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Fires - 2,022 entries found

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CIS 75-1513 Vervalin C.H.
Fire protection manual for hydrocarbon processing plants.
This manual has been written by an array of noted fire-protection authorities with experience in the industry. The first chapter contains about 90 detailed case histories of fires, explosions and detonations, indicating causes and remedies and drawing conclusions. The next chapters deal with the fundamentals of fire protection and fire-fighting materials, the various factors operative in explosions and detonations, and the dangers of static electricity and electrical installations. Fire-protection facilities in all types of hydrocarbon-processing plant and methods of fighting hydrocarbon fires are described. Further chapters are devoted to safe startup and shutdown procedures of process units, inspections and investigations and disaster planning. An appendix contains a list of specialised organisations and supplementary literature.
Gulf Publishing Company, Book Division, 3301 Allen Parkway, Houston 1, Texas 77001, USA, 2nd edition, 1974. 488p. Illus. 334 ref. Price: US-$35.00.

CIS 75-1229
ČSN 42 0822, Bureau of Standards (Úřad pro normalizaci), Praha.
Aluminium granulates, powders and pastes - Industrial quality specifications
Hliníková krupice, prášky a pasty - Technické dodací předpisy [in Czech]
This standard, which was approved on 5 Oct. 1973 and entered into force on 1 Nov. 1974, applies to the production, reception and delivery of aluminium in powder, granulate and paste form. After definitions, general remarks and technical provisions, it contains rules for the prevention of spontaneous ignition and explosion of these materials on contact with water, above all in connection with fire fighting. The presence of certain organic solvents in aluminium pastes renders their use hazardous for the manufacture of toys or objects that are to come into contact with food and drinks.
Vydavatelství ÚNM, Hostivař, Praha 10, Czechoslovakia, 1974. 8p. Price: Kcs.2.00.

CIS 75-1224 Gomaz Z.
Safe work in butane-gas stations
Siguran rad u butanskim stanicama [in Serbocroatian]
Information on the physical and chemical properties of propane and butane and on the layout and operation of butane supply stations is followed by the description of safe working methods and safety measures in butane stations: unloading and transport of gas cylinders; prevention of fire and explosions (correct connection of cylinders, leak detection, pressure regulators, flameproof electrical equipment, etc.); fire fighting; inspection and maintenance (a checklist is reproduced). Measures to be taken in the event of accidents are tabulated.
Sigurnost, 1974, Vol.15, No.4, p.16-37. Illus.

CIS 75-1223 Solov'ev P.M.
Prevention of accidents due to compressed oxygen
Predupreždenie travmatizma pri rabote so sžatym kislorodom [in Russian]
An analysis of reducing-valve burn-outs in the oxygen filling stations of a metallurgical plant showed that compressed oxygen generally ignites when contacting insufficiently degreased leather packings or other sealing components. It is recommended that organic sealing materials should be degreased by means of ethyl ether in a Soxhlet extractor.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.47-48. Illus.

CIS 75-1363 Carter V.L., Bafus D.A., Warrington H.P., Harris E.S.
The acute inhalation toxicity in rats from the pyrolysis products of four fluoropolymers.
The potential toxicity of the pyrolysis products from polymeric formulations containing vinylidene fluoride (VF2), hexafluoropropene (HFP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) was studied in rats, gross and histological examinations being performed. The hydrogen-containing elastomers VF2 and HFP produced a less toxic pyrolysate than PTFE. No correlation could be established between hydrolysable fluoride levels and lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48h as a result of pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Dec. 1974, Vol.30, No.3, p.369-376. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 75-1222 Polymeric materials in fires.
A review is made of the major uses of polymeric materials in buildings and their combustion characteristics. Special attention is paid to tests and standards for reaction to fire and to fire research on polymeric materials concerning basic aspects and specific applications in buildings.
CP 91/74, Building Research Establishment, Garston, Watford WD2 7JR, United Kingdom, Oct. 1974. 17p.

