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Hazardous chemical reactions - 15. Hydriodic acid. Iodides. Iodic acid. Iodates
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 15. Acide iodhydrique. Iodures. Acide iodique. Iodates. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between various substances and hydriodic acid, iodides in general, and silver, dimethylarsine and potassium iodides, tetraphosphorus monoiodide, titanium diiodide, nitrogen, boron and phosphorus triiodides, tin and zirconium tetraiodides and boron bromodiiodide and dibromoiodide, in particular, as well as iodic acid and iodates in general. The references used are quoted for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.902-75-74, p.271-274.
Van Rouwendaal H.
Evacuation of factory buildings and offices in the event of fire
Ontruiming van fabrieksgebouwen en kantoren bij brand e.d. [in Dutch]
General considerations on fire escape, with emphasis on the importance of setting up detailed escape rules for factories and offices, followed by a psychological discussion on the prevention of panic: escape rules should be simple and occupants should be familiarised with them by periodic fire-exit drills. The evacuation of buildings should be possible on both sides; doors should open in the escape direction; there should be no sliding or revolving doors on escape routes; no occupant should have to run more than 50m to the nearest exit; staircases should be shielded against smoke and fire from the rest of the building. The practical and economic considerations involved in planning detailed escape rules and organising exit drills are discussed.
De veiligheid, Apr. 1974, Vol.50, No.4, p.147-149.
Burghardt W., Mohr D.
Catalogue of standards concerning occupational safety and health, fire precautions, safety engineering and radiation protection
Verzeichnis von Standards des Arbeits- und Brandschutzes, der Arbeitshygiene, der technischen Sicherheit und des Strahlenschutzes [in German]
Catalogue of 564 official standards for Germany (Dem.Rep.) - giving their serial number, reference and title - applying to the following subjects: electrical safety; protection against fire and explosions; personal protective equipment; occupational health (dusts, gases, vapours, noise and vibration, lighting, climatic factors); safety engineering; protection against radiations.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1974. 51p. Price: M.1.60.
Corbett R.P., Hughes J.F.
Second part of an inset data sheet on electrostatics (the first part deals with benefits). Considerations on electrostatic discharges in non-incendive atmospheres and means of removing charges (a.c. corona source neutraliser) are followed by a chapter on electrostatic hazards in incendive atmospheres (aircraft refuelling, tank cleaning). To overcome the charge separation taking place during tank filling, the use of antistatic additives (which simply increase the conductivity of the fuel) has proved successful. The simplest and safest way to combat electrostatic hazards in large fuel tanks is inerting the tank atmosphere with waste flue gases from tanker boilers. 2 simple rules for the reduction of electrostatic charging are given: for liquids, reduce or eliminate all traces of water; for solids, add water or increase relative humidity.
Engineering, July 1974, Vol.214, No.7, p.v-viii (Technical file No.7). Illus.
Smoke and heat dissipation systems
Rauch- und Wärmeabzugsanlagen [in German]
Commentary on the directives laid down by an expert committee of insurance underwriters for the construction and installation of smoke and heat dissipation systems to operate in the case of fire in one-storey industrial buildings. These directives lay down the principles, technical specifications and design rules to be observed: definitions of objectives, dimensions of buildings, dissipation systems, equivalent opening and other technical terms; calculation of minimum dimensions; automatic or manual control; fire baffles under the roof; fire curtains and sprinklers; construction, calculation and functioning of vents.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, Feb. 1974, Vol.23, No.1, p.8-16. Illus.
Determination of safe distances
Festlegung von Sicherheitsabständen [in German]
Consideration of physical principles, mathematical calculations and rules for the determination of minimum safe distances for industrial plant where flammable or explosive gases or vapours are present with the concomitant hazards. The following cases are examined: flammable gas or vapour streams released by pressure reducers or by leaking equipment which presents a hazard from the explosion or health point of view; effects of explosive pressure of gas clouds; thermal effects of burning gases or liquids. Numerous diagrams and nomograms are provided.
Arbeitsschutz, Jan. 1974, No.1, p.3-10. Illus. 10 ref.
Okawa M.T., Polakoff P.L.
Occupational health case report No.7 - Teflon.
