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Fires - 2,022 entries found

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  • Fires

1995

CIS 96-230 Hammond S.K., Sorensen G., Youngstrom R., Ockene J.K.
Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
A survey was carried out to measure the average weekly concentration of environmental tobacco smoke in 23 worksites in Massachusetts, USA. Approximately 25 samplers were placed in each worksite for a week. Nicotine concentrations fell from a median of 8.6µg/m3 in the open offices at worksites that allowed smoking to 1.3µg/m3 in sites that restricted smoking, and to 0.3µg/m3 in worksites that banned smoking. Non-office workspaces were similarly affected. Results indicate that occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke presents a substantial risk to workers in the absence of a policy restricting or banning smoking.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 27 Sep. 1995, Vol.274, No.12, p.956-960. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 96-314 Pearson J., Hayford J., Royer W.
Comprehensive wellness for firefighters - Fitness and health guide for fire and rescue workers
Contents of this guide: the need for high levels of fitness for fire and rescue work; risk factors for heart disease; fitness assessment; physiology of the musculoskeletal system and stretching exercises to increase flexibility; aerobic exercises and cardiovascular fitness; strength training; nutrition; body composition and weight control; abuse of alcohol, drugs and tobacco; managing stress; maintaining wellness through lifestyle management.
Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom, 1995. x, 358p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 29.95.

CIS 95-2206 Code of practice for the transportation and disposal of petroleum storage tanks and related wastes
Contents of this code of practice: safety of works; authorization, permits and certification; removal of tanks; transport of used underground tanks; tank processing and disposal (precautions against explosion and fire from petroleum products or vapours, asphyxiation from vapours or lack of oxygen, and toxic effects of petroleum products, vapours or wastes); treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes; lead hazards; equipment checklist for tank disposal; supervision by the site contractor. In appendix: sample forms and notices; safe handling of petroleum products; accidents during leaded gasoline tank cleaning.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, May 1995. 56p. 20 ref.

CIS 95-2261
Health and Safety Executive
Hot work at docks
This information sheet provides guidance on precautions to be taken in connection with hot work at docks and on ships in them. Topics covered: hot work (use of open fires, flames and application of heat); legislation; responsibilities of dock and harbour authorities, terminal operators, individual employers, and masters of ships; permits-to work; training and supervision; precautions during hot work on tankers and combination carriers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1995. 4p. 10 ref.

CIS 95-1843
Health and Safety Commission
Prevention of fire and explosion, and emergency response in offshore installations
This guide presents the text of the Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 (see CIS 95-813) along with appropriate guidance. Main provisions concern: application of the Regulations; general responsibilities of the duty holder (operator or owner of the installation); hazard assessment; preparation for emergencies; equipment for helicopter emergencies; emergency response plan; prevention of fire and explosion; detection of incidents; communications during an incident; control of emergencies; mitigation of fire and explosion; arrangement for evacuation, escape and rescue; suitability of personal protective equipment for use in an emergency; suitability and condition of plant; life-saving appliances.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 49p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 95-1845
Health and Safety Commission, Paper and Board Industry Advisory Committee
Fire safety in the paper and board industry
Contents of this safety guide: legal requirements; causes of fires; fire risk management (assessment of general fire precautions and of process hazards and control measures); housekeeping requirements; control of smoking; precautions against vandalism; safety of mill fire teams; hazards and precautions in various operations (storage, paper dust, fires in machine hoods, bulk starch handling, generation of hydrogen sulfide by aerobic bacterial action on paper fibre, charging of electrically operated lift trucks, storage and use of flammable liquids, electrical safety, hot work); general fire precautions (means of escape, fire alarms, training, fire extinguishing systems).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 57p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 11.95.

