Fires - 2,022 entries found
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Foamed plastic fire - Fire spreads 430 feet in eight minutes.
A fire spread along the entire length of the rigid polyurethane insulation of a tunnel under construction, requiring 45min to bring under control. This fire points to the potential danger of urethane foam, the high rate of evolution of flammable gases and smoke and the rapidity of spread making a fire stop virtually impossible. Current testing and designation practices are inadequate, and the manufacturer's claim that the foam system was self-extinguishing was in contradiction with the fire hazard of the material. Better and more appropriate test methods and better identification of the fire hazard of new plastics are required.
Fire Journal, Jan. 1975, Vol.69, No.1, p.5-6, 56. Illus. 1 ref.
Electronics in fire protection
Elektronik im Brandschutz [in German]
Description of the various elements of a fire protection installation: heat detectors (thermostatic detectors based on melting of an alloy or on a bi-metallic strip, differential detectors), smoke or gas detectors incorporating a photoelectric cell or ionisation chamber, flame detectors. Use of appropriate sockets allows a detector to be replaced by another of a different type. Accessories, and area of detector coverage.
Industrie-Elektrik und Elektronik, May 1975, Vol.20, No.10, p.207-210. Illus.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 30. Sodium and sodium-potassium alloys
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 30. Sodium et alliages sodium-potassium. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys with 80 substances or groups of substances (organic and inorganic). The references used are quoted for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1975, No.79, Note No.962-79-75, p.265-270.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 29. Lithium
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 29. Lithium. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between lithium and 13 substances (organic and inorganic). The references used are quoted for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1975, No.79, Note No.961-79-75, p.263-264.
Where the hazard lies in fires - Combustion gases and their effects
Wo liegen die Gefahren beim Brennen - Brandgase und ihre Auswirkungen [in German]
This article illustrates by examples the dangerous effects of CO, CO2 and lack of oxygen in the event of fire, and examines other toxic gases given off by burning polyacrylonitrile, wool, polyvinyl chloride, etc. and their physiological effects. CO and CO2 are the most dangerous combustion gases, because they are the first to be given off and their presence is undetectable. In comparison the other gases given off play a relatively minor role. Tables: ignition temperatures of natural and synthetic materials; decomposition temperatures for polymers; smoke density from various substances.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, May 1975, Vol.25, No.5, p.133-139. 6 ref.
National electrical code 1975.
This code, approved as American national standard ANSI C1-1975, contains chapters on: wiring design and protection; wiring methods and materials, and equipment for general use; electrical safety requirements of special occupancies (i.e. installation of electrical equipment in hazardous locations: garages and vehicle repair shops, aircraft hangars, gasoline filling stations, bulk storage plants, painting shops, operating theatres using flammable anaesthetics, film studios, etc.). A chapter on "special equipment" covers electric signs, cranes and hoists, elevators, electric welding, X-ray equipment, metalworking machine tools, etc. Other chapters deal with special conditions (emergency systems, etc.) and communication systems, and there is a chapter giving tables and examples.
NFPA No.70-1975, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 621p. Price: US-$5.50.
Notification No.6/1975 concerning rules for the manufacture, filling, testing and use of portable fire extinguishers
Meddelelse nr.6/1975 om regler for fremstilling, fyldning, prøvning og brug af transportable håndildslukkere [in Danish]
This notification, which entered into force on 1 June 1975, contains rules for the construction and inspection of portable fire extinguishers; recharging and pressure tests every 5 years are prescribed.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 10 Apr. 1975. 4p. Gratis.
Notification No.3/1975 concerning air pollution during welding and heat treatment of coated materials
Meddelelse nr.3/1975 om bekæmpelse af luftforurening ved svejsning og anden varmebehandling af materialer med overfladebelægning [in Danish]
Gas welding and cutting and heat treatment of materials coated with anticorrosive or insulating agents represent health hazards due to pyrolysis products given off as smoke. After listing the toxic or irritant substances that may be released, according to the composition of the coating, the present notification specifies protective measures at the workplace: local exhaust systems, removal of the coating before welding, etc. Employers ae required to monitor the workplace air to ensure that the threshold limit values for the toxic substances involved are not exceeded.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 5 Mar. 1975. 6p. Gratis.
