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Handbook on dangerous goods
Handbuch der gefährlichen Güter [in German]
This new instalment comprises separate data sheets on 202 additional hazardous substances. The new alphabetical index, which covers the 1st and 2nd instalments, contains the common names and synonyms of 414 substances in English, French and German. Apart from the formula and names of the substance, each data sheet provides information on the following points: physical properties; international regulations relating to transport by water, rail, road and air; appearance and smell; hazards related to the release of the substances and to their mixing with the atmosphere and water; health hazards and maximum allowable concentrations; safety measures to be taken in the danger zone in case of incident; first aid; medical notes. A graphic symbol called the "danger diamond" (diamond shape indicating the fire, explosion and health hazards) provides quick information on the degree of hazard for a given substance. A list of indicator tubes and lists of competent centres and hospitals for treating cases of poisoning and burns are appended.
Springer Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 1 Berlin 33 (Westsektoren), 2nd instalment, Nov. 1973. 322p. (not paginated). 400 ref. Price: DM.78.00.
Standard for receptable-plug combinations for use in hazardous locations.
This standard was approved as American National Standard ANSI C33.97-1973 on 5 Mar. 1973. It lays down safety requirements for receptacles with plugs, receptacles with plugs interlocked with circuit breakers, and receptacles with plugs interlocked with switches for use in various hazardous locations; it does not cover devices rated at over 200 A, over 500 V a.c. or 250 V d.c. Individual sections are devoted to: specific construction requirements, test performance, unit rating and markings.
UL 1010, Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1973. 31p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.
Standard for industrial control equipment for use in hazardous locations - Class I, Groups A, B, C and D, and Class II, Groups E, F and G.
This standard was approved as American National Standard ANSI C33.30-1973 on 9 Apr. 1973. It lays down safety requirements for industrial control equipment for use in various hazardous locations but does not cover intrinsically-safe electrical circuits of industrial control equipment. Individual sections are devoted to: air-break type equipment and oil-immersed type equipment for Class I, Groups A,B,C and D; and equipment for use in locations of Class II, Groups E,F and G. In all cases the standard lays down both construction and performance requirements.
UL 698, Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1973. 28p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.
Standard for electric motors and generators for use in hazardous locations - Class II, Groups E, F and G.
This standard was approved as American National Standard ANSI C33.93-1973 on 9 Apr. 1973. It lays down safety requirements and applies to horizontal and vertical machines of all horse-power ratings up to 600 V a.c. or 600 V d.c. Individual sections are devoted to: construction requirements (enclosure, joints, shaft openings, power-supply connections, etc.); performance requirements; manufacturing and production tests; and markings.
UL 674(A), Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1973. 25p. Price: US-$3.00.
Human exposure to high radiant environments.
An account of laboratory and field experiments to assess the protection afforded against intense radiant heat by 7 different types of fire fighters' protective clothing. In conclusion: prototype coats were found to be too short-waisted; reflective overboots provided adequate foot protection; gloves should have reflective material extended around thumb and index fingers; reflective visors require vertical extension for better visibility; polyvinyl chloride and Kynol materials were found to be inadequate. Graphs showing energy flux at the clothing surface, skin and rectal temperature change, clothing and helmet air temperatures and reflectance values of various articles of proximity clothing are presented.
Aerospace Medicine, Oct. 1973, Vol.44, No.10, p.1147-1151. Illus. 1 ref.
International standard ISO 1516-1973 (E), International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 Dec. 1973. 3p. Price: SF.8.00.
Paints and varnishes - Determination of the danger classification by flashpoint - Closed cup method
Peintures et vernis - Détermination des catégories de danger par le point d'éclair - Méthode en vase clos. [in French]
Standard specifying a test method to determine if a paint or varnish gives off sufficiently flammable vapour to cause ignition in the presence of a flame. Description of the test principle, apparatus (test cup, water bath, thermometers, support), sampling and determination. Advice for the test report. Reference to various national standards specifying suitable closed cups.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 Dec.1973. 3p. Price: Fs.8.00.