CIS 95-1837
Health and Safety Executive
Storage and handling of industrial nitrocellulose
Contents of this guidance booklet: definition of industrial nitrocellulose; fire hazards; drum storage (location, separation, separation from dangerous substances, fire resistant storage buildings or storerooms, sources of ignition, restricted access, warning notices); procedures for drum handling and use; disposal of waste nitrocellulose; information and training; general fire precautions; emergency procedures; legal requirements.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 18p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 95-1836 The investigation of vehicle fires
This data sheet describes a systematic approach for the investigation of a fire in a road vehicle. Contents: determining relevant background details of the vehicle and the fire; hazards associated with the vehicle and its load; searching the surrounding area; examination of the exterior and interior parts of the vehicle; investigation of fires in motor cycles, buses and lorries; hazards of diesel engines, liquefied petroleum gas and electric vehicles.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, no date. 12p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 95-1834 Management guide to fire investigation
This data sheet provides guidance on the investigation of fires on company premises. Contents: indications leading to suspicion of arson; the role of management in ensuring the proper investigation of fires; collecting information on the nature of the fire and pre- and post-fire events; recording evidence from the investigation; site investigation to locate the seat of the fire and determine the cause; fire brigade and police activities.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, no date. 8p. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 95-1829 Lodel R.
Fire and explosion risk assessment in the wood industry
Analyse des risques d'incendie et d'explosion dans l'industrie du bois [in French]
This guide analyses fire and explosion risks in the wood industry. First, a description of plants such as wood panel and furniture manufacturing and sawmills is provided with an emphasis on collaboration among the "risk partners". Fire and explosion characterization methods are described as well as the present state of existing regulations and standards. The guide ends with a review of existing prevention and protection techniques and their particular installations in these plants.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 1995, No.21, p.3-7. Illus. (Supplément Sciences et Techniques).

CIS 95-1485
Fédération française des sociétés d'assurances
Portable extinguishers - Installation rules - September 1994
Extincteurs mobiles: règle d'installation - septembre 1994 [in French]
New installation rule (Sept. 1994) for portable extinguishers in France. This rule was harmonized with the new version of art. R232-12-17 of the French Labour Code, which requires the installation of at least one 6L (or 6Kg) portable extinguisher per 200m2 of floor surface. The computation method for the number of extinguishers has been modified accordingly. In addition, fire protection requirements for particular activities are specified (storage of flammable liquids, high storage, cold rooms, etc.). This rule came into force on 1 Dec. 1994.
Assemblée plénière des sociétés d'assurances dommages (APSAD), 26, Bd. Haussmann, 75311 Paris Cedex 09, France, Mar. 1995. 41p. Illus.

CIS 95-1483
Health and Safety Executive
Energetic and spontaneously combustible substances - Identification and safe handling
This guide provides advice on substances that produce energy, mainly in the form of heat, by self-reaction or reaction with air or moisture. Contents: legislation; properties of energetic substances; assessment of these substances (chemical structure, classification for carriage and supply, thermodynamic properties); testing of substances; labelling; control of risks during storage, transfer, processing and other operations; use of inhibitors and venting; additional recommendations for the identification and control of spontaneously combustible substances. Summaries of a number of incidents are included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 37p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 95-887
Centre national de Prévention et de Protection (CNPP)
Fires in restaurants
Le feu au restaurant [in French]
Videotape aimed at restaurant staff (waiters and kitchen personnel). Contents: the nature of fire; the "fire triangle"; fire sources; fire-fighting and detection equipment; good habits to acquire in the case of fires; how to evacuate people in the case of fires.
La Médiathèque du Risque, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1995. VHS videotape (length: 12min). Price: FRF 2000.00 (plus tax). ###

CIS 95-879
Centre national de Prévention et de Protection (CNPP)
Everything you have always wanted to know about smoke...
Tout sur les fumées [in French]
This videotape is a sequel to "Of smoke and men" (CIS 95-878). It is aimed at safety personnel. Contents: toxic substances in smoke and their effects on the body; experiences lived by two toxicologists; anti-smoke equipment; pressurization systems for staircases that have been partitioned off; smoke protection in high-rise buildings.
La Médiathèque du Risque, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1995. VHS videotape (length: 12min). Price: FRF 2000.00 (plus tax). ###