Kirk P.G., Stark G.W.V.
Flexible polyurethane foam - Large scale fires of industrial loads of seating cushions.
H.M. Factory Inspectorate instituted 2 series of tests to assess the fire risk when large amounts of polyurethane foamed plastics are manufactured, stored and used: small-scale tests (ease of ignition) and large-scale tests (fire behaviour) were performed with 3 types of flexible polyurethane foams in the form of seating cushions. The small and large-scale test results concerning flammability were not in agreement: all foams burned vigorously in the large-scale tests, whereas some degree of flame retardance was seen in the small-scale tests. The content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide in the fire gases rapidly reached levels lethal to man. Temperatures of the fire gases and smoke density about 2min after ignition reached high values and produced a hazardous atmosphere.
Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1975. 18p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: £0.40.
The essentials of sprinkler and other water spray fire protection sytems.
Basic informatory review of this field, profusely illustrated, describing design features and applications of the sprinkler systems, with details of pressure and flow requirements, layout, the spray head, the 5 main types of system (wet, dry, alternate wet and dry, pre-action, cycling or resetting), etc.; the uses and characteristics of water-spray and deluge systems are also described.
Fire Prevention, Apr. 1975, No.108, p.15-26. Illus.
Ammoniakki [in Finnish]
Ammoniak [in Swedish]
Review of the properties of ammonia in gaseous or liquefied form, followed by sections on its use, respiratory, cutaneous and ocular hazards, toxic effects, flammability and explosibility, transportation and storage (materials recommended for the construction of tanks, Finnish regulations on transport in bulk, precautions during storage and decanting, protection of eyes, respiratory tract and skin). Appendix: risks of catastrophe when ammonia is being decanted, illustrated by some accident descriptions. CIS has only the Swedish version.
Ehkäise tapaturmia - Förebygg olycksfall, 1975, No.2, p.7-11. Illus. 10 ref.
Improving safety in mines by reducing the flammability and combustibility of conveyor belts
Das Verbessern der Grubensicherheit durch Verringern der Entzündlichkeit und Brennbarkeit von Fördergurten [in German]
Review of the characteristics of the raw materials used in the preparation of rubber compounds, and more particularly the fire characteristics of natural rubber and elastomers, fillers, plasticisers and other additives. Description of 2 investigation methods whereby the influence of different additives on the flammability of an elastomer can be determined and elastomer mixtures classified. The resultant appropriate mixtures serve as basis for production of belts with textile or metal cable reinforcement.
Glückauf, Apr. 1975, Vol.111, No.8, p.365-367. 3 ref.
Chemical substances in the pulp and paper industry
Kemialliset aineet sellu- ja paperiteollisuus [in Finnish]
This loose-leaf binder contains information sheets giving the following data on 353 chemical substances classified in the alphabetical order of their trade names: manufacturer; importer; uses; active components; degree of toxicity; LD50; TLV; acute effects on skin, mucosae, eyes, respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts; chronic effects; precautions; first aid; flashpoint; explosive limits; prevention of fires and explosions; extinguishing agents; solubility; recommended ways of removing hazardous waste.
VASP II, Keskinäinen Yhtiö Teollisuusvakuutus, P.O. Box 12, 00211 Helsinki 21, Finland, 1975. 365p. (unnumbered). Price: Fmk.100.00.
Tiezzi I., Amato G.
Experiments on "fire venting" for outflow of combustion products in case of fire
Sperimentazione sulle "luci di scarico" dei prodotti della combustione in caso d'incendio [in Italian]
Report on testing of smoke removal by fire venting in a warehouse (partly underground) for flammable products, to verify the criteria for calculating the dimensions of smoke vents. Practical considerations on the results of experimental fires (with and without smoke vents) are followed by conclusions drawn regarding the adequate protection of premises partly below ground level in case of fire (smoke removal, automatic fire detection and extinction, etc.).
