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Extinguishing agent for portable fire extinguishers and automatic fire extinguishing systems - Bromochlorodifluoromethane (BCF, Halon 1211)
Brandblusmiddel voor draagbare blussers en automatische brandblusinstallaties - Broomchloordifluormethaan (BCF, Halon 1211) [in Dutch]
Physical properties; fire fighting efficiency; advantages of BCF; extinction of fires by "negative catalysis"; chemistry of the combustion process and extinguishing effect of BCF; toxicity of BCF pyrolysis products, particularly HBr, HC2 and HF; threshold limit values; pyrolysis products when extinguishing fires caused by short-circuits; hazards of inadvertently released BCF (results of animal experiments).
De veiligheid, Oct. 1973, Vol.49, No.10, p.323-328. Illus.
Safety aspects of electrical engineering practice in the petroleum industry
Discusses the risk of fire or explosion due to the presence of flammable gas or vapour and air mixtures, from the point of view of flammability limits, vapour conditions of petroleum liquids at various temperatures and in various climates; flash point; ignition temperature; potentially hazardous situations. Discusses use of floating-roof storage tanks to reduce vapourisation, gas detection and the classification of hazardous areas (hazard sources, gas density, use of electrical equipment in these areas), followed by a report of a discussion on this paper at the London Branch of the Association of Mining Electrical and Mechanical Engineers.
Mining Technology, Mar. 1973, Vol.55, No.629, p.88-91.
Ministerial Decision No.158 of 1972 on [the] joint, crash and concerned operation programme for the preventing, fighting and guarding against fire [Indonesia]
Surat Keputusan Menteri Tenaga Kerja No.158 tahun 1972 tentang Program Operasionil Serentak, Singkat Padat untuk Pencegahan dan Penanggulangan Kebakaran [in Indonesian]
Ministerial decision designed to implement an effective fire-fighting programme in Indonesian workplaces. In appendices: I - Implementation of the fire-fighting provisions of the Safety Act of 1970 (see CIS 85-1791); implementing guidelines for the above (organisation; functions of management). II - Appointment of officials having authority to appoint fire safety experts. III - Nomination form for the appointment of experts. IV - Checklist / tables to be used in fire prevention programmes within enterprises.
In: Labour Legislation in Indonesia, Department of Manpower, Jakarta, Indonesia, 1988, Vol.II, p.110-138 (Indonesian-language section), p.105-133 (English-language section).
Amy L., Beltramelli R.
L'incendie. [in French]
Contents of this exhaustive monograph: mechanism of combustion; fire behaviour (apart from combustion phenomena) of various materials; propagation of fire; hazards of combustion by-products (fumes and gases); burns; automatic fire detection systems; portable and fixed fire extinguishers; fire extinction; role of ventilation in fire fighting and fire protection; organisation of official fire brigades in France; built-in fire protection in architectural design; protection of materials and structures; electric circuits and emergency lighting; prevention of causes of fire outbreaks; principles of fire prevention. Alphabetical index. A second volume is entirely made up of 2 tables: 1. fire characteristics (flammability, fire behaviour, extinguishing agents, etc.) of 1,194 flammable compounds listed by empirical chemical formula; 2. alphabetical list of various trade and other names of the same compounds, with empirical chemical formula for cross reference to the first table.
Editions Dunod, 92 rue Bonaparte, 69006 Paris, France, 1972. 2 vol. 581 and 131p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: FF.240.00
Standard for electric-battery-powered industrial trucks.
This standard, approved as American National Standard ANSI B56.3-1972 on 24 May 1972, lays down safety requirements covering only the fire, electric-shock and explosion hazards of battery-powered industrial trucks such as platform-lift trucks, tractors, fork-lift trucks and similar vehicles for industrial use. Individual sections contain detailed specifications regarding the construction, testing and marking of trucks of various categories.
UL 583, Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1972. 24p. Illus. Price: US-$2.00.
Fire and related properties of industrial chemicals.
This revised edition includes more than 350 chemicals of industrial importance arranged in 2 parts. Part 1 deals with solvents, flammable liquids and low melting point solids, while Part 2 is devoted to flammable gases. The properties listed in Part 1 include flash points, specific gravity, solubility in water, flammability limits in air, auto-ignition temperature, vapour density, melting and boiling points, and vapour pressure. Part 2 gives for each gas the specific gravity when liquefied, vapour density, explosive limits in air, auto-ignition temperature, critical temperature and pressure, and boiling point.