CIS 95-878
Centre national de Prévention et de Protection (CNPP)
Of smoke and men
Des fumées et des hommes [in French]
Videotape aimed at all employees. Subjects covered: composition of smoke; effects of smoke on the body; how to evacuate smoke-filled workplaces; true-life experiences of Paris firemen; survey of existing safety systems. Sequel: "Everything you have always wanted to know about smoke..." (CIS 95-879).
La Médiathèque du Risque, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1995. VHS videotape (length: 12min). Price: FRF 2000.00 (plus tax). ###

CIS 95-813 Health and Safety - The Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (entry into force: 20 June 1995) contain requirements for measures for the protection of persons on offshore oil and gas installations from fires and explosions, and for securing effective "emergency response", i.e. action to protect persons on such installations in an emergency. Most of the duties imposed by the Regulations are on the "duty holder", who - depending on the provision - is the operator or the owner. The Regulations give effect to certain provisions of Council Directive 92/91/EEC (CIS 93-23). Offshore Installations Regulations 1976/1542, 1977/486 (CIS 77-2054) and 1978/611 are revoked, as are certain provisions of Regulations 1976/1019 and 1993/1321.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 12p. Price: GBP 2.80.

1994

CIS 01-1376 Bakar Che Man A., Gold D.
International Labour Office (ILO)
Safety and health in the use of chemicals at work. A training manual
Bezpieczeństwo i zdrowie a substancje chemiczne w pracy - Poradnik szkoleniowy [in Polish]
Polish translation of the ILO publication analysed under CIS 93-789. Contents of this training manual: health hazards due to chemical exposure (factors contributing to hazardous situations, toxic effects of chemicals); fire and explosion hazards; basic principles of prevention (elimination or substitution, organisational control); chemical emergency procedures (emergency plan, evacuation, first aid, fire fighting, spill and leak procedures); management of a chemical control programme. Annexes include a training checklist for safe use of chemicals at work, text of the ILO Chemicals Convention and Recommendation, and guidance on the classification, identification and labelling of chemicals.
Instytut Medycyny Pracy, ul. św. Teresy 8, skr. Poczt. 199, 90-950 Łódź, Poland, 1994. 91p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 98-262 Gasoline tank removal
Enlèvement de réservoirs d'essence [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; fire protection; flammable substances; fuel tanks; motor fuel; service stations and repair shops.
Industrial Health and Safety Program, Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Feb. 1994. 1p.

CIS 97-1582 Ortaggi G., et al.
Reduction of toxic substances during the incineration of polymers
Riduzione di sostanze tossiche nella combustione di polimeri [in Italian]
Gaseous pyrolysis products of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) have been investigated with and without the addition of ferrocene. Even at the concentration of 1%, this metallocene was able to prevent the production of benzene and of other toxic compounds such as toluene, naphthalene and biphenyl. Ferrocene therefore may prove useful in the thermal destruction of PVC residues in incinerators.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.VI, No.2, p.19-33. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 97-261 Coté R.
Life Safety Code® Handbook
This handbook explains the requirements found in the Life Safety Code® (NFPA 101), with emphasis for each part of the code on the following: intent and interpretation; historical perspective on provisions; application of requirements. The main sections of the Code are as follows: fundamental requirements; definitions; classification of occupancy and hazard of contents; means of egress; features of fire protection; building service and fire protection equipment; requirements for new and existing occupancies (assembly occupancies (i.e. for large gatherings); schools; hospitals and clinics; jails; hotels and dormitories; apartment buildings; lodging and rooming houses; one- and two-family dwellings; nursing homes; stores; business premises; industrial premises; storage premises; special structures and high-rise buildings). In appendices: case histories; fire alarm systems; sprinkler systems; elevator codes; fire tests for life safety code users; legal applications.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, USA, 6th ed., 1994. xi, 900p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 75.50.