Antincendio e protezione civile, Jan. 1975, Vol.27, No.1, p.17-23. Illus. 5 ref.
National fire codes, 1975.
These codes consist of 225 safety standards, recommended practices and manuals, in 15 volumes covering, inter alia, the following subjects: flammable liquids, boiler-furnaces, ovens; gases; combustible solids, dusts and explosives; building construction and facilities; electrical equipment; sprinklers, fire pumps and water tanks; alarm and special extinguishing systems; portable and manual fire control equipment; occupancy standards and process hazards; transportation, etc. They include 71 new and revised standards, NFPA-approved in 1974, and the 1975 National Electrical Code (USA).
National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1975. 15 vol., approx. 9,700p. Illus. Price: US-$7.50 per volume; US-$75 per set.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 28. Arsenic, antimony and bismuth
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 28. Arsenic, antimoine, bismuth. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions of arsenic, antimony and bismuth with various substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1975, No.78, Note No.950-78-75, p.129-130.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 27. Phosphorus
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 27. Phosphore. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions of phosphorus with 23 inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1975, No.78, Note No.949-78-75, p.125-127.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 25. Gaseous and liquid oxygen
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 25. Oxygène gazeux et liquide. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions of gaseous oxygen with 24 substances, and of liquid oxygen with 8 substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1975, No.78, Note No.947-78-75, p.119-122.
Fire prevention and firefighting
Prévention et lutte contre le feu. [in French]
Pocket-size manual: Contents: outbreak and spreading of fires; French regulations; fire prevention (building construction, interior design and equipment); firefighting methods (detecting and extinguishing techniques); organisation (staff training, supervision, inspection of equipment, etc.). Examples of fire drill instructions and supplementary information on extinguishers are appended.
Edition INRS n°310, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 7th edition, 1975. 79p. Illus. 11 ref.
Storage of highly flammable liquids in laboratories
Berging van zeer brandbare vloeistoffen in het laboratorium [in Dutch]
In view of the practical impossibility of eliminating all fire hazards in laboratories, the author recommends that the quantities of highly flammbale liquids (flash point below 21-25°C) kept on the premises should be strictly limited and that unbreakable vessels should be used. To protect stored liquids in case of outbreak of fire, the author recommends the use of ventilated metal cupboards which close automatically when a preselected temperature level is exceeded. Brief comments on unbreakable receptacles and their labelling.
De veiligheid, Feb. 1975, Vol.51, No.2, p.69-70. Illus.
Loss prevention and safety promotion in the process industries.
Record of proceedings of an international symposium, sponsored by the European Federation of Chemical Engineering, held at The Hague (Netherlands) in May 1974. Contents: guidelines for safe design; safety organization; hazards and operability studies; reliability engineering; emergency planning; insurance aspects; gas, vapour cloud and dust explosions; transport and storage of liquefied gases; vapour dispersion in the atmosphere; explosibility, test procedures and results; loss prevention through design; case studies and other subjects; round table discussions.
Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 335 Jan van Galenstraat, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1974. 446p. Illus. 273 ref. Price: Glds.120.50.
Hartstein A.M., Forshey D.R.
Coal mine combustion products - Neoprenes, polyvinyl chloride compositions, urethane foam, and wood.
Data (grammes of product per grammes of starting material) were obtained of products formed on thermal oxidative degradation of these materials under dynamic and static conditions. 19 compositions in the 4 groups were tested and the decomposition products for each group are listed. The main toxic products from neoprene were hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide and monoxide, and mercaptans; from polyvinyl chloride there were hydrogren chloride and benzene; from urethane foams there were carbon monoxide, chloro- and bromoethanes, ammonia, aromatic amines. The threshold limit values of the toxic products are given.
Report of investigation RI 7977, Bureau of Mines, Publications Distribution Branch, 4800 Forbes Anenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, 1974. 25p. Illus.