Booklet No.24, Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ, United Kingdom, 4th edition, Dec. 1972. 72p. Price: £1.10.
Fire prevention and control on construction sites.
Deals with job-site layout, fire prevention programme, good housekeeping, rubbish disposal, escape facilities, heating appliances such as salamanders, flammable and combustible liquids, construction sheds, equipment storage, welding and cutting, fire extinguishers, fire alarms, automatic sprinklers and water supply. Essential extinguisher data are tabulated. A fire safety check-list for construction work is appended.
Data Sheet 491, Revision A (extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1972. 7p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: US-$0.50.
Chemical and physical properties and thermal decomposition products of certain natural products and synthetic materials.
A brief review of the literature (including the history and current data on deaths, injuries and costs due to the combustion and pyrolysis of resins, plastics and natural materials) is followed by a discussion of the chemistry, physical properties, and toxic effects of plastics and the findings of fire tests. Experiments were conducted on the pyrolysis products of 5 synthetic and natural fibre materials. There is an extensive list of trade names of plastic materials and their manufacturers and numerous tables giving physical and chemical properties, fire hazards, thermal properties, burning characteristics, decomposition products, flammability and explosibility of powders used in the plastics industry.
USAF Environmental Health Laboratory, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, USA, May 1972. 170p. 67 ref. Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. Accession No. AD 751 899.
Liquid and gaseous oxygen safety review.
This report presents the results of a comprehensive and detailed study of the design and use of oxygen equipment and systems undertaken for the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute. It is based very largely on the practices developed by Air Products and Chemicals. Topics dealt with include: material compatibility, operational hazards, maintenance programmes, systems emergencies, accident investigations and reports, and references. Areas requiring further research and development for systems involving exposure to oxygen environment have been identified.
Final report NASA CR-120922, APCI TM 184, Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA, June 1972. 4 vol. 1265p. Illus. Price: US-$21.00. Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. Accession No. N73-14716/14719.
Rules for the prevention of accidents due to fires and explosions during underground work in rock strata where natural gas may be released
Règles relatives à la prévention d'accidents dus à des incendies et explosions lors de travaux souterrains dans des couches rocheuses dégageant du gaz naturel. [in French]
These rules apply to all underground construction work during which natural gas may be released or which involve a hazard of this kind. Contents: general provisions (no smoking, rescue organisation); ventilation (permissible methane concentration, protection against firedamp, ventilation breakdown, measurement team); winning with explosives (boring, explosion fumes, measurements after blasting); winning with heading machines. Comments are appended.
Form. 1497, Swiss National Accident Insurance Institute (Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt), Luzern, Switzerland, Nov. 1972. 7p.
Standard for electrically-operated valves for use in hazardous locations _ Class I, Groups A, B, C and D, and Class II, Groups E, F and G.
This standard was approved as American National Standard ANSI C33.83-1972 on 27 Dec. 1972. It lays down safety requirements for electrically-operated valves and also applies to motor operating mechanisms and to magentically-operated devices such as solenoids. Individual sections are devoted to: construction requirements (enclosures, joints in enclosures, shaft openings, supply connections, etc.); performance requirements; and markings.
UL 1002, Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1972. 17p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.
Standard for switches for use in hazardous locations - Class I, Groups A, B, C and D, and Class II, Groups E, F and G.
This standard was approved as American National Standard ANSI C33.29-1972 on 22 Dec. 1972. It lays down safety requirements for snap and similar type switches rated at 60A or less at 250V or less, 30A or less at 600V or less, or 2hp or less at 600V or less. Individual sections are devoted to: construction requirements (enclosure material, thickness and strength, holes in enclosure, etc.); performance requirements (explosion resistance, dust penetration, raintightness, etc.); ratings; and markings.
UL 894, Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1972. 17p. Illus. Price: US-$2.00.
Guide to OSHA fire protection regulations.
The material in these 5 volumes provides guidance in the application of the fire protection regulations specified in the Occupational Safety and Health Act (USA), 1970 and the Occupational Safety and Health Standards (USA), up to and including the revision of Oct. 1972. Both the Act and the Standards are included in their entirety and are annotated and explained. Volumes 2 to 5 contain complete copies of the 53 NFPA Standards and Codes which are referenced or used as source material in the Occupational Safety and Health Standards, and cross-indexing has been provided. Also included are the names and addresses of those concerned with the administration of the regulations.