CIS 75-1220 Guide to safety with electrical equipment
This guide outlines the fire hazards and the basic precautions to be taken for fire prevention in electrical installations: cables and wiring, oil-filled transformers and switchgear, switch and fuse gear, lighting, motors, space heating, process heating, presence of flammable liquids and gases, portable equipment. Basic recommendations for electrical fire safety and fire extinguishing equipment are added.
Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ, United Kingdom, no date. 14p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: £0.60.

CIS 75-1219 A study of restaurant fires.
Study of 44 fires in restaurants, cafeterias and bars indicating reasons for rapid spreading (poor protection, undivided attic), causes (discarded cigarettes, incendiarism and arson, overheating of deep-fat fryer, short-circuit, gas-fed fire started by electric arc, overheated furnace, ice-making machine, etc.), and number of casualties (due to means of egress being locked or blocked up, inadequate ways of escape, etc.).
NFPA No.FR74-1 1974, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA. 19p. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 75-1217 Kiessling R.
Dust and flammability characteristics of settled dust and dust-air mixtures
Staub- und Zündkennwerte von lagernden Stäuben und Staub-Luft-Gemischen [in German]
The flammability characteristics of dextrin powder, skimmed milk and whole milk are tabulated and commented upon. Airborne dextrin dusts are flammable and explosive, whereas settled dextrin is poorly flammable, either spontaneously or through an external agent. Milk powder, on the other hand, has a tendency to take fire or to explode, spontaneously or otherwise.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 5/1974, p.71-74. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 75-1216 Munke K.
Explosive behaviour of the chlorine-hydrogen system and its contaminants
Explosionsverhalten des Systems Chlor-Wasserstoff und seiner Beimengungen [in German]
Literature survey, with particular reference to the explosive limits of chlorine-hydrogen mixtures and to the influence of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrochloric acid, water vapour and carbon monoxide. Study of the explosibility of Cl2-H2 mixtures showed that an extremely low energy level (10-7joule) is sufficient to cause their combustion and that their flammability range is extremely wide. The influence of certain oxidising agents and inert gases is studied with the aid of graphs. The flammable limits found are subject to a certain degree of scatter, which must be taken into account in technical prevention measures.
Chemische Technik, May 1974, Vol.26, No.5, p.292-295. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 75-924 Baudelle.
Problems and fire protection in the synthetic fibre industry
Problèmes et protection contre l'incendie dans l'industrie des fibres synthétiques. [in French]
General remarks on combustion; protective measures against fires in storage premises (earthing of tanks and wagons, spacing out of fixed storage reservoirs, spraying of tanks in hot weather, etc.) and in polymerisation workshops (hazard of heat-transfer fluids used to ensure transport of the polymer); fire fighting measures; instructions; training of personnel.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 1974, No.101, p.20-31. Illus.

CIS 75-1071 Alarie Y., Lin C.K., Geary D.L.
Sensory irritation evoked by plastic decomposition products.
In the inhalation experiments with mice reported in this article, the sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract due to the action of combustion products of polystyrene and polycarbonate was evaluated. Characteristic decreases in respiratory rate were used as an index of sensory irritation. The combustion products induced sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract very rapidly, and recovery also occurred rapidly following termination of exposure. A dose-response relationship was obtained, the combustion products of polystyrene films being the most irritating. The results obtained in mice predict that the reaction in humans would be lacrimation, sneezing, burning sensation of the eye, nose and throat, and choking.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1974, Vol.35, No.10, p.654-661. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 75-1137 Farenhorst J.B.
Safety starting from the earliest stage in the construction of a chemical plant
Veiligheid vanaf het prilste bouwstadium van een chemisch bedrijf [in Dutch]
An account of the safety planning and organisation before and during the construction of a petrochemical plant in the Netherlands: accident prevention and first-aid organisation on the construction site; contacts with local authorities (labour inspectorate, fire services, etc.); planned purchase of fire fighting equipment; organisation of a plant safety, fire fighting and guard department; safety training of new employees; supervision of construction work; introduction of ban on smoking and permits-to-work as soon as the first hydrocarbons arrived on the site; information of the neighbourhood population and dealing with complaints about environmental nuisances.
De veiligheid, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.413-416. Illus.