Nitrogenous fertilisers: Ammonium nitrate - 1. Caking; 2. Thermal decomposition
Abonos nitrogenados: Nitrato amonico - 1. Apelmazamiento; 2. Descomposición térmica [in Spanish]
This monograph describes industrial processes for the production of compound nitrogenous fertilisers and examines the safety problems arising out of the caking of crystallised or granulated products containing ammonium nitrate, or the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate in pure form. Physical, thermodynamic and chemical properties of ammonium nitrate; fire and explosion hazards (reference to many explosions on cargo vessels transporting this substance, giving the IMCO Shipping Code classification of oxidising agents; review of 16 disasters with ammonium nitrate in the USA between 1949 and 1959, as published by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association); speed of thermal decomposition; effect of pressure; stability tests; rules for storage and transport.
Serie azul No.11, Comisión de seguridad e higiene en el trabajo, Sindicato nacional de industrias químicas, San Bernardo 62, Madrid, Spain, 1974. 107p. Illus. 93 ref.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Centre, Cleveland, Ohio.
Review of hydrogen accidents and incidents in NASA operations.
A compilation of 96 accidents or incidents with liquid or gaseous hydrogen in relation with NASA operations: fires, explosions, rupture disc failures, tank or line rupture, vacuum loss, road or rail transport accidents, etc. Various causes were identified: design deficiencies, inappropriate working methods, materials failure or incompatibility; lack of training; malfunction; use of contaminated material, etc. The analysis of these mishaps shows that, although few serious accidents occurred, the number could have been further reduced if the established NASA rules had been strictly observed.
N74-28457/1/1WI, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, 1974. 41p. Price: Photocopy US-$3.25/Microfiche US-$1.45.
Occupational safety and health and fire protection Directive 122/1 of 5 October 1973 - Safety in opencast mines
Arbeitsschutz- und Brandschutzanordnung 122/1 - Bergbausicherheit im Bergbau über Tage - vom 5. Oktober 1973 [in German]
This directive applies to opencast mines as well as to quarries and gravel pits, sand pits and peat bogs. General provisions on safety and protection of workers are followed by individual sections devoted to: works railways, water drainage in surface workings, stability of slopes, extraction and dumping of friable and solid rock, excavating equipment, floating dredgers and floating belt conveyors, other conveyor systems, blasting, fire protection. 6 appendices on definitions of terms, keeping the quarry plan up to date, inspection, parameters for slopes, inspection of stability, required occupational safety or fire protection instructions. Subject index.
Gesetzblatt der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, 15 Mar. 1974, Sonderdruck Nr.768, 123p.
Standpipe and hose systems.
This standard, approved as American National Standard ANSI Z273.1-1974 on 23 Dec. 1974, contains specifications concerning size and arrangement of standpipes in buildings; number and location of standpipes and hose connections; hose outlets; water supplies; piping, valves and fittings; tests and maintenance; buildings under construction. Recommendations for regulating nozzle pressure and calculating approximate size of orifice are appended.
NFPA No.14-1974, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 27p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.
Portable fire extinguishers.
This standard was approved as American National Standard ANSI Z112.1-1974 on 23 Dec. 1974. An introduction containing definitions and general requirements is followed by chapters on: extinguishers (selection, etc.); distribution of extinguishers; inspection, maintenance, and recharging; and hydrostatic testing (frequency, test pressures, equipment and procedures). Explanatory material to marked paragraphs and supplementary information on recommended markings to indicate extinguisher suitability, description of types of extinguishers, operation, etc., are appended.
NFPA No.10-1974, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 75p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: US-$4.00.
Nonflammable medical gas systems.
This standard, which supersedes the previous edition (1973), was approved as American National Standard ANSI MD4.1-1974 on 11 Dec. 1974. Definitions and general remarks on material and oxygen compatibility are followed by provisions on: source of supply; warning systems; pipeline systems; installation and testing of piping systems; small systems in non-hospital-based facilities.
NFPA No.56F-1974, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 28p. Illus. Price: US-$3.50.
Installation of oil burning equipment.
This standard was approved as American National Standard ANSI Z95.1-1974 on 23 Dec. 1974. It supersedes the previous edition (1972). Individual chapters cover: general provisions; tank storage; piping, pumps and valves; installation of oil burners and oil-fired units; installation of heating and cooking appliances.