OSHA-C, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, Nov. 1972. 5 vol., approx. 3,800p. Illus. Price: US-$55.00.
Laboratory waste disposal manual.
This revised edition covers some 1,200 chemical compounds. The following data are set out for each compound in chart form under the headings: name and chemical formula; waste disposal procedure (according to an appended classification); threshold limit values; numerical identification of fire, health and reactivity hazards (according to the National Fire Protection Association classification); specific gravity, vapour density, flash point, ignition temperature, flammability or explosivity limits in air, boiling point, melting point, solubility in water, other solvents; bibliographical references. The disposal procedure charts indicate for each chemical group: protective equipment to be worn, treatment of spills, packaging instructions and examples of the substances in the group. Similar information is given for recovery procedures.
Manufacturing Chemists Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, USA, Nov. 1972. 176p. 41 ref. Price: US-$3.50.
Standard for hypobaric facilities.
This standard is intended for the general guidance of hospital personnel giving hypobaric therapy or using hypobaric chambers with oxygen-enriched atmospheres, and for rescue workers in related emergency situations. Individual chapters are devoted to: nature of hazards (general, fire and explosion, mechanical, physiological and medical hazards); construction and equipment (illumination, ventilation, fire fighting, electrical systems, intercommunications and monitoring equipment); administration and maintenance (denitrogenation, equipment, control, handling of gases, electrical and electrostatic safeguards). Data on pressures in hypobaric chambers and a suggested procedure in case of fire are appended.
NFPA No.56E-1972, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1972. 40 p. 4 ref. Price: US-$1.25.
Fire and applied research
Le feu et la recherche appliquée. [in French]
Proceedings of a symposium held on 19 Apr. 1972 in Paris. Topics covered include: complexity of fire research; explosions; experimental methods; legislation and its application in real life; effects of fire on wood; prevention of hazards due to flammable or explosive gas mixtures; wool and fire hazards; contribution to the study of combustibility and thermal decompostion of plastics; flammability of airplane cabin facilities; stationary and autonomous fire-fighting installation.
Centre national de prévention et de protection, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1972. 99p. Illus.
Industrial waste and refuse - Fire safety
Déchets et résidus de fabrication - Sécurité incendie. [in French]
Describes general precautions to be observed in the recovery, removal, storage and elimination of various types of waste which might cause fires. Indicates specific hazards and preventive measures to be adopted for broad categories of waste according to their constituents or original raw materials: wood, paper, cardboard, textiles, leather, metal, scrap metal, solvents, paints, plastics, rubber, chemicals, radioactive waste.
Série Prévention et protection incendie, Vol.8, National Prevention and Protection Centre (Centre national de prévention et de protection), 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1972. 67p.
Schulze G., Schliemann H.
Use of air foam extinguishers for fighting fires of critical materials
Einsatz von Luftschaum bei der Bekämpfung von Bränden kritischer Brandmedien [in German]
Following a review of previous experience in the use of airfoam extinguishants for fighting fires in liquids and solids, the results of extensive testing are evaluated: extinguishment tests on fires in liquids (liquids with both low and high vapour pressures, with water miscible liquids); extinguishment tests on fires in solids (wood, rubber, foamed materials, plastics, dusts). Conclusions are drawn concerning the use of foam extinguishants and the construction of foam extinguishing installations.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 7/1972, Vol.22, p.97-112. Illus. 46 ref.
Fire hazards of electrical installations and the behaviour of safety equipment
Brandgefahr durch elektrotechnische Anlagen und das Verhalten von Schutzeinrichtungen [in German]
Description of the occurrence of insulation faults in power line and cable networks and in electrical installations, and evaluation of resultant faulty operation and the corresponding fire hazards. The behaviour of protective devices (fuses, fault-current circuit breakers, protective conductor system) in case of fire is considered. All these devices operate only in cases of faulty insulation and leakage to earth.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 6/1972, Vol.22, p.86-89. Illus. 5 ref.
Lucke O., Isenbart F.