CIS 75-923 Herpol G.A.
Some bases for the evaluation of fire hazard in industrial buildings
Quelques bases de calcul du risque d'incendie dans les bâtiments industriels. [in French]
Scientific analysis of fire hazard is based on 2 fundamental principles: fire load (the most important parameter) and fire resitance of interior walls. This article shows up some lacunae in the mathematical formula for the fire load, comments on the "fire reaction index" (Ra) defined by the Fire Research Centre of the University of Ghent (Belgium) and suggests a new definition of "fire load". Ra values for 36 commonly used materials are given in tabular form.
Bulletin technique de la Suisse romande, Oct. 1974, Vol.100, No.22, p.432-437. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 75-1057 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 24. Tellurium
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 24. Tellure. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between tellurium and silver iodate, potassium, lithium silicide and zinc. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.935-77-74, p.611.

CIS 75-1056 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 21. Iodine
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 21. Iode. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between iodine and 14 organic and inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.932-77-74, p.603-604.

CIS 75-1055 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 22. Sulfur
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 22. Soufre. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between sulfur and 25 inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.933-77-74, p.605-607.

CIS 75-1054 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 23. Selenium
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 23. Sélénium. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between selenium and 12 organic and inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.934-77-74, p.609-610.

CIS 75-922 Lubosch E., Steinbach K.
Protein or surfactant foams for fire fighting
Protein- oder Netzmittelschaum für die Brandbekämpfung [in German]
Brief description of the composition and features of a protein-based extinguishing foam and a foam containing a surfactant. Commentary on the possibility of mixing these foams to make low-expansion foams, and on compatibility between foams made from different foaming products when used in fighting the same fire. When employing foams it is recommended that face and hand protectors should be worn. The corrosive action of foams and the precautions to be taken are emphasised.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 5/1974, p.65-67, 79. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 75-1048 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 20. Bromine
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 20. Brome. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between bromine and 32 organic and inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.931-77-74, p.599-601.

CIS 75-1030 Van Houten R.W., Cudworth A.L., Irvine C.H.
Evaluation and reduction of air contaminants produced by thermal cutting and sealing of PVC packaging film.
Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the amount and type of decomposition products of PVC to which an operator of meat wrapping machines might be exposed. Description of these machines and their operation, and details of testing methods and conditions. Even under artificially severe operating conditions, concentrations of hydrochloric acid or of total particulates (especially dioctyl adipate) in the breathing zone did not reach the threshold limit value for occupational exposure. Fume production was greatly reduced by controlling the temperature of the cutting wire (approx. 104°C was found to be the lowest temperature for satisfactory operation). Data are provided relating fume production to operating temperature and specific recommendations are made for the reduction of contaminants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1974, Vol.35, No.4, p.218-222. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 75-920 Steeger W.
Fire protection problems when using natural gas
Brandschutztechnische Probleme beim Einsatz von Erdgas [in German]
This article reviews the chemical and physical properties of natural gas and discusses the conditions for the ignition, combustion and explosion of natural gas/air-mixtures. The electrostatic chargeability and physiological properties of natural gas are indicated. Recommendations for fire fighting methods are given.
Unser Brandschutz, wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 4/1974, p.49-61. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 75-903 Le Normand G.
Staircases and safety
Escaliers et sécurité. [in French]
Staircases and escalators give rise to problems of both safety and ergonomics. After briefly summarising the French regulations in force, the author studies the case of a fire in the workshop or building: staircases are classified as "protected" (leading directly onto the exterior or completely free of risk of fire or smoke-filling), "smoke-proof" (the walls of which act as a fire wall for 1h or as a flame-arrestor for 2h when they separate the staircase from horizontal smoke-proof passage ways, or as fire walls for 1h when they separate it from the rest of the structure), and "open-air" (of which at least one wall is completely open to the outside face of the building). The introduction of construction materials such as plastics, polyurethanes, etc., which emit a great amount of smoke on combustion, has put the relatively recent concept of smoke venting increasingly into the foreground.
Revue de la protection, Apr. 1974, No.178, p.39-43. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 75-624 Maintenance workshops and mobile maintenance teams
Les ateliers et chantiers d'entretien. [in French]
Contents: Part 1 (maintenance shops): fire hazards (mechanical engineering and boilermaking, electrical circuits, woodworking, heat and sound insulation, paints and varnishes, etc.); safety engineering at the design, construction and operational stages; firefighting. Part 2 (mobile maintenance teams) deals with elementary preventive measures in setting up a maintenance worksite, the maintenance team in manufacturing units, subcontractor work, and fire (hazards, equipment, staff training). Part 3 contains a list of French acts, decrees, orders, regulations and standards in force.
Collection Prévention et protection incendie, Vol.10. Centre national de prévention et de protection, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1974. 55p.