NFPA No.31-1974, National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 84p. Illus. Price: US-$4.50.
Safe welding and cutting
Sicher schweissen und schneiden [in German]
Health hazards due to vapours, gases, fumes, and radiation produced by different welding techniques are outlined in an introduction. The effect of electric current on the human body, the principal danger in electric welding processes, is demonstrated and examples of bad working habits are given. Oxy-fuel gas welding, being the most frequently used technique, is discussed in detail: properties of the various fuel gases, storage and supply equipment for their use; acetylene production plant; welding equipment. Examples of accidents are given and the corresponding safety measures indicated. Recommendations are made for avoiding specific hazards in confined spaces, followed by considerations on fire and explosion prevention and personal protective equipment. The article contains a table of hazards, safety equipment and safe procedures for different welding techniques.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, June 1974, No.2, p.69-89. Illus. 17 ref.
Hazards of welding due to oxygen changes in the ambient air
Gefahren beim Schweissen durch Sauerstoffveränderung in der Raumluft [in German]
After a fundamental study of the respiratory oxygen requirements, the upper and lower limits of the oxygen content of the air, and respiration with low and high oxygen partial pressure, the author outlines the German regulations for work in compressed air (admissible pressure, maximal work time, provision of adequate fresh air, fire protection) and deals with combustion and ignition (especially of textiles) in enriched oxygen atmospheres and under elevated pressure. Conclusions are drawn on protective clothing of welders and safety measures (oxygen monitoring apparatus, odorisation of oxygen) in respect of caisson work.
Heft 18, Moderne Unfallverhütung, Vulkan-Verlag, Haus der Technik, 43 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974, p.44-50. Illus. 75 ref.
Kryńska A., Grabowski Z.
Study of the composition of volatile products given off during moulding of polymers and copolymers of styrene
Badanie składu produktów lotnych emitowanych przy przetwórstwie polimerów i kopolimerów styrenu [in Polish]
Description of a technique for identification and determination of the products given off during injection or extrusion moulding of plastics. Based on gas chromatography, it requires a pyrolysis cell of special design. Substances identified and determined in laboratory experiments with the commonest styrene polymers and copolymers (200-300°C; heating time 0.5-5min.): styrene, ethylbenzene, benzene and toluene, acrylonitrile and hydrogen cyanide. Analysis of factory samples confirmed the emission of the substances detected by the laboratory technique, which can also be easily modified for other groups of plastics. Graphs and tables complete the description and interpretation of results.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1974, Vol.24, No.83, p.347-362. Illus. 31 ref.
Coking plants - Types of electrical equipment, ambient conditions, design and operational rules
Koksovny - Druhy, prostředí a podklady pro projektování a provoz elektrického zařízení v koksovnách [in Czech]
This industrial standard was approved on 11 May 1973 and entered into force on 1 Feb. 1975. It refers to various aspects of the working environment (coal dust, benzopyrene, heat etc.) at different workposts in coking plants and the preventive measures to be taken in each particular case (air exchange rates, type of ventilation, humidification, continuous monitoring of pollution level, monitoring and warning devices). In-depth data on these problems is presented in tabular form. Other tables indicate: flashpoint critical conditions for coal and coke dust, explosibility limits of various gases and fumes encountered in coking plants, maximum allowable concentrations and average and accidental (short-term) concentrations of toxic substances; various types of protective enclosures for electrical equipment, depending on ambient conditions.
ON 43-0095, Ministry for the Basic Metal and Heavy Industries (Ministerstvo hutnictví a těžkého strojírenství), Praha. Vydavatesltví ÚNM, Hostivař 289, Praha 10, Czechoslovakia, 1974. 26p. Price: Kcs.11.00.
Department of the Environment, Buuilding Research Establishment, Fire Research Station, Borehamwood WD6 2BL.
Fires in oil soaked lagging.