Transportation fire hazards
A review of the fire hazards that may be encountered in air, road, rail and sea transport, and the special problems involved in the transport of hazardous materials, with particular reference to Federal safety regulations in the United States. Individual sections are devoted to: hazardous materials in transit; aircraft fire safety (inflight fire safety, crash fires, airport protection, aircraft ground fires, etc.); motor vehicle fire safety; marine fire safety (life safety at sea, hazards in handling cargoes, cargo fires at sea, hazards of collisions, etc.); railroad fire safety.
Staff Study SPP-19, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02110, USA, Apr. 1973. 38p. Illus. Price: US-$2.25.
Raynaud C.R., Le Pollès J., Audiffren R.
Gas drainage and testing of empty tanks having contained combustible liquids
Les contrôles de dégazage et de salubrité des réservoirs à combustibles après vidange. [in French]
The 2 first parts of an extensive study based on work carried out at the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory of the Naval Health Service at Toulon, France. The 1st part comprises a study of gas phase flammability and another study of physico-chemical mechanisms of combustion. The 2nd part describes the principles and different methods of gas drainage and tank cleaning, as well as general precautions to be taken in this work.
Revue de la sécurité, Feb. 1973, Vol.9, No.88, p.1-23, Apr. 1973, No.90, p.9-23, July-Aug. 1973, No.93, p.33-56. Illus. 13 ref.
Fomin E.V., Balahničev N.A.
Improved safety measures against explosion and fire hazards in stoking furnaces with solid fuel
Povyšenie vzryvo- i požarobezopasnosti toplivopodači [in Russian]
Measures proposed for peat-burning power stations: elimination of dust sources at the planning stage (by exhaust ventilation or by airtight plant premises); elimination of places where dust could accumulate; precautions to be taken when working with a naked flame; wet method dust control; periodic inspections of peat handling equipment.
Ėnergetik, June 1973, No.6, p.7-8. Illus.
National fire codes, 1973-74.
These codes consist of 219 safety standards, recommended practices and manuals. The 10 volumes are devoted to the following subjects: flammable liquids, boiler-furnaces, ovens; gases; combustible solids, dusts and explosives; building construction and facilities; electrical equipment; sprinklers, fire pumps and water tanks; alarm and special extinguishing systems; portable and manual fire control equipment; occupancy standards and process hazards; transportation.
National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 10 vol., approx. 9,200p. Illus. Price: US-$5.75 per volume; US-$46.00 per set.
Fire protection guide on hazardous materials.
This volume includes 5 separate guides: a list of flash-point indexes of approximately 8,800 trade name liquids; a list of fire hazards of 1,300 flammable liquids, gases and volatile solids; data on fire, explosion and toxicity hazards of 388 chemicals; an alphabetical list of hazardous chemical reactions covering 2,350 mixtures of 2 or more chemicals; and a system for the identification of fire and related hazards of materials.
NFPA No.SPP-1B, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston Massachusetts 02210, 5th edition 1973. 1048p. 333 ref. Price: US-$6.75.
Flameproof electrical heating installations for industry and laboratories
Installations de chauffage électrique protégées contre les explosions pour exploitations industrielles et laboratoires. [in French]
French translation of: Explosionsgeschütze Elektrowärme-Einrichtungen für Industriebetriebe und Laboratorien. Chemiker-Zeitung, Heidelberg, Germany (Fed.Rep.), June 1970, No.11, p.398-406. Illus. 5 ref. Review and discussion of German regulations covering work with materials presenting fire or explosion hazards and safety requirements for workplaces, and apparatus and equipment used for such work. Safety and other aspects of the construction and operation of flameproof electrical heating equipment are discussed, and the application of safety measures in a number of typical flameproof types of equipment is described. Details of some recently developed flameproof laboratory installations and apparatus.
Translation INRS 24 B-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973, 27p. Illus. 5 ref.
Contribution to the study of the thermal decomposition of polyurethanes having a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate base
Contribution à l'étude de la dégradation thermique des polyuréthanes à base de toluylène-2,4-diisocyanate. [in French]
The object of this study, carried out at the Research Centre of the French National Research and Safety Institute, is to clarify the phenomenon of polyurethane pyrolysis and to identify the nature of the products resulting from their decomposition, with a view to research into means of appropriate protection. The author carried out his work on 2 levels (bibliographic study and personal experimentation). A review of the properties of the products considered (isocyanates, polyhydric alcohols, urethanes and polyurethanes) is followed by a study of the synthesis of the latter and the thermodynamic and chemical aspects of their thermal decomposition. The author discusses the results of his experiments and, in conclusion, briefly explains what happens when polyurethanes are heated to high temperatures: rapid decomposition, release of toxic gases and fumes which may cause explosions or feed fires, and the generation of carbon monoxide and hydrocyanic acid.
