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Fires - 2,022 entries found

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CIS 97-972 Jerome I.
Loss Prevention Council
Guide to fire safety signs
Contents of this guide: legal requirements for fire safety signs; types of signs (prohibitory, warning, mandatory, safe condition, firefighting, supplementary information, photoluminescent signs); use of directional arrows; examples of each type of sign; signs for the use, storage and transport of dangerous substances (labelling of containers, pipelines, compressed gases in cylinders, hazard warning panels, emergency action codes, labelling of packages for conveyance and supply); explosives; fire extinguisher colours; fire hydrant signs; durability, maintenance and visibility of signs.
Fire Protection Association, Melrose Avenue, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire WD6 2BJ, United Kingdom, 1996. 41p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 97-785 Fire hydrant installation
This fire safety data sheet on fire hydrants covers: source of water supply; pumps; hydrant mains; hydrants; auxiliaries. It is usable for training.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India, 1996. 4p. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 97-784 Automatic sprinkler installation
This fire safety data sheet on sprinkler systems covers: water supplies; pipe-work; sprinkler heads; auxiliaries. It is usable for training.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India, 1996. 4p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 97-1040 Warner K.E., Smith R.J., Smith D.G., Fries B.E.
Health and economic implications of a work-site smoking-cessation program: A simulation analysis
A simulation model for evaluating the health and economic effects of a work-site smoking-cessation programme is presented. A simulation was carried out on a hypothetical manufacturing workforce of 10,000 employees. Cost-effectiveness and net cost savings were calculated in relation to intervention costs, and behavioural (smoking cessation), health and financial benefits. As a result of employee turnover, approximately half of the programme-generated profits were realized by the community outside the firm. However, smoking cessation was a sound economic investment for the firm, particularly when long-term benefits were included.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.38, No.10, p.981-992. 29 ref.

CIS 97-609
Health and Safety Executive
Kuwait Scientific Mission - Volume 2: Technical Report, July 1992
This report presents a detailed description of measurements made of flame geometry, thermal radiation characteristics and flame temperatures of fires burning in the oil fields of Kuwait during 1991. Instrumentation and data analysis techniques are described and results are presented for seven well head jet fires.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. ix, 229p. Illus. Price: GBP 55.00.

CIS 97-607
Health and Safety Executive
Kuwait Scientific Mission - Volume 1: Mission Overview, July 1992
This report describes a project to collect data on the characteristics of real hydrocarbon fires burning in the oil fields of Kuwait during 1991. An introduction to oil industry fire hazards is presented followed by descriptions of the oil well fires in Kuwait and the fire monitoring and data collection activities. Comprehensive, but uninterpreted, data for seven jet fires are provided.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 77p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: GBP 40.00.

CIS 97-75 Petit J.M.
Portable fire extinguishers
Les extincteurs mobiles [in French]
Illustrated training guide to the use of portable fire extinguishers in the workplace. Contents: definitions; standards; regulations in France; number, distribution and placement of fire extinguishers within the workplace; utilization; training of personnel in the use of fire extinguishers; different types and categories of fire extinguishers; maintenance and verification; useful addresses. In annex: relevant paragraphs from the rules on portable fire extinguishers issued by APSAD (federation of French insurers) and from the guidance document on extinguisher maintenance issued by CNMIS (national committee for fire and safety equipment).
Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1996. 55p. Illus.

CIS 97-328 Hennrikus D.J., Jeffery R.W., Lando H.A.
Occasional smoking in a Minnesota working population
In a population of working adults the prevalence of occasional smoking was examined together with long-term smoking patterns of occasional smokers. Occasional smokers constituted 18.3% of all smokers in the baseline sample and 21.5% of all smokers in the cross-sectional sample surveyed 2 years later. Job monotony or repetitiveness were related to an increase in daily smoking at follow-up, while a change to more restrictive workplace smoking policies was associated with quitting. The results also confirm that a substantial proportion of smokers are low-rate users.
American Journal of Public Health, Sep. 1996, Vol.86, No.9, p.1260-1266. 15 ref.