Fires due to spontaneous ignition often occur when combustible fluids leak into lagging on hot pipes and surfaces. This data sheet reviews the factors affecting ignition of this kind and shows how the thermal ignition theory provides a fundamental approach to the assessment of the ignition hazard for different combinations of fluid and lagging. Possible countermeasures and procedures for fire-fighting are indicated. Sections are devoted to ignition (spontaneous ignition, leaks of lubricating oil, hydraulic fluid and other combustible fluids into lagging on hot pipes in ships' boiler rooms, power stations, etc.; lesser-known hazard of hot oil leaking onto cold lagging), nature of lagging material, pipe temperature and lagging thickness. A theoretical model is described and illustrated. A critical ignition parameter for pipe lagging is shown graphically and results of experiments on ignition of various types of lagging are given in tabular form.
Distribution Unit, Application Services Division, Building Research Establishment, Garston, Watford WD2 7JR, United Kingdom, Feb. 1974, 11p. Illus. 17 ref.
Life support without combustion hazards.
Fire research has shown that combustion can be prevented by increasing the heat capacity of the atmosphere. This can be effected by addition to the air of perfluorocarbons such as carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and octafluoropropane (C3F8), which being physiologically inert permit life to be sustained; they can also be used to extinguish existing fires. On account of the production of toxic decomposition products by C2F6 and C3F8, however, only CF4 appears acceptable from the toxicity standpoint for use in habitable atmospheres.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1974, Vol.10, No.1, p.15-24. Illus. 4 ref.
National fuel gas code.
This first edition of the Code, representing an augmented edition of NFPA No.54-1969, was co-sponsored by the American Gas Association, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the National Fire Protection Association, and was approved on 4 June 1974 as American National Standard ANSI Z223.1-1974. It offers general criteria for the installation, operation and maintenance of gas piping and gas equipment. Part 1 is concerned with non-industrial and Part 2 with industrial and certain other premises. The latter has sections devoted to: general safety precautions; sizing of gas piping systems; installation of consumer-owned gas meters and regulators; installation of gas equipment; initial operation of gas equipment; maintenance of gas equipment; definitions; informative appendices (gas equipment design, construction and maintenance; special meter piping; tables for pipe sizing; list of standards, codes, specifications and regulations).
NFPA No.54-1974. National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA, 1974. 161p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.
Technical rules for spray painting and varnishing with flammable liquids
Tekniske forskrifter for sprøjtemaling og lakering under anvendelse af brandfarlige væsker [in Danish]
Rules made under regulations contained in the notice issued on 10 Sep. 1974 by the Ministry of Justice (text appended). General provisions cover: definitions; requirements to be met by premises and workplaces; fire fighting equipment; approval of spray painting and drying equipment; requirements to be met by spray booths and dryers, paint feeding systems, etc. These are followed by rules on: design and construction of spray painting shops; equipment for flammable liquids with flashpoints under 30 and 55°C, electrostatic paint spraying and dip coating; installation of dryers and evaporation chambers; heating and ventilation of premises.
National Fire Inspectorate (Statens Brandinspektion), Bernstorffsvej 159, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark, Oct. 1974. 30p. Gratis.
Cleaning with trichloroethylene
Rensearbeid med trikloretylen [in Norwegian]
Regulations issued under the Workers Protection Act of 1956 laying down rules for the use of trichloroethylene: properties; toxic effects; fire hazards; enclosure of cleaning plant; mechanical ventilation; skin protection; gas freeing of cleaning plant before repairs, maintenance or inspection; fire prevention.
Veiledning nr.9, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, Sep. 1974. 3p. Gratis.
Comité national du matérial d'incendie homologué, 10 avenue Hoche, 75008 Paris.
General principles for inspection and maintenance of fire extinguishing equipment
Principes généraux de vérification et d'entretien des appareils extincteurs. [in French]
These directives, which are designed for plant safety officers, list the checks that must be carried out before any maintenance and inspection work is undertaken on fire extinguishers; the specific points to which attention must be paid in the inspection of cartridge-operated and stored-pressure equipment; and additional checks on chemical foam, water and powder extinguishers.