Report of an investigation carried out by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health at the request of an authorised representative of employees regarding exposure to dusts and decomposition products of polytetrafluoroethylene at a plant manufacturing corrosion-resistant parts. The investigation, which included an environmental evaluation for fluorocarbon resin dust levels and noise and a medical evaluation, did not reveal any significant hazard to health. Recommendations made concern better housekeeping, avoidance of smoking in certain areas, ventilation, analysis of urine for fluorides and a hearing conservation programme. An appendix lists precautionary measures in the use of fluorocarbon resins.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1974, Vol.16, No.5, p.350-355. 12 ref.
Fire protection organisation in electrical installations
Organisation de la protection contre l'incendie dans les installations électriques [in German]
Organisation de la protection contre l'incendie dans les installations électriques. [in French]
Most of the article is devoted to measures to be observed in electrical power stations and sub-stations: alarm system organisation, manning and equipment of station firefighting service, protection against gases caused by fires, automatic fire warning systems, measures to be taken in case of fire.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 23 Feb. 1974, Vol.65, No.4, p.281-286.
Automatic systems for detecting and extinguishing fires
Installations automatiques de détection-incendie et d'extinction [in German]
Installations automatiques de détection-incendie et d'extinction. [in French]
Following an analysis of fire hazards, this article presents the basic principles and features of an automatic system for detecting fire outbreaks: fire detectors (ionisation-type smoke detector, optical smoke detector by light scattering effect, flame detector, rate-of-rise detector, thermostatic detector), warning system centre, alarm system. Fixed automatic extinguisher systems (sprinkler, deluge, CO2 system). Maintenance and testing rules for these systems.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 23 Feb. 1974, Vol.65, No.4, p.264-280. Illus.
Firefighting equipment and extinguishing methods used in fighting fires in electrical installations
Engins d'extinction et moyens d'extinction pour la lutte contre le feu dans des installations électriques [in German]
Engins d'extinction et moyens d'extinction pour la lutte contre le feu dans les installations électriques. [in French]
Description of the firefighting properties of extinguishing agents such as water, foam, powders, CO2 and halogenated hydrocarbons. Examines a number of portable extinguishers and wheeled firefighting equipment, and the circumstances in which they can be used.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 23 Feb. 1974, Vol.65, No.4, p.256-263.
Uhličev V.V., Klimanov A.D.
Graphic method for the determination of escape route and time for emergency personnel evacuation
Grafičeskij metod opredelenija protjažennosti i vremeni vyhoda ljudej pri avarijah [in Russian]
Description of a graphic method developed in Russian coal mines for the rapid determination of escape route and time in relation to the location of the fire, taking smoke production and number of miners to be evacuated into consideration. The proposed method has the advantage of being simple and evocative.
Ugol', Jan. 1974, No.1, p.56-57. Illus.
Flame retardant coatings and building materials.
A collection of detailed, descriptive information based on U.S. patent literature relating mostly to the period 1965-1973. The contents are arranged under the following main headings: intumescent coatings; general coatings formulations; wood impregnation and treatment; ceiling tile, building panels and fibreboard; insulation and electrical products; asphaltic and adhesive products.
Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road at Grand Ave., Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1974. 310p. Illus. Price: US-$36.00.
Perrins L.E., Pettett K.
Measurement of flame spread velocities.
Results are given of the measurement of the temperature at which the velocity of a flame along the surface of a range of polymers, fire retardant polymers and some panelling materials reaches 0.01 cm/s, and mathematical computations presented of the relationships linking flame velocity with the temperature and oxygen content of the combustion gas. Conclusions are that fire retardants make polymers and wood more difficult to ignite, that they reduce flame velocities on polymers at elevated temperatures but have little effect on wood. At elevated temperature, polymers compare very favourably with wood with respect to surface spread of flame.
Journal of Fire and Flammability, Jan. 1974, Vol.5, p.85-102. Illus. 7 ref.
The combustion of products from synthetic and natural products - Part 1: Wood.
Data resulting from research related to the hazard to life in a developing fire from the generation of toxic gases. A gas chromatograph was interfaced to a smoke chamber to study the rate of generation of carbon monoxide and other gases during the burning of white pine, white oak, plywood and hardboard (Masonite). The effect of environmental oxygen concentration on the release of carbon monoxide was also examined, and the presence of other combustion and degradation products was qualitatively and semi-quantitatively determined.
Journal of Fire and Flammability, Jan. 1974, Vol.5, p.34-53. Illus. 32 ref.
