Illus. 52 ref. Price: USD 140.00, US and Canada; USD 195.00 elsewhere.
Fire safety in tanneries
Description of the tanning process as conducted in Indian factories. Much of the process involves wet conditions, so the overall risk of fire should be low. Documentation of the industry is scanty, but there seems to have been no loss of life due to fire or explosion in any tannery in India. However, examination of the fire extinguisher refilling record of one large tannery showed that extinguishers had been used on 30 occasions in two years, so risk is not totally absent. Dust, flammable chemicals, electrical equipment, combustible fuels and welding sparks are particular hazards. Extinguishing equipment and fire safety training are inadequate in many tanneries.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1993, Vol.15, No.2, p.3-7. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Liquefied petroleum gas storage and use. An open learning course
This training package describes the important properties of LPG as they affect safety at work and the precautions needed to ensure its safe use. Contents: properties, uses and hazards of LPG; guidelines for inspection of LPG installations; LPG at fixed installations and a metered estates; LPG cylinder storage; LPG applications; relevant Regulations. Test questions (with answers) are provided at the end of each section.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. 144p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 14.50.
Institute of Petroleum
Fire precautions at petroleum refineries and bulk storage installations
Contents of this Code of Practice: petroleum products and combustion; site evaluation for fire defence; fire prevention at the design stage (control of ignition sources; good operating and maintenance practice); fire protection by passive measures (insulation) and actively (foam or water spray); fire detection (selection and location of equipment to detect flame, heat or smoke); fire systems (selection of extinguishing media appropriate to the fire risk; equipment for fixed and mobile fire fighting systems); fire fighting facilities in storage area; fire fighting (setting up of a fire plan and organization of emergency procedures). Other codes of practice and standards are listed. Glossary of terms.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester PO22 9SA, West Sussex, United Kingdom, Oct. 1993. vii, 84p. Price: GBP 65.00.
Approved Code of Practice for the prevention, detection and control of fire and explosion in New Zealand dairy industry spray drying plant
Contents of this revised Code of Practice (see CIS 90-975 for previous edition): application of the Code and related legislation in New Zealand; hazards and their prevention (sources of ignition, processing and electrical equipment, management responsibilities); explosion protection; fire control and protection. In appendices: explosion test methods; operator's checklist; examples of permit-to-work systems; explosion suppression; drying in an inert gas atmosphere.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Oct. 1993. 63p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Approved Code of Practice for the prevention of sulphur fires and explosions
Contents of this revised Code of Practice (see CIS 90-974): interpretation; definitions; dust explosions; hazard rating of sulfur; dust explosion prevention and protection (minimization of dust; construction of buildings; fire control; elimination of ignition sources; explosion relief venting; explosion detection and suppression; inerting); specific hazards relating to sulfur handling; liquid sulfur; fertilizers containing sulfur; personal protective equipment and training. Appendices covered: properties of sulfur; health hazards of sulfur dioxide; example of a hot work permit.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Sep. 1993. 40p. 17 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Karter M.J., LeBlanc P.R.
U.S. firefighter injuries in 1992
Summary of a survey of US fire departments conducted by the National Fire Protection Association. The 97,700 injuries sustained by firefighters in the line of duty in 1992 was a decrease of 5.4% from the previous year, and the rate of 6.7 injuries per 1,000 incidents was a decrease of 5.6%. Most injuries (53.5%) occurred at the scene of the fire; the other four duty categories were, in descending order of importance, other on-duty, non-fire emergency, training and responding to or returning from an incident. Tables and charts break down the figures by nature of injury, type of duty, cause of injury, size of community protected and region of the country. Data on vehicle accidents and on the number of fires are also given. Fourteen specific incidents are described to illustrate the different circumstances in which injury can occur.
NFPA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.87, No.6, p.56-67. Illus.
Planning company fire safety
Guide for managers. Contents: fire and the [applicable British] law; buildings and their protection against fire; means of escape; action in the event of fire; fire protection systems and equipment; special hazards in industry; warehouses and other storage buildings; construction and maintenance of buildings; arson; general fire safety precautions.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, 1993. 96p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 8.50.
Montreal Protocol. Executive summary of the 1993 report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel
Protocole de Montréal. Sommaire analytique du rapport de 1993 du Groupe d'évaluation technique et économique [in French]
This summary report considers the recommendation of the Halon Technical Options Committee (see CIS 93-1987) that no exemption for the production/consumption of halon is required for 1994; the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel agrees with and endorses the Committee's recommendation. Other topics discussed include progress in eliminating substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol and the technical and economic feasibility of identifying products made with but not containing controlled substances.
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), July 1993. 8p.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: respiratory irritant; hepatic damage; difficult breathing.