CIS 75-639 Kletz T.A.
The protection of pressure vessels against fire.
Article explaining how these vessels can be protected: sloping the ground so that spillages of flammable material do not accumulate underneath; thermal insulation; water drenching; de-pressuring the vessel; rate at which pressure should be reduced and methods of reducing it. Describes accidents in France and the USA to show that a relief valve, no matter how large, cannot save a vessel from bursting if the vessel itself becomes too hot. The heat weakens the vessel to such an extent that it bursts at a pressure below the set point of the relief valve.
Fire Prevention, May 1974, No.103, p.17-21. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 75-751 Paciorek K.L., Kratzer R.H., Kaufman J., Hartstein A.M.
Oxidative thermal degradation of selected polymeric compositions.
Study performed under conditions simulating those that prevail in a mine, employing a stagnation burner arrangement described in the article. The materials tested were brattice cloth samples (PVC-nylon, jute, fibreglass), conveyor belts and cable insulation (neoprene) and ventilation stop sealants (polyurethanes). With polyvinyl chloride and neoprene compositions smoke is associated with hydrogen chloride evolution, its rate being highly temperature-dependent. This is the main toxic species during the initial stages of decomposition; once glow occurred, carbon monoxide became the predominant species formed; several sulfur-containing compounds were also detected. Jute mainly gave off carbon monoxide, and also, surprisingly, methyl chloride, probably through reaction with the calcium chloride present. Polyurethane foams formed fluorocarbon-11 (CFCl3, a potential phosgene precursor), dichloroethane and hydrogen chloride. The glass-fibre reinforced resin burst into flame at 487°C and produced large quantities of CO, and thus presents a dual hazard.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1974, Vol.35, No.3, p.175-180. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 75-621 First steps in fire prevention
Initiation à la prévention. [in French]
This booklet, which is mainly intended for candidates attending elementary training courses in fire prevention, sets out the aims and principles of fire prevention and refers to the principal French regulations on the subject, analysing their most important sections. These texts are grouped in separate parts: establishments open to the public; dangerous, unhealthy or obnoxious establishments (the main chapter is devoted to hydrocarbons); workers' protection; tall buildings; inspection and supervision of establishments. Provisions respecting the behaviour in fires of building materials and components; specifications respecting clearance and evacuation of premises; features of various types of safety lighting, etc. are appended.
Collection "Prévention", France-Sélection, 9 rue du Département, 75019 Paris, France, 1974. 131p. Price: FF.20.00.

CIS 75-620 Regulation No. 9/1974 of the State Building and Civil Engineering Inspectorate - Technical fire protection
Vorschrift der Staatlichen Bauaufsicht Nr.9/74 - Bautechnischer Brandschutz [in German]
These German Democratic Republic regulations apply to building and civil engineering projects commenced, at the planning stage, after 1 July 1974. Contents: calculation of fire load; flammability of building materials; classification of structural parts and building sections according to behaviour in fire (fire propagation capacity or fire resistance); permissible dimensions of firewalls, fire doors, etc.; specifications concerning the equipment of buildings; smoke and heat release; distance between buildings; water supply for fire fighting. Tables indicating fire resistant properties and fire behaviour of partitions and dividing walls, supporting and retaining components and ceilings of various types are appended.
Unser Brandschutz, State Building and Civil Engineering Inspectorate, Ministry of Construction (Staatliche Bauaufsicht, Ministerium für Bauwesen), 10 June 1974. wissenschaftlich-technische Beilage 6/1974, p.81-96. Illus.