Edition INRS No.438, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 8p.
Code of practice for fire precautions in chemical plant.
This code is intended to help designers and managers of chemical works to minimise fire hazards. Contents: general; legal requirements; statutory and advisory bodies; initiation, spread and extinction of fire; site selection and layout; buildings and structures; electrical equipment; static electricity; flammable fluids, liquids, gases, dusts; ventilation, extraction systems and space heating; process plant; storage and movement of materials; maintenance services; fire warning systems and fire detection; fire protection; emergency procedure. Information on vaporising liquids and addresses of advisory bodies are appended. Specifications for types of tanks for use with different types of liquids, and for duration of foam application, are appended.
CP 3013:1974, British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London W1A 2BS, United Kingdom, July 1974. 82p. Illus. 201 ref. Price: £5.70.
Fault-current circuit breakers - Practical experience and consequences
Die Fehlerstromschutzschaltung - Praktische Erfahrungen und Konsequenzen [in German]
After describing the design and function of fault-current circuit breakers and the principle underlying them with the aid of schematic diagrams, the author discusses the requirements for connecting to neutral, and for fire and contact protection at construction sites, industrial plant and domestic installations. The use of fault-current circuit breakers with a sensitivity of 300mA satisfies the conditions for connection to neutral, while fire protection is also ensured. From a graph showing safe areas it is seen that at a sensitivity above 10mA contact protection is no longer afforded. The article concludes with some statistical results of studies on the efficacy of fault-current circuit breakers.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 30 Nov. 1974, Vol.65, No.24, p.1737-1744. Illus.
Ingemann Larsen A.
Letmetaller [in Danish]
Light-metal fires can be very violent (temperatures up to 2,500°C) and difficult to extinguish. The article outlines practical measures for preventing fires when machining magnesium and similar alloys (cooling of part being machined, use of coolants free from flammble liquids, smooth floors for easy and complete elimination of metal chips, collection of metal waste in tight refractory containers, etc.). Since water accelerates the burning rate of light-alloy fires, either a ternary eutectic compound powder (containing chlorates of sodium, barium and potassium) or trimethoxyboroxine (a liquid forming a glassy coating) should be used for fighting these fires,
Dansk Brandværn, Apr. 1974, Vol.5, No.4, p.3-5. Illus.
This data sheet covers properties, uses, containers, shipping regulations, storage, personnel hazards, handling, personal protective equipment, ventilation, fire and explosion hazards, electrical equipment, symptoms of poisoning, treatment of burns, toxicity, threshold limit values, medical examinations, and waste disposal.
Data Sheet 382, Revision A (extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60611, USA, 1974. 6p. 5 ref.
Carbon microspheroids as extinguishing agents for metal fires.
The feasibility of using microspheres and microspheroids applied by means of a modified dry-chemical fire extinguisher to extinguish metal fires is studied under the following headings: magnesium, sodium, and sodium-potassium fires; preparation of carbon microspheres in the laboratory and their properties; commercial carbon microspheres derived from pitch and petroleum coke; particle size of graphite, ammonium phosphate, and sodium chloride powders. The excellent flow of carbon microspheroids (diameter about 100 to 500µm) through a nozzle, high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, and absence of dusting make them more advantageous than graphite, sodium chloride, and phosphate powders for extinguishing metal fires. Since they are of very low density they will float on the surface of most metals and, therefore, should also be applicable for extinguishing fires of such metals as zirconium, titanium, hafnium, and others.
Journal of Fire and Flammability, 5 July 1974, Vol.5, No.3, p.223-234. Illus. 5 ref.
Model for evaluating fire hazard.
A simple fire sytem model is described that may be used to estimate fire hazards produced by materials or products. The model is based on the use of release rate data for heat, smoke, and toxic gases for the materials in the system. Basic fire model conditions are discussed, and the calculation procedure for heat, smoke and toxic gas concentrations is developed. Diagrams show the heat release and heat flux, air temperature, visibility, HCl and CO concentrations in latex foam and cotton batting fires.