Protection against the fire hazard associated with the use of liquefied petroleum gases on building sites
Brandschutz beim Umgang mit Flüssiggas auf Baustellen [in German]
Review of the major causes of fire; recommendations concerning portable dry powder or CO2 extinguishers; fire prevention and fire fighting techniques.
Hochbau, Jan.-Feb. 1974, Vol.62, No.1, p.9-13 and 19. Illus.
Sidor R., Peters J.M.
Prevalence rates of chronic non-specific respiratory disease in fire fighters.
A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of chronic non-specific respiratory disease in 1,768 Boston fire fighters. Experienced fire fighters had a higher chronic non-specific respiratory disease rate than new fire fighters of the same age group, although cigarette smoking partially obscured the occupational effect.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Feb. 1974, Vol.109, No.2, p.255-261. 8 ref.
Sidor R., Peters J.M.
Fire fighting and pulmonary function - An epidemiologic study.
To determine the effects of exposure to combustion products, 1,768 Boston fire fighters were studied from 1970 to 1971. The majority of them experienced increased mucus production after such exposures. This secretion was associated with lower lung function. Cigarette smoking was also associated with impaired lung function. The daily exposure indicators were often associated with larger ventilatory capacity, this paradox being explained by a selection process among fire fighters. None of the indicators of acute fire exposure were associated with lower lung function, suggesting that the lung may be able to recover from these episodes.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Feb. 1974, Vol.109, No.2, p.249-254. 7 ref.
Dangers in the operation of oxygen supply installations
Gefahren beim Betrieb von Sauerstoffversorgungsanlagen [in German]
A review of incidents of different kinds involving piston and turbine compressors, pipes and valves for oxygen supply. There are many possibilities of reaction with oxygen, and every serious occurrence reveals new causative factors.
Stahl und Eisen, 25 Apr. 1974, Vol.94, No.9, p.369-371. Illus. 1 ref.
Fire Prevention Act [Guyana]
Law of 1954 as amended in 1972 to provide for the inspection of premises in Guyana for the purpose of controlling fire risks. Topics: fire prevention; fire services; Guyana; inspection; law; penalties; safety checks.
Government of Guyana, Georgetown, Guyana, 1973. 6p.
Safe work with oxygen, acetylene, butane and propane
Sécurité dans l'utilisation de l'oxygène, l'acétylène, le butane et le propane. [in French]
This brochure, illustrated by humorous cartoons showing correct and incorrect working methods, contains practical information and recommendations for workers and others using these gases. Contents: properties of the gases, gas cylinders, calcium carbide drums, acetylene generators, pressure-reducing valves, flexible tubing and blowpipes, fire prevention and fire fighting, protection and safety measures for welders, first aid and first-aid kit.
Edition OPPBTP No.158A, Organisation for Safety in Building Construction and Civil Engineering (Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics), 2 bis rue Michelet, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 1st edition, 1973. 64p. Illus.
Life safety code 1973.
This code, approved as American National Standard ANSI A9.1-1974 on 19 Sep. 1974, prescribes the number, size and arrangement of exits for the escape of occupants of buildings in case of fire, and covers construction and protection according to the use of the building, with a view to minimising the danger to life from fire, smoke, fumes, or panic before the building is vacated.
NFPA 101-1973, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 002210, USA, 1973. 241p. 86 ref. Price: US-$2.00.
Tanker safety guide (petroleum)
Manuel de sécurité du navire-citerne (hydrocarbures). [in French]
Translation of: Tanker safety guide (petroleum). International Chamber of Shipping, 30-32, St. Mary Axe, London, EC3 8ET, 1970. 88p. Illus. Contents: properties of petroleum (flammability, gas dissipation, toxic effects of petroleum vapour); essential precautions to be taken in the engine room and pumproom, and with fire protection equipment, etc.; precautions against sources of ignition; handling of cargo, ballast and bunkers; gas-freeing and tank cleaning; work in enclosed spaces; packed cargo (petroleum products); liquefied petroleum gas; fire fighting; life saving. Further information on: properties of petroleum; gas evolution; sources of ignition; handling of cargo; work in enclosed spaces; liquefied gas; and ship/shore liaison is given in appendices.
Editions maritimes et d'outre-mer, 17 rue Jacob, 75006 Paris, France, 1973. 87p. Illus. Price: FF.65.00.
Paints and varnishes - Determination of flashpoint - Closed cup method.