CIS 75-619 Fire detection and factories not in operation
Surveillance et arrêts d'usines. [in French]
Contents: Part 1: organisation of fire detection service; watchmen's rounds; automatic extinguishing and alarm systems; recruitment, physical and other qualities and level of education and training required for patrolling personnel; Part 2: special fire protection measures relating to premises, plant and processes; role of safety service when the factory is shut down. Basic rules to be observed during short- or long-term stoppages are given in tabular form.
Collection Prévention et protection incendie, tome 11, Centre national de prévention et de protection, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1974. 78p.

CIS 75-725 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 19. Chlorine
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 19. Chlore. [in French]
Enumeration and description of possible reactions of chlorine with 46 organic and inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1974, No.76, Note No.76, Note No.918-76-74, p.429-433.

CIS 75-724 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 18. Fluorine
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 18. Fluor. [in French]
Enumeration and description of possible reactions of fluorine with 70 organic and inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1974, No.76, Note No.917-76-74, p.421-427. 1 ref.

CIS 75-323
Ministry of the Interior, General Directorate of Firefighting Services (Ministero dell'Interno, Direzione generale dei Servizi antincendi), Roma.
Fire protection rules: Celluloid (cinematographic films on celluloid strip; celluloid)
Norme prevenzione incendi: Celluloide (Pellicole cinematografiche con supporto di celluloide; celluloide) [in Italian]
Scope (undertakings covered and staff skills required). Provisions concerning ways and means of informing workers of the hazards to which they are exposed, and fire fighting training; layout in undertakings; location of depots, workplaces and premises for ancillary operations; construction of buildings (rooms, stairways, passenger and goods lifts); various machines and apparatus; heating installations; electric installations, power sources; lightning conductors; fire fighting equipment; transport of films inside and outside the undertaking. Directives for the training of personnel of establishments in the cinema industry and a list of hazardous industrial and commercial activities are appended.
Antincendio e protezione civile, May 1974, Vol.26, No.5, 25p.(inset supplement).

CIS 75-322 D'Auria C.
Fire protection problems in the textile industries
Problemi di sicurezza antincendio nelle industrie tessili [in Italian]
The use of synthetic fibres and new manufacturing techniques having considerably increased fire hazards, traditional fire prevention methods have to be re-examined. Suggestions for adapting fire protection and fire fighting methods to the particular conditions obtaining in individual textile plants (automatic extinguishing systems, rapid detection systems, etc.).
Antincendio e protezione civile, May 1974, Vol.26, No.5, p.349-351. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 75-320 Fire protection and automatic extinguishing installations
La lutte contre l'incendie et les installations d'extinction automatique. [in French]
This article is devoted chiefly to sprinklers. After dealing with their mode of operation, it reviews the various types of installation (wet-pipe, dry-pipe, systems used alternatively as wet-pipe or dry-pipe installations, etc.) and equipment (standard sprinklers, spray sprinklers, ornamental sprinklers, sprinklers with special water distribution characteristics) and describes their various elements, with illustrations. Details are given on buildings to be protected, conditions of installation, the number of sprinklers served by each control valve assembly, the water density and surface to be covered, according to the class of hazard. A checklist is shown and reference is made to the relevant French regulations. Other types of automatic extinguishing installations are mentioned.
Revue technique du feu, May 1974, Vol.15, No.138, p.17-28. Illus.

CIS 75-313 Pedersen H.K.
Bad smell announces excess of oxygen in work atmospheres
Vond lukt varsler overskudd av oxygen i arbeidsluften [in Norwegian]
Excessive oxygen concentrations in workplace atmospheres involve severe fire and explosion hazards. General considerations on these hazards, sources of ignition, causes of explosive reaction and preventive measures are followed by an account of experience gained in adding dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a stenching agent, to oxygen used in welding and cutting. It appears that 1kg DMS is sufficient to tag 66,000m3 oxygen at atmospheric pressure.
Vern og velferd, 1974, Vol.24, No.3, p.42-44. Illus.