CIS 97-257 Wu Y., Drysdale D.D.
Health and Safety Executive
Study of upward flame spread on inclined surfaces
This report describes a study of the mechanism of the trench effect, identified as being responsible for the rapid fire growth which occurred during an escalator fire at London's King's Cross Underground Station in 1987. Experiments were carried out to examine the influence of relevant factors on flame behaviour and to provide data for the validation of computational flow dynamics (CFD) simulations. Both experiments and CFD simulations showed that the buoyant flow movement in the inclined trench depended on the trench inclination and that there was a critical angle of inclination for the trench effect to occur.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 95p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 30.00. [in English]

CIS 96-2086 Occupational safety and health standards system, Part 1
Sistema standartov bezopasnosti truda, čast' 1 [in Russian]
Reissue of 13 State Standards of the former USSR that have been reconfirmed by the authorities of the Russian Federation: GOST 12.0.001-82 (main principles); 12.0.002-82 (terms and definitions); 12.0.003-74 (dangerous and harmful industrial factors - classification); 12.0.004-90 (organization of safety and health training - general rules); 12.0.005-84 (metrological support of occupational safety and health - main principles); 12.1.001-89 (ultrasound - general safety requirements); 12.1.002-84 (power-frequency electrical fields - permissible levels of field strength and workplace monitoring); 12.1.003-83 (noise - general safety requirements); 12.1.004-91 (fire safety - general requirements); 12.1.005-88 (general hygienic requirements for workplace air), which includes the official list of occupational exposure limits (PDKs); 12.1.006-84 (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - permissible levels in the workplace and monitoring methods); 12.1.007-76 (toxic substances - classification and general safety requirements); 12.1.010-76 (biological safety - general requirements). Tables from GOST 12.0.004-91 that show potentially hazardous materials which can and cannot be stored together are annexed.
IPK Izdatel'stvo Standartov, Kolodeznyj per. 14, 107076 Moskva, Russian Federation, 1996. 269p. + 3 inserts.

CIS 96-2058 Fiiire! Learn to fight it! Fire prevention and fire fighting
¡Fueegooo! ¡Aprenda a controlarlo! Prevención y combate de incendios [in Spanish]
Safety booklet aimed at workers. Contents: necessary conditions for fires; classification of fires (classes A, B, C, D); location of fire-fighting equipment; how to fight fires of various classes; handling of fire extinguishers; general recommendations.
Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Departamento Difusión, Av. de la República No.134, 4o piso, Col. Tabacalera, México D.F., C.P.06030, Mexico, [no date]. 14p. Illus.

CIS 96-2059 Major hazard control: A practical manual
Cungtay sanepsa-ko yeypang maynyuel [in Korean]
Korean translation of a manual originally published in 1988 (CIS 89-118), written primarily for government officials, labour inspectors, management and labour union officials and emergency personnel in developing countries. Contents: introduction (description of major types of hazards; explosions, fires, toxic releases; components of major hazard control systems); identification of major hazard installations; role of management (assessment of hazards; causes of major industrial accidents; safe operation of major hazard installations; mitigation of consequence; reporting to authorities); role of authorities; role of workers and of workers' organizations; emergency planning; implementation of major hazard control systems; prerequisites for a major hazard control system. Appendices contain: list of dangerous substances and threshold quantities (derived from EC Directive 82/501/EEC); example of a rapid ranking method for the classification of units/plant elements; guide to hazard and operability studies; consequence calculation methods; storage of LPG at fixed installations; safety advice for bulk chlorine installations; storage of anhydrous ammonia under pressure in the United Kingdom; example of a safety report; example of an accident report form; land use near major hazard works.
Korea Industrial Safety Corporation, 34-6 Gusandong, Bukyong, Inchon, Rep. of Korea, 1996. [6], vi, 389p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-2267 Washburn A.E., LeBlanc P.R., Fahy R.F.
1995 Firefighter fatalities
In 1995, 88 firefighters died on duty in the USA, a decrease of 15% from the 104 deaths recorded in 1994. The trend has been downward since 1977. The main article breaks down the statistics by circumstances of death, cause, age of victim, career versus volunteer status and length of service. Sidebars describe fatal fires due to arson, death and disability benefits offered by the US Federal Government and examples of fatal incidents occurring in 1995.
NFPA Journal, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.90, No.4, p.63-77. Illus.