Fire protection and safety in industrial premises
Brandschutz und Sicherheit in gewerblichen Betrieben [in German]
This pocketbook is intended for persons in charge of fire protection and gives advice on fire prevention measures. Individual sections are devoted to: local exhaust ventilation; safe distances; acetylene; respiratory protective equipment; structural design for fire prevention; gasoline; fire sources; compressed gas cylinders; explosion prevention; extinguishers; liquefied gases; floor coverings; woodyards; cable trenches; water supply for fire fighting; magnesium alloys; emergency exits; dust protection; celluloid, etc. New additions in this edition include: building classification for fire prevention purposes; spark erosion machines; racked-storage workhouses; computer centres; zirconium, etc.
Erich Schmidt Verlag, Herforder Strasse 10, 48 Bielefeld, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 3rd rev. and expanded ed., 1972. 228p. Price: DM 22.00.
Alvarez N.J., Lipska A.E.
The effect of smoke on the production and stability of high-expansion foam
High-expansion foam production is inhibited by combustion products and particularly by pyrolysis products. Foam-breaking constituents have been identified in this study for a broad class of fuels (wood, paper, hydrocarbons, etc.). It was found that the pyrolysis products from both liquid and solid fuels were more potent foam destroyers than the combustion products. In all the tests made, foam production and stability were adversely affected when the air used to make the foam was contaminated by combustion and pyrolysis products. Among the latter, the pyrolysis products from wood were the most potent foam destroyers.
Journal of Fire and Flammability, Apr. 1972, Vol.3, p.88-113. Illus. 6 ref.
Liquefied gas directives - Part I: Containers, storage, transfer, filling and vaporisation plants
Flüssiggas-Richtlinien - Teil I: Behälter, Lagerung, Umschlag, Abfüllung und Verdampfungsanlagen [in German]
Directives concernant les gaz liquéfiés - 1re partie: Récipients, stockage, transvasement, remplissage et installations de vaporisation. [in French]
The term "liquefied gas" covers the low-boiling hydrocarbon fractions in petroleum and natural gas, such as propane and butane which are gaseous at atmospheric pressure and are readily liquefied. Technical safety requirements for the handling of these liquefied gases are described and appendices contain information on: Swiss legislation and regulations referred to in the directives; testing stations; properties of liquefied gases; venting capacity of safety valves; determination of the permissible filling level for stationary tanks; safe distances; fire prevention requirements.
Swiss National Accident Insurance Institute, Lucerne, Switzerland, May 1972, 40p. Illus.
Fire protection guide on hazardous materials
This volume includes 5 separate guides: a list of flash-point indexes of approximately 7,300 trade name liquids; a list of fire hazards of 1,300 flammable liquids, gases, and volatile solids; data on fire, explosion and toxicity hazards of 260 chemicals; an alphabetical list of hazardous chemical reactions covering 2,350 mixtures of 2 or more chemicals; and a system for the identification of fire and related hazards of materials.
National Fire Protection Association, 60 Batterymarch Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02110, USA, 4th edition 1972. 949p.
Fire-detection thermostats [USA].
Requirements in this standard apply to fire-detection thermostats installed in ordinary indoor locations and cover construction details, performance and tests, and markings. An appendix is devoted to the design and operation of thermostat testing ovens. There is also a glossary.
Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, June 1970, 22p. Illus.
Catalytic combustion equipment
Les appareils à combustion catalytique. [in French]
A report on tests with catalytic heaters to determine the danger of using these units in explosive astmospheres (workshop heating, drying parts treated with flammable substances). Tests were carried out (a) in the presence of flammable gases and vapours (ethyl ether, hexane, cyclohexane, etc.); (b) with a steel sheet near a heater; (c) in the presence of an ethyl ether/air mixture agitated by a fan; (d) with flammable ignition material (oil-soaked rags); (e) with automisation tests on flammable liquids (gasoline, white-spirit, Cellosolve, etc.); and (f) in a paint-spraying and drying booth during normal operations. Hydrogen and ethyl ether ignited (explosively) in nearly all cases, but not the other substances. An attempt is made to explain the observed explosion phenomena.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1972, No.68, Note No.798-68-72, p.261-270. Illus.
Improved cover for the annular space at the top of retention tanks surrounding vertical, cylindrical storage tanks
Verbesserte Ringraumabdeckung von Stahlauffangwannen für stehende zylindrische Lagertanks [in German]
The gap between the retention tanks, frequently built around petroleum storage tanks nowadays, and the walls of the storage tanks themselves can be covered by plastic panels which decompose without ignition in the event of a fire. In addition, only small quantities of foam extinguishant are required to control a fire in the gap between the retention and storage tank walls. The cover deflects rain and snow and prevents it from entering the gap and mixing with the oil that may escape from leaks in the storage tank. The design of this retention tank is described.