CIS 75-397 Chianta M.A., Stoll A.M., Piergallini J.R.
Thermal radiation protection by lateral heat dissipation - I: Small-scale laboratory study. II: Full-scale laboratory study.
Full-scale, high-intensity radiation exposures were carried out on 2 types of protective assemblies to evaluate the efficacy of lateral dissipation of incident radiation by a metallic scrim as a means of aircrew protection in thermonuclear warfare. The assemblies were standard flight overalls to which were applied patches of the experimental fabric, one type incorporating a metallic scrim, the other without a scrim. Temperature rises and radiation measurements were recorded for each experimental situation and the results indicate that the principle of lateral heat dissipation of incident radiant energy by means of a metalllic scrim is indeed effective.
Aerospace Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.45, No.4, p.400-406. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 75-312 Fitech - The international equipment guide for emergency services.
Fitech - Guide international du matériel d'incendie et de secours. [in French]
This catalogue gives, for 15 countries (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States), particulars about suppliers of firefighting equipment (extinguishers, branchpipes and nozzles, vehicles, clothing, respiratory apparatus, etc.), fire detection equipment and first-aid medical supplies, indicating the chief features of the products presented. An index to products facilitates consulation. The catalogue is profusely illustrated.
UNISAF Publications Ltd., Unisaf House, 32-36 Dudley Road, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, United Kingdom, 4th edition, 1974. 414p. Illus.

CIS 75-409 Muzik E.M.
Thin-layer chromatography - Everyday laboratory hazards
Dünnschichtchromatographie - gefährlicher Alltag im Labor [in German]
A review of the techniques used brings to light a number of hazards involved in the evaporation of organic solvents (poisoning, irritation, fire risk). Safety measures: cleanliness, removal of ignition sources, provision of fire extinguishers, emergency showers, suitably safe pipetting techniques, application of solvents in fume cabinets with local exhaust ventilation. Protective goggles with filter lenses should be worn during work with UV lamps.
Sichere Arbeit, 1974, Vol.27, No.1, p.39-40. Illus.

CIS 75-26 Manufacture, transportation and storage of fireworks.
This code is intended to prevent accidents in the manufacture, storage and transportation of fireworks. The provisions cover permits and records, process-building construction and separation distances, electrical equipment and lighting, fire and explosion prevention, construction of and operations in storage buildings and magazines, transportation.
NFPA No.44A, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 44p. Price: US-$3.00.

CIS 75-25 Portable shipping tanks.
This standard deals with portable shipping tanks with a capacity of 230-2,500l used for flammable and combustible liquids with a flashpoint below 93°C. After definitions of scope and terms, individual chapters deal with the design and construction of portable shipping tanks, valves and vents, filling and emptying.
NFPA No.386, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 12p. Illus. Price: US-$2.00.

CIS 75-161 Schmidt P.
Toxicological assessment of halogenated hydrocarbons used as fire extinguishers
Toxikologische Bewertung von Halogenkohlenwasserstoffen zu Feuerlöschzwecken [in German]
Description of the fire extinguishing properties of halogenated hydrocarbons in general, followed by a review of the toxicity of bromoethane, bromochloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and dibromotetrafluoroethane after inhalation or ingestion. From the medical point of view, the use of tetrachloromethane should be prohibited, whereas dibromotetrafluoroethane is considered to be a harmless fire extinguishing agent. Toxicity of pyrolysis products of halogenated hydrocarbons, personal protective equipment and first aid.
Atemschutzinformationen, 1974, Vol.13, No.1, p.2-6. 19 ref.

CIS 75-159 Hommel G.
Handbook of dangerous goods
Handbuch der gefährlichen Güter [in German]
First part of a loose-leaf register containing explanatory notes on the data sheets, a list of gas detector tubes, lists of German and other poison control centres and German and Swiss hospitals for severe burn injuries, an alphabetical index of substance names and data sheets on 212 hazardous substances. Data provided include: physical properties, flammability and explosibility characteristics, reactions with air and water, health hazards, olfactory threshold and TLV, measures to be taken in the event of an accident, first aid, notes for the doctor. A graphic symbol, the danger diamond, gives immediate information on the degree of hazard. The 1st and 2nd parts cover a total of 414 hazardous substances.
Springer Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 1 Berlin 33 (Westsektoren), 2nd revised and enlarged edition, 1974. 504p. (not paginated). Price: DM.64.00.