CIS 96-2052 Bakar Che Man A., Gold D.
International Labour Office (ILO)
Safety and health in the use of chemicals at work. A training manual
Gongzuo zhong huasuepin de shiyong anquan yu weisheng: peixun shouce [in Chinese]
Chinese translation of a training manual originally published in English (see CIS 93-789). Contents: health hazards due to chemical exposure (factors contributing to hazardous situations, toxic effects of chemicals); fire and explosion hazards; basic principles of prevention (elimination or substitution, organizational control); chemical emergency procedures (emergency plan, evacuation, first aid, fire fighting, spill and leak procedures); management of a chemical control programme. Annexes include a training checklist for safe use of chemicals at work, text of the ILO Chemicals Convention and Recommendation, and guidance on the classification, identification and labelling of chemicals.
Occupational Safety and Health Training Centre, Ministry of Labour, Beijing, China, [no date]. 82p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-2304 Bowman E.K., Vass A.A., Mackowski R., Owen B.A., Tyndall R.L.
Quantitation of free-living amoebae and bacterial populations in eyewash stations relative to flushing frequency
This study investigated amoebic and bacterial populations in eyewash station water relative to various flushing regimens. Amoeba concentrations (of genus Hartmannella and Acanthamoeba) averaged approximately 200 amoebae/100mL in 13 of 15 stations. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 0 to more than 100.000 colony forming units per mL. Weekly 3-minute flushes appeared to be more effective in maintaining lowered bacterial, but not amoebic, concentrations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.626-633. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 96-2057
Health and Safety Executive
Storing and handling ammonium nitrate
This leaflet describes the fire and explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate and provides safety precautions for the storage and handling of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers: design and location of storage areas; size of stacks and separation from other substances; housekeeping; fire precautions; bulk products. Legislation relating to storage of large quantities is outlined.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1996. 12p. 10 ref.

CIS 96-2265 Li G., Baker S.P., Dodd R.S.
The epidemiology of aircraft fire in commuter and air taxi crashes
Data on commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes for the period 1983-1988 were examined. Aircraft fire was recorded in 153 (17%) of the 888 crashes identified. Factors associated with increased likelihood of fire were non-airport location, twin-engine aircraft and nighttime flying. The majority of fires occurred during impact sequence and the most frequent source of ignition was the engine. Fire sensing and extinguishing systems were installed in only 19% of aircraft. Rescue and firefighting efforts were hampered most commonly by terrain, weather and darkness.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 1996, Vol.67, No.5, p.434-437. 18 ref.

CIS 96-2268 Foley M., Drysdale D.D.
Health and Safety Executive
The use of small scale fire test data for the hazard assessment of bulk materials
Fire tests were carried out on 16 materials using both a test protocol based on a one-third scale room corridor assembly (third scale rig (TSR) test) and a Cone Calorimeter. No simple relationship was found between the ranking order derived in the TSR protocol and the Cone Calorimeter results; general trends were apparent but correlation coefficients were poor. While the Cone Calorimeter could act as a preliminary screening test to identify those materials which perform badly, the TSR test should remain as a hazard assessment test.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 80p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 96-2272
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use and storage of cellular plastics
This guide concentrates mainly on process fire risks from the storage and use of cellular plastics. Contents: general safety principles (design and positioning of stores); types of storage accommodation and positioning of stock; housekeeping; sources of ignition and related fire hazards; special hazards and precautions for flexible polyurethane foam, expanded and extruded polystyrene, and rigid urethane and polyisocyanurate foam; fire precautions (means of escape, fire-resisting buildings, automatic fire detection and sprinkler systems, smoke ventilation, maintenance involving hot work).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iv, 36p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 96-1622
Tinsley Bridge Ltd./BFV
It always happens to someone else
Two-part videotape. Part 1 concerns fire prevention, emergency planning and designation of responsibilities in case a fire works out at the enterprise. Part 2 is a case history of the preparation of an emergency plan (against fires or bomb threats) in a plant, and of an exercise carrying it out. The videotape was reviewed in Health & Safety at Work, July 1995, p.34.
TTE, Wellingham House, Crawley Road, Faygate, Horsham, West Sussex RH12 4SE, United Kingdom. Videotape (length: 22min). Price (for rental): GBP 85.00 per week. ###

CIS 96-1625 Construction site fire safety
Videotape reviewed in Health & Safety at Work, July 1995, p.34.
Publications Department, Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom. Videotape (length: 16min). Price: GBP 37.50. ###

CIS 96-1847 Petit J.M., Falcy M.
Gaseous fire extinguishing agents used in fixed fire extinction installations
Agents extincteurs gazeux utilisés dans les installations fixes d'extinction [in French]
Gaseous fire extinguishing agents may be recommended for numerous installations, in particular where there is a major fire hazard or to protect costly equipment. This guide is designed to help users, particularly staff responsible for fire safety, to become better acquainted with this type of extinguishing agent: uses and limitations; presentation of the gases used (carbon dioxide, other inert gases, halon 1301, other halogenated hydrocarbons); use on premises open to the public; risks related to decomposition products; access to premises after emission; regulations and recommendations for use. The opinion issued by the Committee of the French Ministry of the Environment for the assessment of the ecotoxicity of chemicals on 27 Jan. 1994, relating to the use of certain halon substitutes in firefighting, is appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.164, Note No.2026-164-96, p.321-328. 15 ref.