Université de Nancy 1, Nancy, France, 1973. 1 vol. 139p. Illus. 72 ref.
Standard on basic classifications of flammable and combustible liquids.
The main changes made in this classification reflect the new definitions of flammable liquids (liquids with flash points below 37.8°C, formerly 60°C) and of combustible liquids (liquids with flash points at or above 37.8°C). Specific definitions are also given for the following terms: liquid, flash point, vapour pressure and boiling point.
NFPA No.321-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 4p. Price: US-$1.00.
Standard for rack storage of materials.
This standard applies to the broad range of combustible materials that may be stored on racks to heights of 4 - 12 m. Individual sections are devoted to: classification of storage; building construction; storage arrangements; fire protection; equipment; building maintenance and operation (waste disposal, plant emergency organisation, etc.). Explanatory appendices are provided.
NFPA No.231C-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 76 p. Illus. Price: US-$1.75.
Standard for the installation of blower and exhaust systems for dust, stock and vapor removal or conveying.
This standard lays down requirements applicable to blower and exhaust systems to eliminate or reduce known fire and explosion hazards. Individual sections are devoted to: general requirements; systems for removal of flammable vapours and residue; duct systems for moving, conveying or transporting stock, vapour or dust; plastic systems for removal of non-flammable corrosive fumes and vapours.
NFPA No.91-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 29 p. Illus. Price: US-$1.25.
Standard for the installation and operation of pulverized-fuel systems.
This standard specifies minimum standards for design, installation, operation and maintenance of pulverised fuel systems. Individual sections are devoted to: basic principles (functional requirements, hazards, etc.); design (system arrangements, components design requirements, safety interlock systems); operation of pulverised fuel systems; personnel safety (confined spaces, fuel bunkers or bins, maintenance rules, electricity, fire fighting); special systems. An appendix lists suggestions for furnace construction.
NFPA No. 60-1973, National Fire Prevention Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 60 p. Illus. Price: US-$1.75
Standard for fumigation.
This standard applies to the fumigation of premises, vehicles or marine vessels and equipment or commodities within structures, special chambers (vaults), tanks, bins, or under tarpaulins. Individual sections are devoted to: definitions; vacating premises prior to fumigation; notification, posting, sealing prior to fumigation; fire and explosion prevention; ventilation after fumigation. Appendices provide information concerning fumigants as agents of pest control, characteristics of various common fumigants, a hazard signal system and a checklist.
NFPA No.57-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 28 p. Price: US-$1.25.
Standard for spray application using flammable and combustible materials.
This standard covers the application of flammable or combustible materials as a spray by compressed air, airless or by steam, or electrostatic methods or by any other means in continuous or intermittent processes. It also covers the application of combustible powders by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, fluidised beds or electrostatic fluidised beds. Contents: definitions; location of spray application operations; spray booths; electrical and other sources of ignition; ventilation; flammable and combustible liquids storage and handling; technical protection; operations and maintenance; fixed electrostatic apparatus; electrostatic hand spraying equipment; drying, curing or fusion apparatus; automobile undercoating in garages; powder coating; organic peroxides and dual component coatings. An appendix summarises a 15-year record of fires involving spray application of flammable or combustible finishes with reference to the provisions of the standard.
NFPA No.33-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 51 p. Illus. Price: US-$1.75.
Standard for dry chemical extinguishing systems.
This standard lays down minimum requirements for dry chemical fire extinguishing systems which discharge dry chemical from fixed nozzles and piping or from hose lines by means of gas pressure. Individual sections are devoted to: general information and requirements (personnel safety, operation and control of systems, electric wiring and equipment, inspection, maintenance and instruction, etc.); total flooding systems; local application systems; hand hose line systems. An explanatory appendix is provided.
NFPA No.17-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 34 p. Price: US-$1.25.
Standard for water spray fixed systems for fire protection.