Erdöl und Kohle, Erdgas, Petrochemie, May 1972, Vol.25, No.5, p.264-265. Illus. 1 ref.
Dangerous chemical reactions - 1. Nitric acid
Les réactions chimiques dangereuses - 1. Acide nitrique [in French]
A description of the possible dangerous reactions between nitric acid and 32 compounds. Reference is made to the works or articles in which these reactions were reported.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1972, No.68, Note No.806-68-72, p.321-325. 8 ref.
Dangerous chemical reactions - 2, Nitrates
Les réactions chimiques dangereuses - 2. Nitrates [in French]
A description of the possible dangerous reactions that may occur between nitrates (ammonium, silver, mercurous, mercuric, potassium, sodium and zinc nitrates) and various compounds. Reference is made to the works or articles in which these reactions were reported.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1972, No.68, Note No.807-68-72, p.327-331.
Fire prevention in warehouses
Brandschutz in Lagerhallen [in German]
Structural fire protection measures are considered in relation to fire brigade intervention. Special reference is made to the division of buildings into fire compartments and the danger of smoke accumulation and collapse due to overheating. Mention is made of the safety function of fire detection systems and automatic extinguishing installations.
Sicher ist Sicher, June 1972, Vol.23, No.6, p. 266-269. Illus.
Large-scale fire testing to reduce the flammability of mine timbering
Brandtechnische Grossversuche über die Verringerung der Brennbarkeit von hölzernem Grubenausbau [in German]
Description of tests on mine timbering impregnated with fire-retardant salts or treated with foam-forming or dust-binding hygroscopic salts. Both pine and tropical hardwoods were used. Fire-retardant salt treatment gives satisfactory results only if applied by the vacuum-pressure process. In intense fires, better results were achieved with foam-forming compounds. With small fires, hygroscopic salts that are used for binding dust, gave good fire protection.
Glückauf-Forschungshefte, June 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.96-101. Illus. 6 ref.
Evaluating differences of flammability in materials in a natural fire
Bewertung des unterschiedlichen Brandverhaltens von Stoffen bei natürlichen Bränden [in German]
The draft standard DIN 18 230 (Structural fire protection in industrial buildings) should permit the fire-safety evaluation of industrial buildings. It specifies that fire-safety category should be calculated in relation to occupancy, location and dimensions. It is essential to have an evaluation factor which hightlights the main flammability characteristics of various materials. Determination of this factor is discussed with reference to a number of difficulties. 2 measurement techniques for determining the evaluation factor are described.
Zentralblatt für Industriebau, June 1972, Vol.18, No.6, p.230-236. Illus. 9 ref.
Esser K., Timmerberg C.H.
Venting problems in building fires
Im Brandfall Entlüftungsprobleme? [in German]
Description of a system of calculating smoke venting areas to ensure that the necessary fire protection measures can be taken at the building-design stage. Fire load and smoke and heat fire factors are used to produce a smoke formula for determining the necessary vent areas for smoke venting and heat dissipation. Use of the formula is illustrated by an example. Domed rooflights are employed which disintegrate at 250°C and allow heat and smoke to escape.
Sicher ist Sicher, June 1972, Vol.23, No.6, p.270-277. Illus. 10 ref.
The testing of smoke detectors
Gesichtspunkte bei der Prüfung von Rauchmeldern [in German]
The authors studied and compared 3 different models of smoke detector: ionisation chamber, incident-light beam, and diffused-light beam detectors. The detector's sensitivity depends on a number of parameters, in particular smoke dispersion, detector design, building geometry and the type of fire hazard. To determine the sensitivity of an instrument, tests must be carried out with a number of types of smoke. Consequently, standardisation of tests and test set-ups would be desirable, as would be the development of a reproducible standard aerosol.
Staub, July 1972, Vol.32, No.7, p.290-293. Illus.
