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Fires - 2,022 entries found

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CIS 04-436 Selkirk G.A., McLellan T.M., Wong J.
Active versus passive cooling during work in warm environments while wearing firefighting protective clothing
This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the study. Subjects walked at 4.5km/h with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50min) and rest (30min) schedule. Work continued until rectal temperature reached 39.5°C or heart rate (HR) reached 95% of maximum or exhaustion. One of three cooling strategies, forearm submersion in water, mister, and passive cooling were employed during the rest phases. Findings suggest that there is a definite advantage when utilizing forearm submersion compared with other methods of active or passive cooling while wearing FPC and SCBA in the heat.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2004, Vol.1, No.8, p.521-531. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 04-183 Daycock J.H., Rew P.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a method for the determination of on-site ignition probabilities
The estimation of probability of ignition is a key step in the assessment of risk for premises where flammable liquids or gases are stored. Currently, simple models tend to be used, which assume that ignition probability is a function only of release rate, or cloud size, and do not consider location, density or type of ignition source. Ignition sources on hazardous installation plants tend to be better controlled than off-site sources. However, these measures are mainly designed to prevent the ignition of small releases within defined hazardous areas. This report describes an ignition probability model that has been developed to consider larger, catastrophic, releases that may come into contact with on-site ignition sources within non-hazardous areas and buildings.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. iv, 67p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-162 Gobeau N., Zhou X.X.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of CFD to predict smoke movement in complex enclosed spaces - Application to three real scenarios: An underground station, an offshore accommodation module and a building under construction
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly used as a predictive tool to demonstrate the effectiveness of modern building designs and emergency ventilation systems to control the movement of smoke in the event of a fire. The objective of this study was to investigate the capabilities and limitations of CFD for predicting the transport of smoke in complex enclosed spaces. Calculations relating to three examples of enclosed spaces were carried out: an underground station, an accommodation module on an offshore platform and a high-rise building under construction. It is concluded that while CFD modelling provides some insight as to smoke generation in the event of a fire, further work focusing on high-sensitivity parameters is still necessary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. xii, 48p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-182 Zhong M., Fan W., Liu T.M., Zhang P.H., Wei X., Liao G.X.
China: Some key technologies and the future developments of fire safety science
The current situation of fire safety in China is analyzed in this article, which includes a summary of the statistics of fire accidents having occurred in the past few years. Taking into account the demands of economic and social development in China, the key fields of basic and applied fire safety research that need to be addressed are analysed and discussed. The main objectives with respect to fire safety, as specified in the tenth-five-year plan are also presented. They include: implementing the responsibility for firefighting safety at the local and enterprise level; maintaining the integrity of firefighting equipment; improving firefighting research and development.
Safety Science, Aug. 2004, Vol.42, No.7, p.627-637. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 04-185
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Use of fire protection systems based on oxygen-displacing gases
Einsatz von Feuerlöschanlagen mit sauerstoffverdrängenden Gasen [in German]
Contents of this update of the guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association of July 1998 concerning the use of fire fighting equipment based on oxygen-displacing gases: scope; definitions; general requirements; requirements applicable to buildings and equipment (alarm systems, latency time before operation, stop devices, blocking devices, earthing, escape ways, automatically-closing doors, danger warning signs); how the equipment works; re-entering the premises after use of the system. In appendices: sign-off form for the receipt of gas extinguishing equipment that does not present a hazard to persons; related directives, rules and standards. Previous edition: ZH 1/206.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 2004. 21p.