This standard lays down minimum requirements for the design, installation, maintenance and testing of water spray fixed systems. Individual sections are devoted to: system components (corrosion protection, fittings, alarms, fire department connections, etc.); water supplies; system design and installation; acceptance tests (tests of hydrostatic pressure, water discharge, operation); periodic testing and maintenance; plans, specifications and hydraulic calculations; automatic detection equipment (protection, location and spacing, supervision, response time). Explanatory appendices are provided, with a section containing information concerning hydraulic calculations.
NFPA No.15-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 62 p. Illus. Price: US-$2.00.
Standard on halogenated fire extinguishing systems - Halon 1301.
This standard contains minimum requirements for bromotrifluoromethane or Halon 1301 fire extinguishing systems. Individual sections are devoted to: general information and requirements (safety, fire detection and actuation of the system, inspection, maintenance and instructions, etc.); total flooding systems (hazards, Halon 1301 requirements for fires concerning liquids, gas and solid materials, distribution, venting, etc.); local application systems (hazards, Halon 1301 requirements). An explanatory appendix is provided.
NFPA NO.12A-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 80 p. Illus. Price: US-$2.00.
Standard for the prevention of fire and dust explosions in the milling of agricultural commodities for human consumption.
Individual sections are devoted to: structural features; ventilation and venting; explosion relief; equipment; heated devices and processes; dust control; housekeeping; electrical equipment; fire protection; miscellaneous (heating , oils and flammable liquid storage, lightning protection, welding and other spark or heat producing processes, cartridge or explosion-operated tools, etc.).
NFPA No.61D-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 14 p. Price: US-$1.00.
Standard for the prevention of fire and dust explosions in grain elevators and bulk grain handling facilities.
Individual sections are devoted to: structural features; ventilation, venting and aeration; explosion relief; equipment; grain driers; dust control; housekeeping; electrical equipment; fire protection; miscellaneous (heating, sparks, smoking, oils, storage, lightning protection, static electricity, etc.). An appendix provides supplementary information on design, aeration, equipment, fire protection, etc.
NFPA No.61B-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 29 p. Price: US-$1.00.
Standard for manufacturing and handling starch.
This standard deals with hazards in the handling of dried starch, regardless of origin or method of drying. Individual sections are devoted to: structural features; ventilation and venting; explosion protection; equipment; starch dryers; dust control; housekeeping; electrical equipment; fire protection; miscellaneous (heating, smoking, flammable chemicals, static electricity, oils, cartridge or explosion operated tools); cutting, welding or other spark-producing operations.
NFPA No.61A-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 24 p. Price: US-$1.00.
Standard for the use of inhalation anesthetics (flammable and nonflammable).
This standard deals with: nature of hazards (general risks, hazards specific to flammable and to non-flammable anaesthetising locations, mixed facilities where flammable and non-flammable locations coexist); requirements for all facilities (ventilation, electrical equipment, apparatus and fittings, maintenance); requirements for flammable anaesthetising agents; mixed facilities (construction, precautionary signs, movable equipment and furniture). Appendices provide explanatory statements, regulations for safe practice in flammable, non-flammable and mixed anaesthetising locations, data on medical gas cylinders, a suggested procedure in case of fire or explosion, and an account of related hazards and safeguards.
NFPA No.56A-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 93 p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: US-$2.00.
Standard for pneumatic conveying systems for handling feed, flour, grain and other agricultural dusts.
This standard lays down principles for the prevention of dust fires and explosions in pneumatic conveying systems in the milling and related industries or for the minimisation of their effect. Individual sections are devoted to: general (definitions and illustrated description); tubing, headers, manifolds, ducts; sight glasses; valves; air-material separators; feeding methods; fans and blowers; portable conveying units, including bulk trucks. An appendix provides typical performance data for pneumatic conveying systems.
NFPA No. 66-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 25 p. Illus. Price: US-$1.25.
Standard for the installation and operation of oxygen-fuel gas systems for welding and cutting.
This standard is applicable to all distribution systems and all gases when used with oxygen for welding, cutting, heating and heat treatment operations; certain specified systems are excluded, however. Chapters are devoted to: cylinders and containers; manifolding of cylinders; service piping systems; protective equipment, hose and regulators; acetylene generators; calcium carbide storage; safe use of welding or cutting gases at public exhibitions and demonstrations.
NFPA No. 51-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 32 p. Illus. Price: US-$1.25.