CIS 96-2263
Verband der Sachversicherer e.V., Cologne, Germany
Guideline for clean-up after a fire
Leitlinie zur Brandschadensanierung [in German]
For clean-up after a fire, this recommendation from the German insurance industry defines four hazard classes. Small fires are classified as hazard class 0. Fires in kitchens, offices or workshops belong to hazard class 1. Fires involving larger amounts of plastics such as polyvinyl chloride belong to class 2. Fires in which polychlorinated biphenyls are produced (such as transformer fires) belong to hazard class 3. For fires belonging to hazard classes 2 and 3, clean-up firms with special know how need to be employed. The temperatures and conditions of a fire which lead to the development of harmful substances such as hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are given.
Tiefbau, Apr. 1994, Vol.106, No.4, p.218-224, 226, 228-229. Illus.

CIS 96-2245
Landesamt für Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht
Guide for collection stations for harmful wastes
Leitfaden für Problemabfall-Annahmestellen [in German]
In Germany, stations to which small amounts of harmful wastes from households can be delivered need a license. The requirements placed by the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate on the site for such buildings, their layout and the measures to protect against fire and explosion are outlined. In addition, the requirements to be met by the personnel accepting and handling the harmful waste and the measures required for their protection are addressed. The rules and regulations which need to be complied with are listed.
Landesamt für Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht Rheinland-Pfalz, Amtsgerichtplatz 1, 55276 Oppenheim, Germany, 1994. 20p. + 40p. Illus.

CIS 96-1844 Bunthoff S.
Protection of employees in the flooding areas of CO2 fire-extinguishing systems
Personenschutz im Flutungsbereich von CO2- Feuerlöschanlagen [in German]
Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations produced by the experimental activation of a fixed extinguishing system in a rolling mill were measured on the control platform and at floor level in the vicinity of the rolls. While on the control platform no hazardous levels were measured at any time, lethal concentrations did occur at floor level. During the maintenance work the automatic release mechanism of the fire extinguisher needs to be deactivated. A water extinguishing system is to be used as a substitute. In addition, escape routes from all workplaces on and near the rolling mill need to be marked clearly.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Dec. 1994, Vol.25, No.12, p.24-27. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 96-1358 Hayashi T.
Accidents in semiconductor industries
Handōtai kanren sangyō ni okeru jiko rei [in Japanese]
Accidents that have occurred in the semiconductor industry in Japan are reviewed and summarized in order to clarify hidden hazards in workplaces in the industry. The accidents fall into five categories: silane fires, silane or germane explosions, metallic silicone powder explosions, explosions or violent decompositions of chemical waste and leakage of toxic gases. Analysis of the accidents is followed by suggestions of preventive measures.
Journal of the Japan Society for Safety Engineering - Anzen kōgaku, 15 Dec. 1994, Vol.33, No.6, p.369-375. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 96-1264 Bakar Che Man A., Gold D.
International Labour Office (ILO)
Safety and health in the use of chemicals at work. A training manual
An toàn và sú'c khoe khi su' dung hóa chât tai no'i làm viêc. Tài liêu tâp huân [in Vietnamese]
Vietnamese translation of a training manual originally published in English (see CIS 93-789). Contents: health hazards due to chemical exposure (factors contributing to hazardous situations, toxic effects of chemicals); fire and explosion hazards; basic principles of prevention (elimination or substitution, organizational control); chemical emergency procedures (emergency plan, evacuation, first aid, fire fighting, spill and leak procedures); management of a chemical control programme. Annexes include a training checklist for safe use of chemicals at work, text of the ILO Chemicals Convention and Recommendation, and guidance on the classification, identification and labelling of chemicals.
Department of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, Invalid and Social Affairs, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1994. 264p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-87 What you should know about flammable liquid safety
Training booklet on safe work with flammable liquids: causes of accidents; special risks due to flammable liquid vapours; safe storage of flammable liquids; dispensing and disposal of flammable liquids; protective clothing; what to do in case of fire; reading of labels and safety data sheets. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 95-2026 Fires and explosions: Awareness training for your staff
Audiovisual interactive training package on fire and explosion safety.
Safety, Health and Environment Department, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom. Manuals + 7 case studies + slide set (90 slides) + overhead (O/H) projections. Price: GBP 260.00 (all except O/H), GBP 50.00 (O/H) + VAT + delivery charges. ###