Peintures et vernis - Détermination du point d'éclair - Méthode en vase clos. [in French]
This standard, which should be read in conjunction with ISO Standard 1516, contains the following sections: scope and field of application; references; definition; principle; apparatus; sampling; procedure; calculation of corrected flashpoint; precision; test report; reference tests. Annex: suitable closed cups specified in national standards.
International Standard ISO 1523-1973(E), International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 Dec. 1973. 4p. Price: SF.12.00.
Janků M., Zapletal J.
Possibilities of flame retardant treatment of textile fabrics in Czechoslovakia
Možnosti povrchových úprav textilií se sníženou hořlavostí v ČSSR [in Czech]
Article dealing with various flame retardants for cellulose-fibre fabrics, describing several methods of temporary, semi-permanent and permanent treatment, and indicating their uses, advantages and disadvantages.
Textil, 1973, Vol.28, No.11, p.415-417. Illus.
Concise occupational safety and health lexicon
Kleines Lexikon des Arbeitsschutzes [in German]
This lexicon provides in concise form basic information on occupational safety and health. It has no pretensions to replace the specialised textbooks on the subject, but defines some 700 keywords covering the fields of occupational safety and health, occupational accidents, accident analysis, protection against fires and explosions, toxicology, labour inspection and various other general or technical aspects.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1973. 328p. Illus. Price: M.10.80.
Determination of the ignition characteristics of airborne and deposited dusts to assess the hazard involved
Bestimmung von Staub-Zündkennwerten in lagerndem und schwebendem Zustand zur Einschätzung der Gefährlichkeitseigenschaften [in German]
Review of the methods available for the determination of the ignition characteristics of dusts: ignition temperature in hot premises; flammability on surfaces at 200°C; spontaneous combustion; ignition on contact with hot surfaces, sparks and electric arcs; lower explosive limit. Data relating to lignite, coal, aluminium and polystyrene dusts are set out in tabular form. The author studies the effects of non-combustible matter in coal dust and of particle size on the degree of flammability.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 7/1973, p.97-103 and 112. Illus. 8 ref.
Measures to prevent dust fires and explosions in industry
Betriebliche Massnahmen zur Verhütung von Staubbränden und Staubexplosionen [in German]
The hazards of flammable dust in industry are discussed. The effects of a dust explosion are greter than those of a gas explosion because of the greater amount of energy released, but the combustion energy required is greater in the former than in the latter. The properties and hazards of powdered substances can be determined by various tests which are listed; the difficulties of classification are pointed out. Much space is devoted to safety measures: prevention of the formation of explosive dust concentations, critical oxygen concentrations and combustion sources; explosion-proof construction, explosion venting, explosion-suppressing devices. Specific examples are given of industrial plants provided with safety devices to prevent explosions.
Heft 17, Modern Unfallverhütung, Vulkan-Verlag, Haus der Technik, 43 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973, p.74-82. Illus. 5 ref.
Fire risk in the storage and industrial use of cellular plastics.
Part 1 indicates briefly the industrial uses of expanded plastics in the United Kingdom, their methods of production and their flame-retardant characteristics. Part 2 describes large-scale tests on the behaviour of burning foamed plastics and their fire hazards. The results are presented under the following headings: flame spread and burning rate; production of smoke and toxic gases; reduction of oxygen concentration; temperature of gases given off; flame-retardant foams; flameproofing solutions. Although foamed plastics burn rapidly, their main hazard is the rapid production of large volumes of hot dense smoke and toxic gases. Part 3 describes precautions relating to: storage and segregation; stacking; maximum amounts to be kept in workrooms; disposal of scrap and waste; polyurethane crumb; fire procedure and escape routes.
Technical Data Note No.29 (Rev), H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 7p. Illus. Gratis.
The safe cleaning, repair and demolition of large tanks for storing flammable liquids.
This note gives advice on gas freeing, cleaning and inerting procedure for repairing and demolishing large tanks of this category. Subjects dealt with include: fire and explosion hazards; precautions to be taken with large tanks for low-flash liquids (flash point below 38°C) and less volatile substances (flash point over 38°C); legal requirements.