Standard for carbon dioxide extinguishing systems.
This standard lays down minimum requirements for the design, installation, operation and maintenance of CO2 fire extinguishing systems. Chapters are devoted to: general information and requirements; total flooding systems; local application systems; hand hose line systems; standpipe systems and mobile supply. Appendix A explains and illustrates the development of some of the principles on which the standard is based. Appendix B gives typical examples of how fire hazards may be protected with fixed CO2 extinguishing systems.
NFPA No. 12-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 90 p. Illus. Price: US-$2.25.
Standard for industrial furnaces - Design, location and equipment.
This standard lays down design, location and equipment requirements for the control of fire and explosion hazards in furnaces operating at or above atmospheric pressure and temperatures exceeding 760 °C. Individual sections are devoted to: location and construction; gas, oil-fired and electric heating systems; safety control equipment (temperature controls, combustible gas indicators, specific applications); fire protection. Appendices provide a glossary of terms, typical furnace design check list, maintenance check list and information concerning a main disconnect to power-supply system and gas combination safeguards.
NFPA No. 86B-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 101 p. Illus. Price: US-$2.00.
Standard for ovens and furnaces - Design, location and equipment.
This standard covers only those ovens and furnaces which operate at atmospheric pressure and at temperatures below 760 °C. Individual sections are devoted to: location and construction; gas, oil-fired, electric and steam heating systems; unenclosed heating systems; ventilation; safety control equipment; fire protection. Appendices provide data on flammability limits; methods of calculating ventilation; information concerning steam extinguishing systems; inspections and tests of safety controls; and typical check lists for oven and furnace design.
NFPA No. 86A-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 147 p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: US-$2.50.
Standard for the processing and finishing of aluminium.
This standard outlines the measures that are required to reduce the possibility of fires or explosions in industries where aluminium and its alloys are subjected to operations in which fine metallic dust or powder is liberated. Chapters are devoted to: aluminium processing (dust collection, ducts, wet and dry type dust collectors, disposal of sludge, solvent cleaning); fire protection practices (housekeeping, electrical equipment, ignition sources); process handling and storage of aluminium powder and paste; fire protection. An appendix provides information on work clothing; fire extinguishing equipment; explosibility parameters; and nonsparking materials.
NFPA No. 65-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 14 p. 8 ref. Price: US-$1.00.
Standard for industrial furnaces using a special processing atmosphere.
This standard lays down design, location and equipment requirements for the control of fire and explosion hazards in furnaces operating at approximately atmospheric pressure and utilising special processing atmospheres (Class C furnaces). Individual sections are devoted to: location and construction; gas, oil-fired and electric heating systems; furnace ventilation; safety control equipment; gas atmosphere generators and bulk storage systems; furnaces (above and below 760°C with atmosphere introduction and removal by burning, with burn-in and burn-out not permitted, bell-type furnaces, integral quench furnaces); fire protection. Appendices provide a glossary of terms, maintenance and furnace design check lists, atmosphere generator operation and maintenence check list and information concerning gas combustion safeguards.
NFPA No. 86C-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1973. 141 p. Illus. Price: US-$2.50.
Pulmonary edema after inhalation of fumes from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).
Report of a case of pulmonary oedema after inhalation of fumes from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The chest X-ray taken on the day of exposure to PTFE fumes was consistent with pulmonary oedema. Progressive resolution took place during the following week. Polymer fume fever, a relatively innocuous influenza-like illness, is a well-known result of exposure to the pyrolysis products of PTFE; pulmonary oedema, considering its potential seriousness, deserves wider recognition as another possible result of exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1973, Vol.15, No.7, p.599-601. Illus. 17 ref.
Means of escape in case of fire in offices, shops and railway premises.
A guide to the statutory requirements of the Offices, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963 affecting the provision of fire precautions relating to means of escape. It does not deal with fire-fighting equipment, fire alarms and fire drills. Means of escape requirements applicable to all premises covered by the Act; premises requiring a fire certificate and certification procedures; means of escape in buildings being planned; means of escape in existing buildings. Information is also given on the protection of escape routes (these should provide a 30 min-standard of fire resistance), requirements concerning external escape staircases and good housekeeping standards.
Health and Safety at Work Series No.40, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 2nd edition 1973. 40 p. Price: £0.11.