CIS 03-1851 Alonso Valle F.
Fire and explosion hazards in oxygen-enriched atmospheres
Riesgo de incendio y explosión en atmósferas sobreoxigenadas [in Spanish]
Oxygen is frequently used in industry or medicine in compressed gas or liquefied form. The objective of this information note is to make users of oxygen aware of the fire and explosion hazards resulting from oxygen-enriched atmospheres. Contents: physical properties of oxygen; uses; containers and colour-coding of gas cylinders; flammability and explosibility characteristics; situations that may give rise to fire or explosion hazards; ignition sources in oxygen-enriched atmospheres; technical prevention measures; oxygen detection methods; training and information of workers; procedures to be followed in the event of fires caused by oxygen; oxygen compatibility with of various materials.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 6p. Illus. 5 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 05-746 Haslam C., Mallon K.
A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters
This preliminary study investigated symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTDS) among firefighters in relation to their experience of traumatic events and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire service workers completed an adapted version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) questionnaire. They were also individually interviewed. Rumination and sleep disturbance were the most commonly reported PTDS symptoms. Participants reported having benefited from high levels of social support from within the service and outside. The results suggest that fire service personnel are at risk of developing some symptoms of PTDS; however most had not experienced severe enough symptoms for PTDS to be diagnosed. High levels of social support may play a role in buffering firefighters from the development of PTDS.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.17, No.3, p.277-285. 25 ref.

CIS 04-171
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical warehousing - The storage of packaged dangerous substances
This booklet provides guidance on the hazards associated with the storage of packaged dangerous substances and is aimed at persons directly responsible for the safe storage. Contents: objectives; introduction; hazards; safety precautions; fire precautions and emergency procedures; legal requirements. It consists of a revised edition of the booklet analysed under CIS 98-1434, with references to current legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Jan. 2003. v, 62p. Illus. 112 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 04-186 Petit J.M., Falcy M.
Fire protection at the workplace - Gaseous extinguishing agents used in fixed fire suppression equipment
Sécurité incendie sur les lieux de travail - Les agents extincteurs gazeux utilisés dans les installations fixes d'extinction [in French]
Fixed fire suppression equipment using gaseous extinguishing agents may be recommended for the protection of numerous workplaces, particularly where fire is a major hazard, or in premises housing costly equipment. This guide provides potential users in France, particularly those responsible for fire safety, with information necessary to better understand the extinguishing agents they are likely to come across. Contents: areas of application; description of gases used; hazards related to decomposition products; access to premises following emissions; regulations; instructions for use. Appendices include the 15 November 2001 Recommendation of the Chemical Ecotoxicity Assessment Committee concerning the use of certain halon substitutes in fire fighting and a code of practice on halon recovery and disposal.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.191, p.49-60. Illus. 21 ref.$FILE/nd2191.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1848 Houlding R.C., Pew P.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of benefits of fire compartmentation in chemical warehouses
This report concerns the fire protection measures that can be applied in non-pesticide chemical warehouses. Specific advice for the design of such warehousing is lacking, particularly with regard to the minimization of off-site hazards by taking into account the effects of dispersion of smoke. The report discusses the benefit of various compartment wall options in mitigating fire hazards, and describes the development of a model for comparing the risk reduction resulting from the installation of different fire protection measures within a chemical warehouse site. The model considers the relative benefit of fire protection measures in limiting fire spread. The report also discusses potential areas for model improvement.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. ii, 55p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1531
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Tetrabromobisphenol A
Conclusions of this criteria document: there are no data concerning the effects of tetrabromobisphenol A (TTBPA) in humans. TTBPA is very toxic to various aquatic organisms. In animals, TTBA is considered to be of low toxicity after inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Data on in vivo genotoxicity, fertility and carcinogenicity are lacking.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2003. xviii, 132p. 143 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1854
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing the risk of fire or explosion during the manufacture of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) products
Several combustible substances may be found in fibre laminating workshops, including peroxides, toluene, styrene, acetone and plastic dust liberated during milling. This information sheet covers the control of fire and explosion hazards in fibre laminating workshops. It can be used to help carry out hazard evaluations and decide on the control measures necessary to comply with the law. Contents: hazards; control measures (daily, monthly and annual checks); control measures appropriate for each of the substances during storage, use, spillage, recovery and disposal.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2003. 4p.12 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1676 Walton S.M., Conrad K.M., Furner S.E., Samo D.G.
Cause, type and workers' compensation costs of injury to firefighters
Work-related injury rates in firefighting exceed those for most other industries. However, little is known about the cost of injury to firefighters. In this study, 1,343 claims collected from workers' compensation records collected in northeastern Illinois (United States) between 1992-1999 were analysed in detail. Regression analysis enabled summary statistics to be presented by cause, nature and cost of injury to firefighters. Overexertion accounted for over one third of all injuries to firefighters, typically involving injuries to the back, and was associated with significantly higher costs than other types of injuries. The per-claim average workers' compensation cost of injury to firefighters was USD 5,168 and the average for injuries caused by overexertion was USD 9,715. Overexertion is a costly source of injury to firefighters, although it can probably be reduced through policy intervention.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.454-458. 13 ref.