Technical Data Note No.18 (Rev), H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1973. 4p. Gratis.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 10. Hydrochloric acid and chlorides
Les réactions chimiques dangereuses - 10. Acide chlorhydrique et chlorures [in French]
Lists and describes the possible reactions, with different substances, of the following: hydrochloric acid; acetyl, anisyl, silver, benzenesulfonyl, benzoyl, calcium, manganese, nitrosyl, nitryl, phosphoryl, sulfuryl, thionyl, o-nitrobenzoyl, o-nitrophenylacetyl and oxalyl chlorides; boron, chromyl, phosphorus seleninyl, tin and titanium dichlorides; selenium and iodine monochlorides; phosphorus pentachloride; tin, titanium and zirconium tetrachlorides; and aluminium, antimony, nitrogen, boron, chromium, phosphorus, thiophosphoryl, titanium and zirconium trichlorides.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1973, No.73, Note No.869-73-73, p.499-511.
Portable fire extinguishers - Standard fire-testing rigs for Class A, B and C fires
Extintores portátiles - Hogares tipo para los fuegos de las clases A B y C [in Spanish]
This standard prescribes the conditions to be fulfilled by standard fire-testing rigs intended for testing the efficacy of fire extinguishers. General provisions are followed by the characteristics of rigs for each of the 3 classes A, B and C recognised in Spain.
Standard UNE No.23.111, National Institute for Rationalisation and Standardisation (Instituto nacional de racionalización y normalización), Serrano 150, Madrid 6, Spain, 1973. 7p. Illus.
Fire-resistance testing of structures and structural parts
Ensayo de resistencia al fuego de las estructuras y elementos de la construcción [in Spanish]
This standard lays down the conditions in which fire-resistance tests of various types of construction parts should be carried out. Scope; test equipment; temperature and pressure conditions; test pieces; test procedure; interpretation of results; test report.
Norma UNE No.23.093, National Institute for Rationalisation and Standardisation (Instituto nacional de racionalización y normalización), Serrano 150, Madrid 6, Spain, 1973. 7p.
Early detection of polyvinylchloride fires
Frühmeldung bei PVC-Bränden [in German]
Describes a system consisting of a network of 20mm-diameter tubing connected to an exhaust fan which makes it possible to take air samples at different points in a plant. The exhaust air is analysed with the aid of an ionisation apparatus. The HCl arising from the breakdown of PVC is detected by using NH3. The construction and operation of the analyser and the measuring and alarm devices are described.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Dec. 1973, Vol.4, No.12, p.594-597. Illus.
Early fire detection and alarm systems
Frühwarn-Brandmeldeanlagen [in German]
An introductory account of the different phases of a fire is followed by a review of detection systems, their role and operation. The ionisation-chamber detector is almost universally applicable (90% of cases), since it is the only one which is sensitive to invisible smoke at a fire outbreak. The applications of other types of detector are discussed. Factors arising in the assessment of hazard are listed, a distinction being made between hazards relating to buildings and those relating to the occupants, furniture and fittings.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Dec. 1973, Vol.4, No.12, p.588-592. Illus.
Painting under canvas
Peinture sous toile. [in French]
Disadvantages and limitations of folding canvas painting booths, the use of which is becoming more widespread on account of their low cost and convenient use. However, these booths do not seem to comply with the requirements of the decree of 23 Aug. 1947 respecting the protection of spray painters and varnishers. The article describes various booths and gives the results of smoke tests carried out on a 15 x 6m booth. The findings cover: ventilation; maintenance of canvas walls, lighting, heating, fireproofing and means of egress.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.480-481. Illus.
European Model Code of safe practice in the storage and handling of petroleum products - Part I: Operations.
This code was prepared by a working group consisting of experts from 10 Western European countries. It consists of short guidelines and technical advice on general precautions, injuries and medical services, permits to work, fire prevention and fighting, jetties, pipework, storage tanks, static electricity, electrical equipment, road vehicles, tank cars, handling of bitumen products, liquefied petroleum gases, packed products and training of personnel. The code is supplemented by 10 appendices, including a suggested syllabus for a 2-day course on fire prevention and emergency action for managers of oil installations.
Applied Science Publishers Ltd., Ripple Road, Barking IG11 OSA, Essex, United Kingdom, 1973. 83p. Price: £2.50.
Accident hazards from oxygen fittings burning out
Unfallgefahren durch Ausbrennen von Sauerstoffarmaturen [in German]
Description of 3 typical accidents, showing that hazards from oxygen are often underestimated. These hazards can be eliminated by using appropriate lubricants, metals and packing materials, and adequate construction methods. As an additional precaution, the fireproof qualities of these fittings should be ascertained, or protective shielding or remote control should be installed.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.302-304. Illus. 5 ref.