Loss Prevention News, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.15, No.1, p.21-22.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: highly corrosive; prolonged contact with tissues may cause slow-healing ulcers and acne; vapours cause acute and chronic poisoning and irritation of the mucous membrane; exposure to low concentrations results in inflammation of the eyelids, respiratory difficulties; inhalation of high concentrations causes inflammatory lesions to the mucous membrane, asthmatic bronchitis and fatal chemical burns of the lungs.
Loss Prevention News, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.15, No.1. 2p. Insert.
Delgado G., Herrera C., Ley M., Molinos S., Ruiz P.
Fire prevention and control - Basic concepts
Prevención y control de incendios - Nociones básicas [in Spanish]
Training manual on fire prevention and control. Topics are covered in a simple style with many illustrations. Subjects covered: basic concepts, such as definition of fire, heat transmission and elements of the fire triangle (flammable materials + heat + oxygen); causes of fires; general preventive measures; types of fires; fire control; description and use of portable fire extinguishers (water-type, foam, carbon dioxide and dry chemical extinguishers).
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565 - Correo Central, Santiago, Chile, 1993. 20p. Illus.
Demers P.A., Vaughan T.L., Koepsell T.D., Lyon J.L., Swanson G.M., Greenberg R.S., Weiss N.S.
A case-control study of multiple myeloma and occupation
This study investigates the relationship between multiple myeloma and employment in various occupations and industries. Interviews were obtained from 89% (692) of eligible incident cases and 83% (1683) of eligible controls. An elevated risk was observed among persons ever employed as painters [odds ratio (OR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.6], particularly for those employed for 10 or more years. A small excess risk was observed among agricultural workers employed for 10 or more years, with a higher relative risk observed among farm laborers (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.0-4.0). Among agricultural workers who reported having been highly exposed to pesticides, the OR was 5.2 (95% CI=1.6-21.1). Some evidence was also found to support an association with firefighting and employment in the petroleum- and coal-products manufacturing industries. Little evidence was found to support the previously noted association with wood exposure, and no evidence for an association with employment in the rubber or petroleum refining industries was found.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.23, No.4, p.629-639. 32 ref.
Barton J., Rogers R.
Chemical reaction hazards
Guide to the assessment of chemical reaction hazards for persons responsible for designing and operating chemical plant and processes, in the context of the UK Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. Contents: introduction (background, legislation, assessment strategy); process assessment and process definition; techniques for evaluating chemical reaction hazards; interpreting data with respect to process operation and plant design; process risk analysis; selecting and specifying a basis of safety; general hazards of plant operation; operating procedures and instructions; glossary; references; appendices (example of the use of HAZAN; assessing fire and explosion hazards in a simple batch reactor; typical table of contents for the technical description of a process).
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, Warwickshire, United Kingdom, Apr. 1993. vi, 184p. Illus. 130 ref. Index. Price: GBP 32.00.
Bakar Che Man A., Gold D.
Safety and health in the use of chemicals at work. A training manual
Contents of this training manual: health hazards due to chemical exposure (factors contributing to hazardous situations, toxic effects of chemicals); fire and explosion hazards; basic principles of prevention (elimination or substitution, organisational control); chemical emergency procedures (emergency plan, evacuation, first aid, fire fighting, spill and leak procedures); management of a chemical control programme. Annexes include a training checklist for safe use of chemicals at work, text of the ILO Chemicals Convention and Recommendation, and guidance on the classification, identification and labelling of chemicals.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. ix, 78p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 17.50.
Practical fire safety manual, 1993-1996
Traité pratique de sécurité incendie, 1993-1996 [in French]
This publication is divided into 7 sections: "general principles" covers basic understanding of fire safety; "construction and design of buildings", deals with the concepts that are essential for the designer, builder and user of a building with regard to fire safety; "fire safety organizations" provides information on administrations, fire protection services, insurance organizations, standards and supervisory bodies; "plant safety organization" addresses the issues of risks, responsibilities, the organization of emergency services and training; "fire safety materials and products" describes detection, extinction and personal protective equipment; "hazards from operations " covers the main fire hazards in industrial environments from energy production, transporting fluids, storage, maintenance and specific processes; finally, the section entitled "bodies" lists trade associations, professional bodies and research centres.
Centre national de prévention et de protection, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 5th ed., 1992. 905p. Illus. Index.
Underground fires and frictional ignitions
The circumstances surrounding a fire in a coal mine in Scotland in 1959 are outlined. The fire started at a booster fan drive belt and spread to wooden roof supports; 47 men died. Actions and recommendations made following the disaster are reviewed. Statistics on ignitions and fires in recent years are examined and methods of fire detection and environmental monitoring are discussed. Causes of underground fires are analyzed and initiatives on coal clearance systems management and machine design to reduce frictional ignition risk from quartz and pyrites are reviewed.