CIS 96-1846 Kales S.N., Castro M.J., Christiani D.C.
Epidemiology of hazardous materials responses by Massachusetts district HAZMAT teams
This study is an analysis of responses obtained from six district hazardous materials (HAZMAT) teams in the state of Massachusetts (USA). Of the total number of responses, 79% related to spills, leaks or other escapes of hazardous materials, 18% to fires, 10% to vehicle accidents and 8% to explosions or other uncontrolled chemical reactions. The total exceeds 100% because more than a single cause was responsible for some of the accidents. Chemicals most frequently involved were hydrocarbons and corrosive materials. Civilians were injured in 21% of the incidents, but for most of them there were no reported injuries. Further systematic study is recommended to generate ideas for primary prevention and better control of secondary health effects.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.38, No.4, p.394-400. 29 ref.

CIS 96-1845 Lacosta Berna J.M.
Evaluation of the toxic hazard in fires: Toxicity tests on volatile combustion products
Evaluación del riesgo tóxico en los incendios. Ensayos de toxicidad de los productos volátiles de la combustión [in Spanish]
Survey and study of the problems of exposure to volatile toxic substances released in fires in modern settings. Contents: the chemical nature of polyvinylchloride (PVC) and the mechanism of by-product formation (includes a table comparing substances released during fires involving wood and expanded polystyrene); qualitative description of atmospheres during a fire; classification of fires; relevance of animal experiment data for human exposure to fire by-products; classic inhalation studies and studies of exposure to combustion products; quantitative toxicology studies; concentration, time after exposure and response; models of fires and criteria for their evaluation (studies on actual fires, oxygen content, CO2-CO relationship, temperature and heat flow, validity of toxic hazard evaluation); selection of fire models; methods for the analysis of gases and fumes; prediction of toxic effects (general concepts, single-gas atmospheres, atmospheres with gas mixtures, calculation of Fractional Effective Doses (FEDs)).
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 1996, No.61, p.23-37. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 96-1810 Della-Giustina D.E.
Safety and environmental management
This manual provides practical guidance on developing and maintaining a safety and environmental management programme. Contents: hazard communication and management of hazardous materials (material safety data sheets, identification of hazardous chemicals, employee information and training, hazardous chemical releases); accident investigation techniques; emergency response organization; fire safety; lockout/tagout procedures; preventing ergonomic hazards; precautions during work in confined spaces; role of management. Glossary.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA, and Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom, 1996. xiii, 306p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price (in Europe): GBP 45.00.

CIS 96-1275 Fire! Fire!
Highly recommended videotape on fire protection in offices. Reviewed in OS&H, July 1996, p.28.
Training Direct, North Court, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, United Kingdom, no date. Videotape (length: 2 x 25min) + set of training booklets. Price: GBP 695.00 + delivery (rental fee: GBP 140.00 for 2 days, GBP 170.00 for 7 days). ###

CIS 96-1446 Hymes I., Boydell W., Prescott B.
Thermal radiation: Physiological and pathological effects
This report presents data on the effects of thermal radiation for use in the assessment of hazards from fires and fireballs. Contents: general effects of fires and fireballs and physiological implications; basic principles of thermal radiation and effects on man; properties and biological role of skin; pathological damage from thermal radiation; prognosis of burn injury victims; application of burn data to thermal radiation hazard situations; significance of clothing in exposure to thermal radiation; ignition and melting characteristics of clothing fabrics; nature of burn injury from burning clothing; attenuation and mitigation of thermal radiation.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1996. vii, 130p. Illus. 57 ref. Index. Price: GBP 30.00.