CIS 95-2071 Hours M., Dananche B., Fevotte J., Bergeret A., Ayzac L., Cardis E., Etard J.F., Pallen C., Roy P., Fabry J.
Bladder cancer and occupational exposures
A hospital-based case-referent study (116 bladder cancer patients, 232 controls) was carried out in Lyon, France, with the purpose of generating hypotheses about the role of occupational exposures to 320 compounds in bladder carcinogenesis. Significantly elevated odds ratios were observed for exposure to pyrolysis and combustion products (odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% (CI) 1.0-4.0) when the general referents were used and for cutting fluids (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.4) when adjusted for smoking. The latter was highest among blue-collar and unskilled workers, supervisors, and agricultural workers, while the odds ratio for the others was 0.8 (95% CI 0.3-2.7). An elevated odds ratio for exposure to inks was observed for women (OR 14.0, 95% CI 1.8-106.5) on the basis of 14 exposed cases, but confounding factors could have been responsible for this result. The observations of this investigation should be further tested in future studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.5, p.322-330. 40 ref.

CIS 95-1748 Guerbet M., Jouany J.M., Capron R., Dittmar E.
Importance of an analysis into main components for the assessment of hazards due to the thermal decomposition of materials
Intérêt de l'analyse en composantes principales lors de l'évaluation du risque dû à la décomposition thermique des matériaux [in French]
A large amount of data must be taken into account for the overall assessment of toxicological hazards due to the thermal decomposition of materials in a fire. A simple study of correlations provides good information on the interaction of various factors but a determination of the main components remains undoubtedly the most effective statistical method for risk assessment.
Sécurité - sciences et techniques, Mar. 1994, Vol.2, No.11, p.17-26. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-1806
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Pyrolysis products
Pyrolyse-Produkte [in German]
Proceedings of a seminar held in Sankt Augustin, Germany, on 15 June 1993 on pyrolysis products. Main papers presented: thermolytic and pyrolysis reactions of substances; specific problems associated with the measurement and assessment of pyrolysis products; overview and concrete examples of engineering controls; dioxin exposure during work performed after a fire; occupational exposure to PCDD/PCDF in waste burning plants; pyrolysis products during heat cutting of textiles; PAH formation during various processes; pyrolysis of polymeric hardeners.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, Postfach 2052, 53757 Sankt Augustin 2, Germany, May 1994. 111p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1831 Munday J.W.
Safety at scenes of fire and related incidents
This booklet provides guidance on safety during the investigation of fires and similar incidents. Contents: legislation; use of protective clothing; approaching and viewing the scene; assessment of building safety; examination of building structures; after-effects of firefighting; industrial processes and stored materials; disconnection of gas and electricity services; examining fire-damaged vehicles; other people at the scene; safe working practices; particulate materials; chemical hazards; biological hazards.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, 1994. 50p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 95-1477 Jerome I.
Loss Prevention Council
Fire and hazardous substances
This handbook provides basic reference information concerning the behaviour of hazardous substances in fires. Contents: the physics and chemistry of fire; classification of fires; safe storage of flammable liquids; safe storage and use of liquefied petroleum gas; directory of hazardous substances (the main section of the book, with approx. 190 datasheets on hazardous substances, with information on: uses, hazards, precautions, fire fighting, characteristics, UN number, Hazchem code).
Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate St., London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, 1994. 434p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 45.00.