Planning programme for the prevention and control of fire in the plastics processing industry.
Sets out the basic precautions to be taken against fire hazards, the checks that should be made at fixed intervals and describes danger areas, with particular reference to the individual processes and materials used in the plastics industry. A summary of relevant British legislation and specimens of a fire prevention report form and hot work permit are included.
British Plastics Federation, 47 Piccadilly, London W1V ODN, United Kingdom, no date. 39p. Illus. Price: £1.50.
Paineilmalaitokset [in Finnish]
Tryckluftsanläggningar [in Swedish]
Safety rules for compressor units, compressed-air piping and air receivers. After drawing attention to the relevant Finnish regulations and standards, the author deals with the hazards of bursting, fire and explosion which can be caused by corrosion, excessive oxygen content of air, intake of combustible gas, welding and cutting work on compressed-air lines, static electricity, particles of combustible substances, incandescent solid particles and self-ignition. The safety measures dealt with cover: limitation of compressed-air temperature; oil separation; correct choice of lubricating oils; safety valves and bursting discs; correct location and design of air-compressor installations; preventive maintenance.
Teollisuuspalo tiedonantoja - Industribrand meddelanden, 1973, No.3, p.16-20. Illus. 5 ref.
Boronin Ja.A., Smirnova N.P.
Flammability characteristics of some liquids and methods of calculation for their determination
Požaroopasnye harakteristiki nekotoryh židkostej i rasčetnyj metod ih opredelenija [in Russian]
Describes various methods of calculation enabling the flammability limits (in relation to concentration and temperature), flashpoints and ignition points of flammable liquids in the pure state to be determined.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', Oct. 1973, Vol.49, No.10, p.27-30. 5 ref.
Fire protection in cable conduits and electrical systems
Brandschutz in Kabelkanälen und E-Anlagen [in German]
Discussion of various tests carried out on ionisation-type and optical smoke detectors which led to the installation of an ionisation-type detector and an optical detector alternately every 25 m. Experiments carried out in a chamber containing electrical systems showed that an early warning device can reduce damage. Tests involving the filling of a tunnel with high-expansion foam are described: it was shown that it is essential to divide the tunnel into 100 m sections for fire-fighting purposes and to provide each section with an opening for introducing the foam and, at the other extremity of the section, another opening to act as a vent.
Sicherheitsingenieur, June 1973, Vol.4, No.6, p.277-283. Illus.
Fire prevention and protection - Carbon dioxide in fire extinguisher systems.
One of the hazards associated with the use of CO2 in fire extinguishers is the production of very high electrical charges during release, which may ignite explosive mixtures if such are present. Measurements showed that small solid particles of CO2 are produced containing static electricity with voltages of 10-20 kV and potential spark energies easily capable of igniting the lower paraffins. Nitrogen is preferred to CO2 in fire-fighting systems since it does not produce solid particles when releasing the pressure and the amount of static electricity is less pronounced, but the use of solid CO2 generators is suggested as a safe way to replace air by a non-explosive mixture in a reaction vessel.
Quarterly Safety Summary of the British Chemical Industry Safety Council, Apr.-June 1973, Vol.44, No.174, p.10. 1 ref.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 9. Hydrofluoric acid and fluorides
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 9. Acide fluorhydrique et fluorures. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions with various substances of hydrofluoric acid, the various oxygen difluorides, lead difluoride, silver, formyl, nitrosyl, perchloryl and thiophosphoryl fluorides, iodine heptafluoride, sulfur and xenon hexafluorides, bromine and chlorine fluorides, bismuth, bromine and iodine pentafluorides, as well as nitrogen, boron, bromine, chlorine and manganese trifluorides.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, p.361-376. Note No.859-72-73.
Reprints of 12 articles by 20 authors selected from 1970-1973 issues of the Journal of Fire and Flammability on flame retardancy in fire control as a means of disrupting the burning process at one or more stages so that the process is terminated before ignition occurs or otherwise within an acceptable period of time. Included are studies on flame retardant effects of phosphorus, bromine, chlorine, antimony, arsenic, boron, nitrogen, tin and intumescent coatings.