CIS 03-1336 Fuertes Peña J., Rubio Romero J.C.
Comparative analysis of the main methods for evaluating fire hazards
Análisis comparativo de los principales métodos de evaluación del riesgo de incendio [in Spanish]
This article summarizes the characteristics of eight methods for evaluating fire hazards (K coefficient and ALPHA factors method, Edwin E. Smith and G.A. Herpol method, intrinsic risk method, Meseri method, Gustav Purt method, Gretener method, ERIC method, FRAM method), and discusses the conclusions drawn from applying six of these methods to a real case. It turns out that it is difficult make global, unique and definite evaluations of the fire hazard, which is why different methods are available. The choice of one or another of the methods should be made according to the specified requirements and the objectives defined.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.25, p.12-17. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 03-1346
Health and Safety Executive
Control and mitigation measures - Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 - Approved code of practice and guidance
The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR) (see CIS 03-1035) are concerned with the protection of workers against fires, explosions and similar events arising from the presence of dangerous substances in he workplace. This approved code of practice on control and mitigation measures is part of a series intended to help enterprises in the implementation of DSEAR. Contents: assessment of risks (release of dangerous substances, ignition sources, separation); elimination or reduction of dangerous substances (ventilation, control of ignition, separation). Appendices define and explain the concepts of "fire resistance" and "fire reaction".
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2003. vi, 25p. 52 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 03-1340
Health and Safety Executive
Safe handling of combustible dusts - Precautions against explosions
This guidance document provides advice on the prevention and mitigation of dust explosions and fires. Contents: legal framework; characteristics of dust explosions; effects of a dust explosion; prevention or mitigation of effects of a dust explosion (risk assessment, control over dust cloud formation, inerting, control over sources of ignition, classification of the area, equipment used in classified areas, plant design and controls, mitigation measures, explosion relief venting, containment and suppression, plant siting and construction); interconnected plant; verification before first use; fires involving combustible dusts; examples of protection in two plants; human factors. In appendices: dust explosion testing; applicable legislation; list of laboratories undertaking testing of flammable dusts; zone definitions. (Replaces CIS 94-1364).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2003. iv, 36p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: GBP 10.95.

CIS 03-840 Ashe B.S.W., Rew P.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Effects of flashfires on building occupants
This report analyses the likelihood of secondary ignition of the interior of buildings, based on the incident heat from a fire event and the duration of exposure to the event. It incorporates evacuation behaviour, making an assessment of the proportion of occupants who do not escape from the secondary fire. Due to the lack of data on the evacuation behaviour relating to external fires, case studies are used to estimate particular behaviour patterns. The key finding of this study is the increased probability of fatalities of building occupants due to multi-point ignition events, as compared to that for a single ignition. The model was used to generate typical scenarios.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. iv, 56p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]


CIS 08-275
Health and Safety Executive
Landlords - A guide to landlords' duties: Gas and Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998
This leaflet aimed at landlords explains some of the main requirements of the Gas and Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 (see CIS 00-924), namely: main duties of the landlord; equipment covered by the Regulations, landlord's responsibilities; possible penalties faced by landlord if the tenants' gas appliances are not maintained; what to do in the event of a gas escape.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 8p. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1337 Prasad R.
Fire prevention and protection at the plant level
This article presents the fire prevention efforts undertaken by a major oil products supplier in India, in particular during the design, construction and operation of oil refineries. A box includes the company's safety, health and environmental policy.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.68-74. Illus.