CIS 95-1475 Gale M.
Loss Prevention Council
Fire protection yearbook 1994/5
This first edition of the yearbook contains the following information: fire safety structure in the United Kingdom (including a list of useful addresses); fire services in the UK (including a map of fire brigade areas and an address list of fire brigades); legislative aspects of fire protection in the UK; fire test facilities; fire statistics (breakdown by location, casualties, type of building, material first ignited, source of ignition etc.); detailed analysis of fire data, including cost analysis of large fires, by industry; code of practice of the Loss Prevention Council for occupational fire brigades; the Fire Protection Association (FPA) and its services; list of consultancies; list of abbreviations and acronyms; major fire protection associations in other countries and at the European Community level.
Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate St., London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, 1994. 148p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 95-1484 Dow's fire and explosion index hazard classification guide
This guide provides key information for evaluating the overall fire and explosion risk of individual chemical process units. Steps involved in the risk analysis procedure are described in detail, including: selection of process units to be studied; determination of the material factor of each unit; calculation of general and special process hazards; determination of the area of exposure surrounding the unit, the maximum probable property damage and the maximum probable days outage. Some sample calculations are included. Hazard factors of selected chemical compounds are listed in appendix. Previous edition: see CIS 89-631.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 7th ed. 1994. 83p. Illus. Price: USD 40.00 (USA), USD 56.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 95-1389 Schaper M.M., Thompson R.D., Detwiler-Okabayashi K.A.
Respiratory responses of mice exposed to thermal decomposition products from polymers heated at and above workplace processing temperatures
Mice were exposed to thermal decomposition products released from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer, polypropylene homopolymer or plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). These resins were heated in a temperature-programmable furnace, at and above workplace processing temperatures. Lethality (LC50) and respiratory effects (RD50) values were obtained on the basis of resin mass loaded in the furnace. LT50 values were determined at the respective LC50 masses. RD50 values were also obtained on the basis of particulate concentrations measured during heating of each resin. PVC and polypropylene homopolymer were more toxic and faster-acting than wood, while ABS and polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer were much more toxic and faster-acting than wood.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1994, Vol.55, No.10, p.924-934. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 95-1052 Risk reduction monograph No.3: Selected brominated flame retardants - Background and national experience with reducing risk
World demand for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is estimated to be 150,000 tonnes per year. Although over 30 brominated chemicals are used as flame retardants, the most widely used are tetrabromobisphenol A and brominated diphenyl oxides. BFRs are stable and non-volatile, and can accumulate in soil, sediment and the tissues of animals. Polybrominated biphenyls are banned or restricted in several countries, and possible emission of dioxins and furans from the burning of BFRs is closely monitored. Alternative halogenated or non-halogenated flame retardants exist for some applications. Summary in French.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Environment Directorate, Environmental Health and Safety Division, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France, 1994. 152p. Illus. 55 ref. Gratis.

CIS 95-814 Decree No.94-347 of 2 May 1994 on the safety and health duties of clients in the construction of work premises [France]
Décret n°94-347 du 2 mai 1994 relatif aux dispositions concernant la sécurité et la santé que doivent observer les maîtres d'ouvrage lors de la construction des lieux de travail et modifiant le code du travail (2e partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France] [in French]
This decree modifies specific provisions of the French Labour Code (see CIS 93-7) concerning clients' obligations in the design and construction of staircases (banisters) and in the prevention of fire and explosion hazards from the heating systems.
Journal officiel de la République française, 4 May 1994, p.6492-6493.

CIS 95-999 Moreau A., Dompmartin A., Castel B., Remond B., Michel M., Leroy D.
Contact dermatitis from a textile flame retardant
A case study is presented of a painter with contact sensitivity to Flammentin ASN® following use of a protective cotton cap treated with this flame retardant. The painter presented with eczema of the forehead and face at the sites of cap contact. Patch tests with the treated cap and flame retardant were positive. The case is compared to other published reports.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1994, Vol.31, No.2, p.86-88. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-975 Schildberg H.P., Heider M., Maurer B., Berthold W.
Chemical ignition of acetylene and mixtures of acetylene and nitrogen by potassium hydroxide
Chemische Zündung von Acetylen und Acetylen/Stickstoff-Mischungen durch Kaliumhydroxid [in German]
Under certain conditions, potassium hydroxide is known to ignite acetylene, leading to the explosive decomposition of acetylene to soot and hydrogen. In certain chemical production processes acetylene and potassium hydroxide occur together at high pressure and temperature. Therefore, the ignition of acetylene and of mixtures of acetylene and nitrogen by potassium hydroxide in the temperature range of 100 to 200°C and at pressures of 0 to 20bar was studied in the laboratory. Potassium hydroxide was found to ignite the mixture of acetylene and nitrogen at temperatures between 150 and 200°C and an acetylene partial pressure of 7bar. Pure acetylene ignited in this temperature range at a pressure of 2bar.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Oct. 1994, Vol.66, No.10, p.1389-1392. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 95-403 Decree No.94-346 of 2 May 1994 relating to provisions on fire prevention and on escape organization in workplaces and amending the Labour Code (2nd Part: Decrees in State Council) [France]
Décret n°94-346 du 2 mai 1994 relatif aux dispositions concernant la prévention des incendies et l'évacuation applicables aux lieux de travail et modifiant le code du travail (2e partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France] [in French]
This decree amends certain provisions of the French Labour Code (see CIS 93-7) relating to the layout of workplaces and to safety measures incumbent on management for the prevention of fire hazards: steps covering, storage of flammable materials, extinguishers to be used where electrical risks are present.
Journal officiel de la République française, 4 May 1994, p.6492.