Journal of Fire and Flammability, 5 July 1974, Vol.5, No.3, p.179-189. Illus. 1 ref.
Inspection and periodical checks of stationary carbon-dioxide extinguishing systems
Eftersyn og kontrol af stationære kulsyreslukningsanlæg [in Danish]
Carbon-dioxide extinguishing systems present a serious hazard in the event of leaks or other failures, because the carbon-dioxide concentrations required for fire extinguishing are rapidly fatal for man. The article recommends that checklists should be prepared for every system, and lists rules to be observed when designing new systems or changing existing ones. Procedures are set out for daily and periodic checks and for technical inspections at annual and 5-year intervals.
Dansk Brandværn, Nov. 1974, Vol.5, No.11, p.3-7. Illus.
Sander H., Speier F., Beyer H.A., Losansky G.
The use of liquefied petroleum gas at construction sites
Flüssiggasverwendung auf Baustellen [in German]
4 contributions to the 13th Congress on Occupational Safety and Health (Düsseldorf, 1973). The first is an introduction on the properties and applications of liquefied gas, followed by a contribution on the use of liquefied gas at construction sites, with advice on storage, the design of supply equipment and the necessary safety measures. The third contribution presents accident histories to illustrate the hazards of liquefied gas below ground level, and the last gives details of fire precautions.
Bericht über den 13. Kongress für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin 1973 in Düsseldorf, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arbeitsschutz, Hamburger Allee 26-28, 6 Frankfurt am Main 90, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974, p.171-192. Illus.
New incombustible foams based on isocyanurate
Nuevas espumas incombustibles - Espumas de isocianurato [in Spanish]
After a review of the chemical processes involved when the heat stability of urethane foams is enhanced by incorporation of isocyanurate, the author outlines the properties of isocyanurate foams, paying special attention to their fire behaviour and the toxic products they give off. He stresses that these foams combine the advantage of urethane foams with great fire resistance and a limited tendency to emit smoke.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1974, Vol.10, No.48, p.28-36 and July-Sep. 1974, No.49, p.33-37. Illus.
Fires and explosions
Feuer und Explosionen [in German]
This article describes a number of accidents to illustrate the hazards - of which people are frequently unaware - of propane, hydrogen peroxide and calcium hypochlorite, referring to the characteristics of these substances which render them liable to ignite or explode. Hydrogen peroxide and calcium hypochlorite may explode or ignite spontaneously. Safety rules: limitation of quantity transported; special instructions concerning driver, itinerary, time, weather conditions, speed limit, convoying; rules concerning suitable materials for building transportation tanks and containers.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.365-370. Illus.
Notification No.29/1974 concerning air pollution control during welding of stock treated with oil
Meddelelse nr.29/1974 om bekæmpelse af luftforurening ved svejsning på grundmateriale, der er behandlet med olie [in Danish]
Oil films left on metal parts after corrosion protection or machining with coolants can give rise to irritating or harmful aerosols when the film evaporates or is pyrolysed during welding. To keep oil aerosols within the threshold limit value of 5mg/m3, it is recommended that oily metal parts should be cleaned before welding. Effective ventilation and a separate cooling area for hot welded structures should also be provided.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 16 Dec. 1974. 3p. Gratis.
Fire protection manual for hydrocarbon processing plants.
This manual has been written by an array of noted fire-protection authorities with experience in the industry. The first chapter contains about 90 detailed case histories of fires, explosions and detonations, indicating causes and remedies and drawing conclusions. The next chapters deal with the fundamentals of fire protection and fire-fighting materials, the various factors operative in explosions and detonations, and the dangers of static electricity and electrical installations. Fire-protection facilities in all types of hydrocarbon-processing plant and methods of fighting hydrocarbon fires are described. Further chapters are devoted to safe startup and shutdown procedures of process units, inspections and investigations and disaster planning. An appendix contains a list of specialised organisations and supplementary literature.
Gulf Publishing Company, Book Division, 3301 Allen Parkway, Houston 1, Texas 77001, USA, 2nd edition, 1974. 488p. Illus. 334 ref. Price: US-$35.00.
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