Handling and storage of fusees and torpedoes used in railroad operations.
A review of the hazards involved in the handling, storage and use of signal flares (fusees) and explosive warning caps (torpedoes) is followed by a list of the relevant precautions.
Data sheet 639, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1973. 3p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: US-$0.50.
Sidor R., Peterson N.H., Burgess W.A.
A carbon monoxide-oxygen sampler for evaluation of fire fighter exposures.
The primary respiratory hazards to fire fighters are high carbon monoxide concentrations and oxygen deficiency. A self-contained personal sampler was developed to monitor fire fighters' exposures to both hazards in actual fires. A hot-wire combustible gas detector was modified to be specific for CO measurements in the range of 0.02 to 10%, and a membrane sensor was used to measure oxygen in the range of 0 to 21%. The data are recorded on a small cassette tape recorder; the output signals of the CO and oxygen circuits are fed alternatively, by means of a timing microswitch assembly, to a voltage-to-frequency converting circuit, and the frequency signals recorded on tape. Tests conducted on various fire gases indicate mean errors of 14.0% and 3.2% in the carbon monoxide and oxygen measurements, respectively. The various advantages presented by this sampler are listed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.264-274. Illus. 29 ref.
Main physical properties, uses, hazards to health, control measures, personal protective equipment and first aid. No TLV value has been established for the metallic dust; for titanium dioxide (an inert dust), the TLV is 10 mg/m3 (total dust with less than 1% α-quartz). The inhalation hazard is very slight. Titanium powder is highly pyrophoric; molten titanium burns in air and in pure carbon dioxide and pure nitrogen atmospheres. Titanium and its alloys can react violently with oxidisers. Titanium powders should be stored in water; adequate ventilation and lubrication should be provided during machining. Titanium dust collection ducts should not be connected to other ventilation systems.
Hygienic guide series, American Industrial Hygiene Association. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Akron, USA, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.275-277. 13 ref.
The storage of liquefied petroleum gas at factories.
A general guide to the safety problems associated with the storage of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in fixed bulk-storage installations and the storage and use of LPG in cylinders. Sections cover: production of LPG; general characteristics and hazards; storage and handling; precautions (storage and location); installation (pressure storage tanks and vaporisers); control of sources of ignition; fire protection; operation and maintenance of LPG plant; portable cylinder storage installations.
Health and Safety at Work Series, No.30, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 55p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: £0.35.
Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
Solvent naphtha and aromatic solvents
Solvants naphta et solvants aromatiques. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 9 avenue Montaigne, 75008 Paris, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, Note No.861-72-72, p.389-393. 13 ref.
Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
Acrylonitrile. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
Fiche toxicologique No.105, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 9 avenue Montaigne, 75008 Paris, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, Note No.860-72-72, p.383-387. 23 ref.
Electrostatic paint spraying and detearing.
A review of the hazards involved in electrostatic paint spraying and detearing. Typical manual and automatic methods and equipment are discussed, as are exposure and safe practices (fire prevention, electrical and mechanical safety, etc.).
Data Sheet 468, Revision A (extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1973. 5p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: US-$0.50.
Static electricity - Fire and explosion hazards in the presence of inflammable liquids and dust
L'électricité statique - Risques d'incendie et d'explosion en présence de liquides et de poussières inflammables. [in French]
Introductory remarks on static electricity and ways of eliminating it are followed by a brief study of the electrical properties of flammable liquids and in particular the electrical hazards of hydrocarbons. Hazards occur in the clearing of reservoir piping. The best preventive measure is the lowering of the resistivity to approximately 1010 ohms/cm2/cm by the introduction of very small amounts of antistatic additives. A final section deals with the ignition of dust by static electricity. A table shows the minimum ignition energy of dusts of metals, metalloids and industrial and natural organic products.
Travail et sécurité, June 1973, No.6, p.338-343. Illus.
Fire and explosion hazards of dusts in the handling of aluminium powder during the manufacture of gas concrete
Staubbrand- und Staubexplosionsgefahren bei der Handhabung von Aluminiumpulver zur Gasbetonherstellung [in German]
Report by the Federal Institute for Materials Testing, Berlin, on safety engineering techniques in the handling of aluminium powder used in the manufacture of gas concrete. Research on explosion pressure (up to 9 at), rate of pressure rise, self-ignition temperature of the air-aluminium mixture (570°C), conditions of combustion and burning of aluminium powder stored in bulk, and the effect of controlled atmosphere from the beginning. Recommendations are given for the preparation of preventively neutralised aluminium powder for safety measures for the prevention of dust explosions (explosion venting, remote control).