Fire hazards in the printing industry
Les risques d'incendie dans les industries des arts graphiques [in French]
This profusely illustrated brochure designed for small and medium-sized printing works gives statistical data on fires in the Paris region, reviews the relevant French statutory provisions, and indicates safety precautions for printing works. The hazards are due in particular to the use of a flammable printing substrate, the use of combustible inks and the occurrence of static electricity. These hazards are considered and the individual departments of a printing works are dealt with (printing preparation, printing, ink preparation, guillotining, stapling, binding, waste disposal) with an indication of the most effective fire-prevention measures and the most suitable fire-fighting equipment. A page is devoted to the evacuation of the premises in the event of a fire, and another page to recent developments which will reduce the fire hazard.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1972. 68p. Illus. 13 ref.
Caprolactam - Fire and explosion hazards
Kaprolaktam - nebezpečí požáru a vybuchu [in Czech]
Results of experiments on the flammable and explosive properties of caprolactam dust and vapours carried out in the German Democratic Republic and in Czechoslovakia. Although fine particulate caprolactam dust is very explosive, it has low flammability. However, deposited dust burns well once ignited and both explosion pressure and pressure-rise velocity are high. Caprolactam vapours are non-flammable under normal conditions; even at a high temperature and at the lower explosive limit, they will ignite only with difficulty. The Czechoslovak standard ČSN 73 0760 of 1959 classifies firms handling caprolactam under the category of undertakings in which flammable substances with a flashpoint of over 125°C are used.
Bezpečná práca, 1972, Vol.3, No.1, p.20-21. 4 ref.
The fire and explosion hazards of organic peroxides and blowing agents used in plastics manufacture
Über die Brand- und Explosionsgefährlichkeit der als Hilfsstoffe bei der Kunststoffherstellung verwendeten organischen Peroxide und Blähmittel [in German]
The two active oxygen atoms in the chemical structure of organic peroxides and blowing agents sometimes make it necessary to market and use these substances with the addition of an inhibitor. Some of these substances are highly sensitive to mechanical stress (impact and friction) and heat. The resultant reaction is dependent on the quantities involved and the type of container. Dissipation of the heat generated by the exothermic reaction is often a decisive factor in the reaction velocity. The article contains numerous data on reaction processes and valuable information on the safe use of peroxides.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, May 1972, Vol.21, No.2, p.54-59. 17 ref.
Exothermic reactions of catalysts in plastics processing demonstrated by a number of fires
Exotherme Reaktionen zwischen Hilfsstoffen bei der Kunstharzverarbeitung dargestellt an Brandfällen [in German]
A review of the chemistry and main physical properties of organic peroxides and the explosion and fire hazards involved in their manufacture. Precautionary measures are indicated. The decomposition hazard of 8 organic perioxides is indicated by presentation of their critical temperatures (flashpoint, ignition point and decomposition point). When polyester resins are processed with organic perioxides, exothermic reactions may occur and lead to fires. A number of typical fires are described and the results of the subsequent investigations reported. The exothermic reaction temperatures of a number of mixtures are indicated and corresponding safety measures presented.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, May 1972, Vol.21, No.2, p.49-54. Illus.
Occupational safety and fire protection in clothing, woodworking and footwear industry premises and in dry cleaning and dyeing
Tehnika bezopasnosti i protivopožarnaja tehnika na predprijatijah bytovogo obsluživanija [in Russian]
Individual chapters are devoted to: occupational safety legislation and organisation; occupational accidents and diseases; occupational safety and health training and education; electrical safety; accident prevention at steam boilers and compressed air installations; personal protection; basic industrial hygiene regulations; lighting, heating and ventilation of work premises; hygienic standards in works planning; occupational safety rules in sewing, knitting, woodworking, footwear production and repair, dry cleaning and dyeing, and in machinery repair; fire prevention and fire fighting.
Izdatel'stvo "Legkaja industrija", Kuzneckij nost 22, Moskva, USSR, 1972. 224p. Illus. 26 ref.
Savenko S.K., Ošmjanskij I.B., Kurov I.F.
Occupational safety and health, fire prevention and ventilation in mining and quarrying
Ohrana truda, protivopožarnaja profilaktika, aėrologija kar'erov i priiskov [in Russian]
This handbook is designed for Soviet teaching establishments. Individual sections are devoted to: occupational safety and health regulations and organisation; occupational health in opencast mining (control of harmful gases and dusts, improvement of micro-climate, protection against ionising radiation, noise and vibration control, lighting, sanitary and medical care installations); accident prevention in opencast mining (safe working procedures, machinery guarding, safe use of transport, electrical safety, shot firing and blasting, protection against inrushes of water and rock falls); safety and health in underground workings (atmospheric monitoring, dust control, ventilation, accident prevention); fire prevention.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij proezd 1/19, Moskva K-12, USSR, 1972. 352p. Illus. 74 ref.