CIS 75-24 Drycleaning plants.
This standard covers the prevention and control of fire and explosion hazards in drycleaning operations. Definitions of scope, terms and solvent classes are followed by requirements for the construction and operation of drycleaning plants for each class of solvent used: ventilation, electrical installation, storage and treatment tanks, pumps and solvent coolers, fire control.
NFPA No.32, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 28p. Price: US-$2.50.

CIS 75-23 Code for the storage of liquid and solid oxidizing materials.
This code contains definitions and a table with classified oxidisers, followed by general rules of fire prevention and protection (instruction, electrical installation, housekeeping) and special rules for different classes of oxidisers (storage arrangements, building construction, sprinklers, tanks and containers).
NFPA No. 43A, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 22p. Price: US-$2.50.

CIS 75-22 Solvent extraction plants.
This standard applies to the commercial scale extraction of animal and vegetable oils and fats by flammbale solvents, excluding liquified petroleum gases. Definitions are followed by basic rules of fire prevention and protection for plants (ignition sources, housekeeping, emergency procedures, repairs and alterations, piping and valves, controls, fire protection). Chapters deal with bulk solvent unloading and storage, the preparation and extraction processes (location, construction, electricity and process equipment). A detailed description of the solvent process is appended.
NFPA No. 36, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 55p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.

CIS 75-21 Production, processing, handling and storage of titanium.
This standard points out the fire and explosion hazards associated with titanium and lays down recommendations for fire prevention, fire extinguishment and safe working practices. Individual sections are devoted to: properties and hazards of titanium; sponge production; melting; forming, heat treating, pickling and cleaning; machining and welding; scrap processing and storage; powder production and use.
NFPA No. 481, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 40p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: US-$2.50.

CIS 75-138 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 14. Hydrobromic acid. Bromides. Bromates
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 14. Acide bromhydrique. Bromures. Bromates. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between various substances and hydrobromic acid, acetyl, silver, potassium and propargyl bromides, titanium and zirconium dibromides, sulfur monobromide, aluminium, nitrogen and boron tribromides, tin tetrabromide, bromates in general and ammonium, silver, barium, potassium, lead and thallium bromates in particular. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.901-75-74, p.265-269.

CIS 75-258 Safety and conditions of work of the staff in shops with a large surface area
Conditions de travail et sécurité du personnel des magasins à grande surface. [in French]
This recommendation, based on the conclusions of a survey, bears chiefly on handling and fire hazards. It advocates the provision of sufficiently spacious stockrooms and communication passages, and strict application of the regulations governing emergency exits and fire-fighting equipment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Recommandation No.111, National Joint Technical Committee for Food Industries and Trades and National Joint Technical Committee for Trades Other than the Food Trade (Comité technique national des industries et commerces de l'alimentation et Comité technique national des commerces non alimentaires), Paris, 16 and 19 Nov. 1973. Paris, France, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.906-75-74, p.289.

CIS 75-137 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 17. Hydrogen sulfide. Sulfides
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 17. Hydrogène sulfuré. Sulfure. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between various substances and hydrogen sulfide, sulfides in general, and chromium, tin and sodium monosulfides, arsenic, tin and sodium disulfides, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus sesquisulfide, antimony and boron trisulfides, nitrogen, mercury, barium, benzene-diazonium and calcium sulfides and auric and ferrous sulfides, in particular. The references used are given for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.904-75-74. p.279-284.

CIS 75-136 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 16. Sulfuric acid. Sulfates
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 16. Acide sulfurique. Sulfates. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between different substances and sulfuric acid, alkaline-earth sulfates in general and chromous, ammonium, diethyl, dimethyl and sodium sulfates, in particular. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.903-75-74. p.275-277.

CIS 75-135 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 15. Hydriodic acid. Iodides. Iodic acid. Iodates
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 15. Acide iodhydrique. Iodures. Acide iodique. Iodates. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between various substances and hydriodic acid, iodides in general, and silver, dimethylarsine and potassium iodides, tetraphosphorus monoiodide, titanium diiodide, nitrogen, boron and phosphorus triiodides, tin and zirconium tetraiodides and boron bromodiiodide and dibromoiodide, in particular, as well as iodic acid and iodates in general. The references used are quoted for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.902-75-74, p.271-274.

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