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Apr. 1973, Vol.83, No.4, p.84-88. 8 ref.#fx, Hannover, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Apr. 1973, Vol.83, No.4, p.84-88. 8 ref.
Installation and repair of CO2 fire-extinguishing systems
Montering og reparasjon av CO2-anlegg for brannslukking [in Norwegian]
These rules were made under the Norwegian Workers' Protection Act of 1956 and entered into force on 19 Oct. 1973. They must be observed to prevent unintentional release of CO2 when installing, revising or repairing CO2 fire-extinguishing systems in buildings and on board ship.
Verneregler Nr.8, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, Apr. 1973. 5p. Gratis.
Trautvetter H.J., Defren W.
Electrical installations in undertakings with fire and dust explosion hazards
Die vorschriftsmässige Elektroinstallation in feuer- und staubexplosionsgefährdeten Betrieben [in German]
Commentary on methods of protection against dust and water, and the symbols used, based on the German legislation in force, followed by advice on the installation of electric conductors, switches and plug sockets in areas where there is a fire hazard. A section is devoted to authorised equipment (switches, distribution panels, lighting fittings) in hazardous areas. Data for the design and construction of electrical installations in processes where heavy dust concentrations are present are tabulated.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Mar. 1973, Vol.4, No.3, p.120-130. Illus.
Sprinklers - Their importance, incorporation into building structures and testing
Sprinklerbrausen - ihre Bedeutung, ihre bauliche Einordnung und ihre Prüfung [in German]
Advice on how to install sprinklers according to geometric and functional criteria and following safety principles. Application to warehouses where palletised goods are stored. Criteria of differentiation between various sprinkler systems. Much space is devoted to the question of testing.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 2/1973, p.19-29. Illus. 30 ref.
Fire protection for a hyperbaric chamber.
Describes the testing of an automatic fire protection system with infrared detectors. The reponse time of the detectors is less than 1 s. Water is delivered to the chamber in less than 1.6 s after the appearance of a simulated flame.
Fire Technology, May 1973, Vol.9, No.2, p.85-90. Illus. 2 ref.
Fuller R.B., Jensen J.D.
Plastic fiber glass operations.
Deals specifically with the hazards of glass-fibre reinforced plastics processing. Solvents such as acetone or styrene are flammable; catalysts of the peroxide type are highly unstable. Mixtures of accelerators and catalysts react exothermically so rapidly that they may ignite or explode. Recommendations are made concerning building construction, ventilation, electrical installation, the storage of flammable liquids and peroxides, and fire protection systems. Definitions of terms are appended.
Fire Technology, May 1973, Vol.9, No.2, p.101-111. Illus. 67 ref.
The hazards of PVC.
Warnings should be issued, indicating the generation of HCl when polyvinyl chloride insulation in electrical installations is heated externally or internally by electric overload. HCl vapours may be present in the atmosphere at hazardous levels prior to the generation of black smoke, so that fire-fighting personnel may not be readily cognizant of the danger. Accidents are cited, the principles of decomposition are explained, and the symptoms of poisoning are described.
IAEI News, Sep.-Oct. 1973, Vol.45, No.5, p.4-5. 2 ref.
Extinguishing agent for portable fire extinguishers and automatic fire extinguishing systems - Bromochlorodifluoromethane (BCF, Halon 1211)
Brandblusmiddel voor draagbare blussers en automatische brandblusinstallaties - Broomchloordifluormethaan (BCF, Halon 1211) [in Dutch]
Physical properties; fire fighting efficiency; advantages of BCF; extinction of fires by "negative catalysis"; chemistry of the combustion process and extinguishing effect of BCF; toxicity of BCF pyrolysis products, particularly HBr, HC2 and HF; threshold limit values; pyrolysis products when extinguishing fires caused by short-circuits; hazards of inadvertently released BCF (results of animal experiments).
De veiligheid, Oct. 1973, Vol.49, No.10, p.323-328. Illus.
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