Mining Engineer, May 1992, Vol.151, No.368, p.299-307. Illus. 13 ref.
Centre national de Prévention et de Protection (CNPP)
Extinguishing agents - Portable fire-fighting equipment
Les agents extincteurs - L'extincteur portatif [in French]
These two videotapes which are sequels to The fire extinguisher... Why?... How? (CIS 94-509) are aimed at all workers in an enterprise, with particular attention to those just hired and to fire-fighting crews. Tape 1 deals with extinguishing agents, concentrating on: fire classes A, B, C and D (liquid, solid, gas and metal fires); action, effectiveness and incompatibility of certain agents. Tape 2 deals with portable fire extinguishers (types, how to use, activation) and their distribution within the enterprise, as well as with pyrolysis products from flammable and non-flammable materials and with dust explosions.
La Médiathèque du Risque, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1992. VHS videotapes (length: 6min + 8min). Prix: FRF 3000.00 per set (plus tax). ###
Fire hazards in grain drying plants
Brandgefährlichkeit von Körnertrocknungsanlagen [in German]
Between 1982 and 1987 there were 18 fires in 14 grain drying plants in the state of Schleswig-Holstein and the city of Hamburg, Germany. Exothermic reactions triggered by the steady flow of warm air through grain agglomerations turned out to be the cause of the fires. Modifications of the design and operation of dryers for preventing fires are described.
Schadenprisma, Aug. 1992, Vol.21, No.3, p.42-45. Illus.
Hölemann H., Worpenberg R.
Welding, flame cutting and soldering as causes of fires - The range of sparks and their ignition potential
Brandursache Schweissen, Brennschneiden und Löten - Reichweite und Zündpotential glühender Partikel [in German]
Records of 311 fires involving welding or similar processes and 111 records of a fire brigade were studied to determine the detailed causes of the fires. Approximately 50% of the fires were started by flying sparks from welding, flame cutting or soldering. Ignoring fire protection rules and false ideas about the distances at which sparks are still capable of igniting fires were contributing factors. Experimental determinations of the range and surface temperatures of sparks showed that sparks from flame cutting had temperatures of 1600° to 1700°C at distances of 4m and more. Sparks could fly 10-15m.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, 1992, Vol.41, No.2, p.79-84. Illus. 14 ref.
Special use - Expoprotection - F92
Numéro spécial - Expoprotection - F92 [in French]
Catalogue of products and services exhibited at Expoprotection (Exhibition on protection and safety) and at F92 (Professional Show on fire safety and rescue systems) held in Le Bourget (France) from 8 to 11 Sep. 1992. Contents: electronic safety; mechanical protection (fire doors, fire-proof cabinets); extinguishing systems (extinguishers, sprinklers); protection of workers (personal protective equipment; boots, gloves, hazard identification); services (monitoring, audits, training); institutions. List of exhibitors.
Face au risque, July 1992, special issue, 116p. Illus. Index.
Renz R., Mewes D.
Experimental study of the dispersion of reaction inhibitors in storage tanks
Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Ausbreitung von Reaktionsstoppern in Lagertanks [in German]
Highly reactive liquid substances are stored in refrigerated tanks or tanks equipped with agitators to prevent unwanted reactions. In case of failure of the cooling system or the agitator, a reaction inhibitor is injected. The influence of the viscosity of the liquid in a storage tank on the dispersion of inhibitor was determined by experiments and mathematical simulation. Cylindrical tanks of various size and nozzle arrangements were studied. The results are shown in diagrams. They will enable designers to place injectors so as to ensure a uniformly adequate concentration of inhibitors in tanks.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, June 1992, Vol.64, No.6, p.565-567. Illus. 7 ref.
Manzo L., Weetman D.F.
Toxicology of combustion products
This book contains the proceedings of a conference held in Pavia (Italy) in 1992. There are altogether 14 papers, of which the following topics are relevant to OSH: toxicity of particles from combustion processes (Henderson R.F., Mauderly J.L.); experimental toxicology of inhaled automobile exhaust emissions (Brightwell J.); chemical risks from waste incineration (De Felip E., Di Domenico A.); coal combustion as a source of metallic pollutants (Sabbioni E., Manzo L.); toxicology of environmental tobacco smoke (Reasor M.J.); toxicology of compounds originating by pyrolitic or combustion processes (Gorrod J.W.); vehicle emissions and fuel quality (Fiumara A.); clinical toxicology of cyanide released by combustion (Bismuth C.H.); fire incapacitation (Beritic T.; Stilinovic L.); toxicology of carbon monoxide (Locatelli C., Candura S.M., Manzo L.). A selected bibliography and a list of participants are annexed.
Fondazione Clinica del Lavoro, IRCCS, Via Severino Boezio, 24-26, 27100 Pavia, Italy, 1992. 141p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
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