CIS 96-958 Rew P.J., Hulbert W.G.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of pool fire thermal radiation model
Recent developments in modelling the effects of external radiation from pool fires were reviewed and relevant improvements were incorporated into the current HSE (POOLFIRE5) model. Software for the improved model (POOLFIRE6) was developed and validated. The model incorporates correlations for calculating the radiation from the pool surface in two zones: a high emissive power, clean burning layer at the base with a smoky, obscured layer above. A detailed technical specification of the new model is presented along with validation results and an illustration of its use for a typical scenario.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iv, 99p. Illus. 85 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 96-320
Health and Safety Executive
Dispensing petrol: Assessing and controlling the risk of fire and explosion at sites where petrol is stored and dispensed as a fuel
This guidance applies to petrol filling-stations, farms, commercial goods vehicle depots, private businesses and other premises where petrol is kept as a fuel. Contents: fire and explosion hazards of petrol; risk factors associated with the storage and dispensing of petrol and key precautions to prevent fire and explosion; detailed risk assessment and identification of control measures for delivery and venting, storage, pipework systems and dispensing. In appendix: systems of work; training; risk assessment examples; relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. ix, 58p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.


CIS 05-395 A compilation of flame retardants
This document consists of a comprehensive list of 352 flame retardants, including their chemical name and CAS number, compiled from various sources. The products are grouped according to the following main headings: halogenated organic compounds (not containing phosphorus); non-halogenated organic compounds (not containing phosphorus); halogenated organic phosphorus compounds; non-halogented organic phosphorus compounds; inorganic compounds.
Kemikalieinspektionen (KEMI), Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 42p.

CIS 05-392 The flame retardants project - A collection of reports on some flame retardants and an updated ecotoxicological summary for tetrabromobisphenol A
This document contains a collection of reports on the toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected brominated flame retardants and an updated ecotoxicological summary for tetrabromobisphenol A. The properties and toxic effects of the following flame retardants are reviewed: decabromodiphenyl oxide; pentabromoethylbenzene, pentabromomethylbenzene, tetrabromobisphenol A, ammonium bromide, N,N'-ethylenebis(tetrabromophthalimide), hexabromocyclododecane, tetrabromophthalic anhydride. There are no data available on the effects of these flame retardants on humans.
Kemikalieinspektionen (KEMI), Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 83p. Ref.bibl.

CIS 02-1550 Diphenyl-2-ethylhexyl phosphate
Diphenyl-2-ethylhexylphosphat [in German]
Diphenyl-2-ethylhexyl phosphate may cause slight skin irritation and may have a moderate sensitizing potential. Animal experiments show practically no toxicity following oral, dermal or intravenous administration. No genotoxic, carcinogenic or teratogenic effects have been observed.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 27p. 34 ref.

CIS 02-567 Diethyl phosphite
Diethylphosphit [in German]
Toxicological criteria document. There are no data available on the effects of exposure to diethyl phosphite in humans. Animal experiments show a low acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity. No mutagenic or clastogenic effects have been reported.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 16 ref.

CIS 99-622 Turmo Sierra E.
Flammable substances: Variation of danger parameters
Productos inflamables: variación de los parámetros de peligrosidad [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; determination of flammable limits; explosive atmospheres; flammable limits; flammable substances; hazard criteria; mathematical analysis; safety analysis; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 8p. 4 ref.

CIS 99-621 Tamborero del Pino J.M.
Metal containers for flammable liquids
Recipientes metálicos para líquidos inflamables [in Spanish]
Topics: approval; containers; data sheet; fire hazards; fire prevention; flammable liquids; handling and storage; legislation; portable containers; safety rules; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 7p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 97-1669 Pérez Guerrero A.
Fire extinguishing: Checking plan for equipment
Extinción de incendio: plan de revisión de equipos [in Spanish]
This information note presents, in the form of tables, recommendations for the maintenance and periodic checks of fire protection equipment and systems. Fire alarms, portable fire extinguishers, fixed extinguishing systems and automatic fire protection systems are included.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 4p. 2 ref.