The use of sulfur hexafluoride in magnesium foundries
Zwavelhexafluoride-toepassing in magnesiumgieterijen [in Dutch]
In magnesium and magnesium alloy smelting and refining, use is made of protective atmospheres (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, sulfur dioxide) or of a molten salt flux to prevent furnace fires or oxidation of the liquid metal. The correct choice of atmosphere or molten salt entails an intimate knowledge of possible reactions between molten magnesium and the furnace atmosphere. This article reports on experiments designed to explore the possibility of replacing inert gases by sulfur hexafluoride. The initial results indicate that this gas provides a shigh level of safety and that it can be used economically in view of the low concentration required to produce a protective atmosphere.
De veiligheid, Nov. 1972, Vol.48, No.11, p.351-355. Illus. 4 ref.
Fire prevention in the building industry
Požarnaja profilaktika v stroitel'nom dele [in Russian]
Individual chapters are devoted to: construction materials and their fire resistance; fire resistance of buildings and other structures (fire resistance of building components, staircases and staircase wells, fire walls, smoke vents and pressure-venting surfaces, fire protection measures in the construction of tunnels, platforms, etc.); fire prevention in the planning and construction of residential and industrial buildings (allowance for emergency exits in the planning of buildings, planning fire prevention into heating and ventilation plants, etc.); fire-prevention measures in residential and public buildings.
Isdatel 'stvo po stroitel 'stvu, Kuzneckij most 9, Moskva, USSR, 1972. 351p. Illus. 26 ref.
Glebov V.S., Tazeev G.S.
Fire protection in petroleum storage tanks and pipeline pumping stations
Požarnaja bezopasnost' neftebaz i ob"ektov magistral'nyh truboprovodov [in Russian]
Individual chapters are devoted to: ignition and combustion processes; fire hazard of petroleum products; fire sources; fire protection measures for electrical equipment; general fire protection measures in petroleum storage tank and pipeline pumping stations; special fire protection measures (filling of railway tank trucks and high sea tankers, pumping stations, storage tank depots, pipelines, filling equipment for road tankers, etc.); fire protection organisation; fire protection measures for work with open flames; extinguishers and their use for tank fires. Appendices include: classed types of electrical wires and cables and their installation in fire and explosion hazard premises; minimum permissible distances between underground pipelines and residential areas, industrial premises, etc.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tret'jakovskij proezd 1/19, Moskva K-12, USSR, 1972. 192p. Illus.
Fire rating of building materials and structures
Gedrag van bouwmaterialen en bouwconstructies bij brand [in Dutch]
This compilation, regularly updated by the Netherlands Fire Safety Research Centre in collaboration with the Fire Service Inspectorate, contains reports on all the laboratory tests on various building materials and components (doors, acoustic panels, partitions, roofing, etc.) carried out by the Research Centre. It is designed to provide a reference source to architects, etc. The first part which contains an introduction illustrated by photographs of laboratory set-ups and in which the methods are commented upon in the light of Netherlands standard NEN 1076, is followed by test reports broken down into 3 categories according to the type of test: combustibility, flammability and fire resistance. Information is also given on the materials tested and on the firms that provided the samples.
Centrum voor Brandveiligheid T.N.O., Den Haag, Vermande Zonen N.V., Ijmuiden, Netherlands, Oct. 1972. 300p. Loose-leaf file. Illus.
Fire retardant formulations handbook
A compilation of 400 flame-retardant formulations for: wood and paints (206 formulations); polymers (plastics and rubber - 103); textiles and paper (47); other materials (44). The source of each information is given.
Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 265 W. State Street, Westport, CT 06880, USA, 1972. 250p.
What can be done to make buildings safer from fire?
Report on a conference on the dangers of fire in the built environment held jointly by the United Kingdom Fire Protection Association and the Royal Institute of British Architects: it contains summaries of the papers given at the conference and the main points raised in discussion. The theme behind the conference was that the architect could play a larger part in guiding developers or industrialists in planning for the safety of a building's occupants, structure and contents. Individual papers are devoted to: fire problems in a socially and technologically changing world; fire containment problems facing insurers; occupancy problems - planning and design of buildings; education and communication.