Fire and Flammability Series, Vol.6, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., 265 W. State Street, Westport, Connecticut 06880, USA, 1973. 190p. Illus. 319 ref. Price: US-$15.00.
Oxygen index of materials.
Reprints of 16 articles by 29 authors selected from 1970-1973 issues of the Journal of Fire and Flammability on the determination of oxygen indices as a method of assessing the flammability of gases, liquids and solids. Applications of the oxygen index to plastics, textiles and other materials are described and the results examined.
Fire and Flammability Series, Vol.4, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., 265 W. State Street, Westport, Connecticut 06880, USA, 1973. 219p. Illus. 224 ref. Price: US-$20.00.
Surface flame spread.
Reprints of 10 articles by 14 authors selected from 1970-1973 issues of the Journal of Fire and Flammability on the mechanism of flame spread (rate of travel of a flame front under given conditions of burning). This characteristic provides a measure of the fire hazard, as surface flame spread can transmit fire to more flammable materials and thus enlarge a conflagration. Included are studies on the application of flame spread models and on flame spread rates of combustibles in various atmospheres.
Fire and Flammability Series, Vol.5, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., 265 W. State Street, Westport, Connecticut 06880, USA, 1973. 149p. Illus. 99 ref. Price: US-$15.00.
Smoke and products of combustion.
Reprints of 12 articles by 16 authors selected from 1970-1973 issues of the Journal of Fire and Flammability on the results of research into smoke development and the toxicity of combustion products with a view to limiting hazards to life in fires. Research findings in respect of pyrolysis of polymers in general, and polyvinyl chloride and aryl polyesters and polyethers, in particular, are included.
Fire and Flammability Series, Vol.2, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., 265 W. State Street, Westport, Connecticut 06880, USA, 1973. 211p. Illus. 193 ref. Price: US-$20.00.
Flammability of cellulosic materials.
Reprints of 16 studies by 28 authors selected from 1970-1973 issues of the Journal of Fire and Flammability. They include an introduction to the subject in the form of a literature review, and articles on the results of research into the flammability characteristics of textiles (chiefly cotton and cotton-polyester fabrics) and paper and wood products, with a view to their safer use.
Fire and Flammability Series, Vol.1, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., 265 W. State Street, Westport, Connecticut 06880, USA, 1973. 248p. Illus. 408 ref. Price: US-$20.00.
Dust explosions and fires.
An introductory account of the problem of dust explosions and fires in factories is followed by a review of test methods used in various countries to assess the hazard and a critical discussion of research into the combustion of dusts carried out both in the laboratory and on full industrial scale. Methods of explosion and fire prevention and protection are described, with detailed advice on their application to numerous common industrial processes. The explosive properties of most dusts of industrial importance are given in an appendix.
Chapman and Hall Ltd., 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, United Kingdom, 1973. 396p. Illus. 301 ref. Price: £6.00.
Haisler K., Schliemann H.
Principles for the optimisation of medium-expansion foam generators
Grundlagen für die Optimierung von Mittelschaumerzeugern [in German]
An outline of the state-of-the-art and theoretical principles is followed by an account of experimental research on the production of the jet, air transport, etc. On the basis of the results obtained, it is possible to calculate the optimal characteristics of foam generators according to the type of fire to be contained and the requirements of the undertaking.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 6/1973, p.81-92. Illus. 21 ref.
Handbook on dangerous goods
Handbuch der gefährlichen Güter [in German]
This new instalment comprises separate data sheets on 202 additional hazardous substances. The new alphabetical index, which covers the 1st and 2nd instalments, contains the common names and synonyms of 414 substances in English, French and German. Apart from the formula and names of the substance, each data sheet provides information on the following points: physical properties; international regulations relating to transport by water, rail, road and air; appearance and smell; hazards related to the release of the substances and to their mixing with the atmosphere and water; health hazards and maximum allowable concentrations; safety measures to be taken in the danger zone in case of incident; first aid; medical notes. A graphic symbol called the "danger diamond" (diamond shape indicating the fire, explosion and health hazards) provides quick information on the degree of hazard for a given substance. A list of indicator tubes and lists of competent centres and hospitals for treating cases of poisoning and burns are appended.
Springer Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 1 Berlin 33 (Westsektoren), 2nd instalment, Nov. 1973. 322p. (not paginated). 400 ref. Price: DM.78.00.
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