CIS 97-1358 Louhevaara V., et al.
Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics
The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of fire-protective clothing designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) on maximal physical work performance. Twelve healthy firemen aged 26-46 years were examined. The maximal tests without (control) and with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA were carried out on a treadmill in a thermoneutral environment. When compared to the control test, the decrease in the maximal power output in terms of maximal working time and walking speed averaged 25%, varying from 18% to 34% with the fire-protective clothing system and the SCBA. At maximum, no significant differences were found in pulmonary ventilation, absolute oxygen consumption, the respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, the rate-pressure product, mechanical efficiency and the rating of perceived exertion between the tests with and without the tested equipment. The reduction in power output was related to the extra mass of the fire-protective clothing and the SCBA. In physically demanding fire fighting and rescue work all possible means to decrease the mass of both the protective clothing and SCBA need to be considered for maintaining sufficient power output.
European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 1995, Vol.71, p.223-229. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 97-974 National electrical code 1996
This edition of the code was adopted by the National Fire Protection Association in May 1995. Contents: general definitions and requirements for electrical installations; wiring and protection; wiring methods and materials; equipment for general use; special locations (hazardous locations, commercial garages and service stations, bulk storage plants, health care facilities, places of assembly and entertainment, agricultural buildings); special equipment; special conditions; communication systems; tables and examples.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1995. 1069p. Illus. Index.

CIS 97-779 Some safety thoughts: A collection of short articles on safety
This safety booklet covers: back pain; slips and falls; safer kitchens; fires; electrical safety; smoking and fires; fireworks; treating burns; safe toys; safe driving; driving and alcohol; planning a safe office; keeping the workplace clean; eye protection; good safety management.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India, 1995. 44p. Illus.

CIS 97-448 Fire safety - How to comply with the law and stay that way
Sécurité incendie - Pour se mettre en conformité et le rester [in French]
This training manual treats the following main subjects: Standards and regulations; Fire fighting techniques and risk analysis; Financial and insurance aspects of fire safety; Safety management and organization.
Euroforum, 35 rue Greneta, 75002 Paris, France, 1995. 268p. Illus. Price: FRF 1,657.04.

CIS 97-259 The SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering
This revised handbook is the only major reference work on fire protection engineering to combine theory, research results and calculation methods in a practical form. Produced jointly by NFPA and the Society of Fire Protection Engineers, it presents practical strategies for understanding and solving analysis and design problems. This revised edition has 6 sections: fundamentals (fluid mechanics, types of heat transfer, thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, thermal decomposition of polymers, structural mechanics, premixed burning, properties of building materials, probability, statistics); fire dynamics (flame and air behaviour during fires, combustion by-products, ignition of liquid fuels, smoldering combustion, spontaneous combustion, flaming ignition, smoke properties); hazard calculations (burning rates, calorimetry, heat generation, fire modelling, compartment fires, smoke and heat venting, human behaviour, emergency movement, explosion protection); design calculations (detection systems, hydraulics, fire protection systems, fire resistance of materials, smoke control); fire risk analysis (computer simulations, fire risk ranking, extreme value theory, reliability, subjective measurements, economical aspects, quantitative risk assessment in chemical process industries). Appendices.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, USA, 2nd ed., 1995. viii, [1185]p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 163.00.

CIS 96-2308 Petter F.
Biological substances used at work from the viewpoint of the fire brigade
Biologische Arbeitsstoffe aus der Sicht der Feuerwehr [in German]
In some laboratories microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, hazardous cell cultures and radioactively marked substances are used. The local fire brigade needs to be informed of the biological agents used in all laboratories in its district. This information enables the fire brigade to determine the hazard posed in each case with the help of the classification of biological hazards in the European directive 90/679/EEC. All actions and protective measures by the fire brigade in case of a laboratory fire need to be based on the worst hazard that the particular laboratory poses.
Brandschutz, Jan. 1995, Vol.49, No.1, p.49-55. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 96-1703 Valeriani L., Benvenuti F.
The Gran Sasso Laboratory: Technology and safety in underground workplaces
Il laboratorio del Gran Sasso - tecnologia e sicurezza nei lavori in sotteraneo [in Italian]
This monograph deals with the occupational safety problems studied by ISPESL (Istituto Superiore Prevenzione e Sicurezza Lavoro) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (GSL), located on the highway connecting Rome to L'Aquila in central Italy. This laboratory was built alongside the Gran Sasso tunnel (10.4km long) to allow unique experimental investigations of cosmic particles. Thanks to the thickness of the rock overburden, the underground laboratory is very efficiently shielded from cosmic rays and in addition the rock is characterized by a low level of natural radioactivity, thus only neutrinos and high energy particles can be detected. The GSL consists of three experimental halls and a series of connecting tunnels and service areas. Particular consideration was given to structural measures in building the different tunnels halls and special doors in order to prevent risks of fire, toxic fumes, explosions and falls of rocks. The measures adopted for ventilation and electrical equipments are also reported in detail. Safety and emergency measures are illustrated for external buildings and laboratories e.g. avalanche protection.
Prevenzione oggi, 1995, Vol.7, No.1 (special issue), p.1-206. Illus.