CIS 95-722 Payne W.R., Portier B., Fairweather I., Zhou S., Snow R.
Thermoregulatory response to wearing encapsulated protective clothing during simulated work in various thermal environments
This investigation assessed the thermoregulatory impact of performing simulated tasks normally encountered during chemical accident clean-up while wearing chemical protection clothing under various representative thermal loads. Three different types of suits were compared under three different temperatures. Non significant differences were observed for both the average heart rate and sweat rate. Significant differences were found for mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, and temperature within the suit cavity. Suit type did not significantly affect rectal temperature, which also failed to exceed the American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' standard of 38.0°C.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.529-536. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 95-401 Firefighters - Protective Equipment: Ontario Regulation made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act [Canada - Ontario]
This Regulation requires firefighters to wear protective equipment when certain hazards are present. It also provides for the inspection and testing of "chassis mounted aerial devices" and for certain standards to be adopted for new fire trucks.
Ontario Gazette - Gazette de l'Ontario, 3 Dec. 1994, Vol.127, No.49, p.4312-4314.

CIS 95-708 Hazards XII. European advances in process safety
Proceedings of a symposium on European advances in process safety held in Manchester, United Kingdom, 19-21 April 1994. Papers are presented under the following headings: explosion hazards; fire and toxic hazards and consequences; gas explosions; procedures for and management of safety (plant design, process safety reviews, assessment of safety management systems, toxicity hazard index, maintenance related incidents); mitigation; runaway and relief venting; chemical reactions and decomposition.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1994. xi, 640p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 75.00.