Fire Protection Association, Informations and Publications Centre, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ, United Kingdom, 1972. 18p.
Department of Labour, Canada
Regulations respecting fire safety and emergency measures for Federal works, undertakings and businesses (Canada Fire Safety Regulations)
Règlement 1 concernant les mesures d'urgence et la protection contre l'incendie dans les ouvrages, entreprises et affaires de compétence fédérale (Règlement du Canada concernant la protection contre l'incendie) [in French]
These regulations are issued pursuant to the Canada Labour Code, Part IV (Safety of Employees). Buildings must be designed, constructed and equipped following provincial (depending on location) and other approved fire prevention and protection standards. Detailed emergency plans must be submitted for authorised approval, kept up to date and available to safety officers for buildings where employees on any one shift exceed 50 (unless all occupy the ground floor) or unusual fire or explosion hazards exist. Where plans are required, chief and deputy chief wardens and wardens and deputies for each occupied floor must be appointed, instructed and trained. Annual and plan revision meetings, building inspections and emergency drills are mandatory. Carbon tetrachloride extinguishers are forbiddent. Replaced by CIS 86-1483.
Canada Gazette - Gazette du Canada, 8 Dec. 1971, Part II, Vol.105, No.23, p.2049-2053.
Fire prevention - a task for the safety engineer?
Brandverhütung - Aufgabe des Sicherheitsingenieurs? [in German]
The safety engineer's qualifications and competence in fire protection are discussed. Since the public fire brigades are overloaded, responsibility for fire protection has been taken over by the firms themselves; fire engineers from the insurance companies are available to provide advice. Information is given on dealing with this fire-prevention task by the safety engineer. It is best if safety can be built in at the design stage. Particular reference is made to the importance of electricity-supply systems in relation to fires. A number of basic rules are presented.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Sep. 1972, Vol.3, No.9, p.400-405. Illus.
Home Office, London
Dangerous substances - Guidance on dealing with fires and spillages. Section I - inflammable liquids
This is the first part of a loose-leaf reference guide prepared in accordance with recommendations by the Home Office Standing Committee on Dangerous Substances that guidance should be given to emergency services dealing with fires and spillages involving dangerous substances. This section of the guidance covers inflammable liquids with a flesh apoint below 22.8°C. The substances and their synonyms are listed and toxicity, special hazards associated with their transport in commercial quantities, containers for conveyance, personal protection required, and fire extinguishing agents indicated. Advice on dealing with spillages is also given.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1, United Kingdom, 1972. 32p. Illus.
Experiments with acrylonitrile - Fire extinction tests
Experimenten met acrylnitril - Blusproeven [in Dutch]
A series of large scale tests with acrylonitrile were carried out in Spring 1971. The results of these tests (which were published in a report abstracted on CIS 72-1161) brought to light the significant qualities of a synthetic extinguishant foam, Komeet Extract S. However, this foam has the disadvantage that it cannot be projected over long distances. Consequently, new tests were carried out to find suitable alternatives. This brochure gives a detailed description of these experiments with various extinguishants, and presents and comments on the results obtained. An English version of the report is contained in the second half of the brochure.
Directorat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1972. 48p. Illus.
Fire service communications for fire attack
The author reviews the history of fire alarm systems and describes the design and operation of systems which are in present use in the USA. Subjects dealt with include: telegraph and telephone alarm, radio box alarm, combined systems, central station alarm, radio communications, radio alerting, fire alarm operations office, fire station communications and facilities, operations control, and emergency operations. The book is not intended to serve as a maintenance manual.
National Fire Protection Association, 60 Batterymarch Street, Boston, MA 02110, USA, 1972. 288p. Illus.
Dangerous chemical reaction - 3. Perchloric acid HClO4
Les réactions chimiques dangereuses - 3. Acide perchlorique HClO4 [in French]
Third information sheet in the series devoted to dangerous chemical reactions drawn up by the French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), Paris. It describes the dangerous reactions that may take place between perchloric acid and 24 other compounds which are listed in alphabetical order. In each case, reference is made to the document from which the information on these reactions was taken.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1972, No.69, Note n°815-69-72, p.401-404. 38 ref.
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