CIS 96-1274 Portable fire extinguishers
Extintores portátiles [in Spanish]
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Carrera 20, No.39-62, 6839 Bogotá, Colombia, no date. Videotape. Price: COP 68,700 or USD 76.00 (members); COP 89,500 or USD 100.00 (non-members). ###

CIS 96-1450 From the ashes: A toy factory fire in Thailand
Renaître de ses cendres: l'incendie d'une usine de jouets en Thaïlande [in French]
Renacer de las cenizas: el incendio de una fábrica de juguetes en Thailandia [in Spanish]
A fire destroyed the Kader soft toy factory in Nakhon Pathom province (Thailand) on 10 May 1993. A total of 188 workers died and 469 were injured. Contents of this document: detailed description of the tragedy; setting up of a working group (of representatives of trade unions, universities and non-governmental organizations) with the aim of examining the reasons for the fire and of ways to help its victims and their families; compensation of victims and their families; survey of fires and other industrial accidents in Thailand; role of the Thai government in enforcing safety legislation; safety in the toy industry in Southeast Asia in general (Hong Kong, Taiwan, China); survey of the international toy industry; contracting to "sweatshops" (child and women workers). In annex: safety codes pertaining to the fire site; case study of a past fire in a US factory (Triangle Shirtwaist Co., New York, 25 Mar. 1911); example of a code of practice adopted by a transnational company (Levi Strauss & Co.); relevant resolutions of the ICFTU.
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), blvd. Emile Jacqmain 155 b1, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, [1995]. 43p. Illus.

CIS 96-887 Parslew R., King C.M., Evans S.
Primary sensitization to a single accidental exposure to a flame retardant and subsequent allergic contact dermatitis
Case report of a worker who suffered blistering of the skin after contact with a flame retardant containing 2,3-dibromocresylglycidyl ether. Corticosteroid treatment was effective. Patch testing verified sensitization to this compound. Primary sensitization resulting from a single exposure has been reported for several other substances, but not for this compound.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1995, Vol.33, No.4, p.286. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 96-957 Gale M.
Loss Prevention Council
Fire protection yearbook 1995/6
This revised yearbook (see CIS 95-1475 for previous edition) provides basic reference information on fire safety in the United Kingdom. Contents: fire safety structure in the UK (government departments, standards, professional organizations, research and testing); fire services in the UK; fire legislation; fire test facilities; analysis of fire statistics for 1993 with 10-year trends; code of practice for occupational fire brigades; directory of occupational fire brigades; the Fire Protection Association (FPA) and its services. Includes names and addresses of fire brigades and organizations and fire consultancy services.
Fire Protection Association, Melrose Avenue, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire WD6 2BJ, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1995. 160p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 96-88 About fire safety at work
Training booklet on fire prevention and protection in the workplace. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 96-89 Fire safety in health care premises
Training booklet on fire safety in hospitals and similar establishments: common causes of fires; preventive measures; what to do in the case of fires; fire safety policies; removing patients in the case of fire. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 96-312
Health and Safety Executive
The control of fire-water run-off from CIMAH sites to prevent environmental damage
This guidance note provides advice to operators of sites subject to the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1984 (CIMAH) (see CIS 89-1436). It concerns measures for the control of fire-water which may have been contaminated with chemicals stored at the site. Fire precautions are outlined along with emergency planning and environmental hazard identification, containment of fire-water run-off (lagoons and lakes, bunded areas, temporary containment), and alternatives to containment (controlled burning). An appendix summarizes legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 8p. 14 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 96-230 Hammond S.K., Sorensen G., Youngstrom R., Ockene J.K.
Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
A survey was carried out to measure the average weekly concentration of environmental tobacco smoke in 23 worksites in Massachusetts, USA. Approximately 25 samplers were placed in each worksite for a week. Nicotine concentrations fell from a median of 8.6µg/m3 in the open offices at worksites that allowed smoking to 1.3µg/m3 in sites that restricted smoking, and to 0.3µg/m3 in worksites that banned smoking. Non-office workspaces were similarly affected. Results indicate that occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke presents a substantial risk to workers in the absence of a policy restricting or banning smoking.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 27 Sep. 1995, Vol.274, No.12, p.956-960. Illus. 30 ref.

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