CIS 95-703 Dobbelstein W.J.
Plastics recycling - New hazards for the fire brigade?
Kunststoffrecycling - Neue Gefahren für die Feuerwehr? [in German]
Recent fires in Germany in plants where plastics were stored for recycling are used to illustrate the hazards to fire fighters. Burning polyvinyl chloride released high amounts of hydrochloric acid which affected the respiratory system of the fire fighters. Carcinogenic dioxins and furans were detected in the soot. For the prevention or spread of fires it is recommended to store the plastic waste material in small units which are accessible from two sides and to install an adequately dimensioned water extinguishing systems. Fire fighters need to wear respirators and protective clothing.
Brandschutz, Feb. 1994, Vol.48, No.2, p.80-92. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 95-290
Center for Chemical Process Safety
Guidelines for evaluating the characteristics of vapor cloud explosions, flash fires and BLEVEs
This manual provides an overview of methods for estimating the characteristics of vapour cloud explosions, flash fires and boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVEs). Contents: descriptions and effects of these phenomena including several case histories; basic concepts of dispersion, deflagration, ignition, blast and thermal radiation; overview of experimental and theoretical research and consequence modelling techniques with sample problems. Appendices include effects of explosions on structures and on humans and a case study of gas explosions in a process plant.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1994. xii, 387p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 150.00 (USA and Canada), USD 210.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 95-289 Wilhelm V.
Not an unknown problem - Fire protection and fire fighting in sanitary landfills
Kein unbekanntes Problem - Brandschutz und Brandbekämpfung bei Deponien [in German]
Fire prevention in sanitary landfills can be improved by studying the causes of actual fires. Prevention measures include: compaction of the waste after a layer of waste 30cm thick is reached, covering each layer with inert material, comminution of bulky waste, limitation of the size of the sanitary landfill to 2000m2 and prevention of air access. Recommendations for extinguishing fires in landfills address small and large open fires as well as fires smoldering inside the landfill. Protective measures for fire fighters are addressed.
Entsorgungs-Technik, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.6, No.5, p.16-18, 20-22. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 94-1881 The Chubb fire training pack (1 - If there is a fire where you work; 2 - Choosing the right weapon)
This training pack contains two videocassettes. One (If there is a fire where you work) is a practical and lively guide to fire safety, aimed at everyone in the workplace. It covers topics such as isolation and reporting of fires, evacuation of premises and prevention of fire risks. The second video (Choosing the right weapon) is aimed at persons with particular responsibilities in fire emergencies, dealing with fire theory and the use of various fire extinguishers. A detailed illustrated manual contains information and check lists on: definition of fires; types of fires (with corresponding use of the appropriate fire-fighting equipment), types and uses of portable fire extinguishers; evacuation procedures; fire safety at home. Special training packs are available for workers in the following industries: hotels and catering; manufacturing; retail trade.
Chubb Fire Ltd., Racal-Chubb House, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex TW16 7AR, United Kingdom, 1994. 2 videocassettes (13+13min) + manual (13p. illus., 23 ref.). Price: GBP 195.00 + VAT.

CIS 94-1880 In your own interest - Fire & you
Elements of a training programme for fire safety and prevention in the workplace. It includes a videotape and 2 accompanying booklets (a users' manual aimed at workers, and a training manual aiming at management and instructors). Various aspects of fire safety and fire prevention are treated, including fire sources, fire-fighting equipment (water, hoses, foam, carbon dioxide, dry powder). A quiz test of memory is included.
CCD Products Ltd., Allen House, Egham, Surrey TW20 9LB, United Kingdom, 1994. Videocassette + 2 manuals (15+16p., illus.).

CIS 94-1958 Guide for safety with underground services
This guide outlines the dangers associated with work near underground services and gives advice on how to reduce these dangers. Contents: dangers of electricity cables, gas pipes, liquid petroleum services, oil pipelines, water pipes, sewers and telecommunication cables; safe systems of work; plans; cable and pipe locating devices; safe digging practices; safe systems of work for trenchless methods; new housing developments; installation of new services near existing services; demolition sites. Appendices include legislation and first aid.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, May 1994. 70p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 94-2061
Health and Safety Executive
The fire at Hickson & Welch Ltd.
Report of the investigation by the Health and Safety Executive into the fatal fire at the chemical factory of Hickson & Welch Ltd, Castleford, United Kingdom on 21 September 1992. A jet of flame erupted from an access opening on the side of a batch still during a non-routine clean-out operation. The flame cut through an office/control building nearby and also struck a larger office block. The incident could have been prevented if the hazards and risks associated with the operation had been accurately assessed beforehand and suitable precautions taken. The report highlights several important lessons of general relevance to the chemical industry.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 42p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 11.00

CIS 94-2052 Basmer P., Seeger P.G., Bentz J.W.G., Fichtner M., Goschnick J., Ache H.J.
Analysis of smoke from burning packing material
Analyse des Brandaerosols von Verpackungsmaterial [in German]
Polystyrene chips treated with a flame retardant are used in packing goods. The composition of the gas and particle phases of smoke from burning chips was determined by experiments. The soot particles were classified according to size. The components at various depths in soot particles were identified. A large amount of respirable soot was found. The outer layers of the soot particles contained a large amount of organic and inorganic bromine compounds. In the gas phase, methyl bromide, which is highly toxic, and the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene were present in addition to a number of other harmful compounds.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, Feb. 1994, Vol.43, No.1, p.31-34. Illus. 13 ref.

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