CIS 03-680 Soteriades E.S., Kales S.N., Liarokapis D., Christoudias S.G., Tucker S.A., Christiani D.C.
Lipid profile of firefighters over time: Opportunities for prevention
Heart disease is the primary cause of on-duty deaths in firefighters, but little is known about their lipid profile. In this study, the lipid profile was evaluated in relation to other cardiovascular disease risk factors in 321 firefighters at a baseline examination. Comparisons were performed for 285 of these firefighters four years later. The average cholesterol level declined from 224mg/dL to 214mg/dL. Conversely, both obesity (body mass index ≥30) and triglycerides (≥200mg/dL) increased over time. The proportion of firefighters taking lipid-lowering medications increased from 3% to 12%. Despite the declines in cholesterol levels and increases in treatment rates, a considerable number of firefighters had persistently elevated cholesterol, and only a minority were receiving adequate treatment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.840-846. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 03-847
Health and Safety Executive
The safe use and handling of flammable liquids
This booklet provides information on the fire and explosion hazards associated with flammable liquids and describes practical measures to protect workers. It is aimed at persons directly responsible for the safe use and handling of flammable liquids in all general work activities and in small-scale chemical processing, as well as at safety specialists and industry associations. Contents: scope; hazards; precautions; sources of ignition; ventilation; health precautions; maintenance; housekeeping; disposal of flammable liquids; information and training; general fire precautions; emergency procedures. Appendices include: legal requirements; fire-resisting structures; hazardous area classification.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 66p. Illus. 81 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 03-854 Fire fighters exposed to electrical hazards during wildland fire operations - Description of hazard
Bomberos expuestos a riesgos eléctricos durante operaciones de extinción de incendios en terrenos sin cultivar - Descripción del riesgo [in Spanish]
Electrical hazards are among the various hazards faced by fire fighters during waste land fire operations. Between 1980 and 1999, ten firefighters died from contact with electricity during wasteland fires. Contents of this information note on electrical hazards to fire fighters during wasteland fire operations: situations where fire fighters can be exposed to electrical shock hazards; description of two accident cases; measures to be implemented by fire departments and fire fighters to prevent electrocution, electrical shock and electricity-related burns while fighting wasteland fires.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 2002. 4p. 9 ref. [in Spanish] [in English] [in English]

CIS 03-442
Health and Safety Commission
Legionnaires' disease - The control of legionella bacteria in water systems
This approved code of practice and guidance replaces two separate documents: the 1995 edition of the code of practice (CIS 95-1523) and the technical guidance HSG70. It also takes into account recent technical developments and alternative strategies for controlling risks of legionellosis and limiting exposure to legionella. Contents: scope and application; identification and assessment of the risk; management responsibilities, training and competence; preventing or controlling the risk of exposure to legionella; record-keeping; responsibilities of manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers; cooling systems and hot and cold water services (design and construction, management; treatment programmes; monitoring; cleaning and disinfection).
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2002. vi, 62p. lllus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 8.00.

CIS 03-371 Fabio A., Ta M., Strotmeyer S., Li W., Schmidt E.
Incident-level risk factors for firefighter injuries at structural fires
Firefighting is a demanding occupation, involving many hazardous exposures which can result in traumatic injuries. However, there is little epidemiological evidence quantifying these factors. An incident-level case-control study of National Fire Incident Reporting System data was conducted on the association between firefighter injury and incident characteristics. Risk factors included five or more alarms (odds ratio OR=3.85), number of stories (OR=2.49), and at least one civilian injury (OR=3.69). Risk of injury was reduced for fires originating 49 feet and higher (OR=0.57). This analysis suggests that fire site-specific situations such as the number of stories or a civilian injury increase the risk of firefighter injury.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.44, No.11, p.1059-1063. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 03-374 Zimmermann M., Maqueda J., Almodóvar A., de la Orden V., Tejedor M., Hervás P., de Vicente M.A., Arévalo A.
Analysis of occupational accidents caused by explosion and fire
Análisis de accidentes de trabajo producidos por explosiones e incendios [in Spanish]
Data on occupational accidents due to explosions (n=734) and fires (n=665) that occurred in Spain in 1999 are analysed. Among occupational accidents due to explosions, 76 had serious consequences and eight were fatal. As for occupational accidents due to fires, 48 had serious consequences and eight were fatal. Tables present statistical data by causal agent, by province, as a function of the time in the day and by sector of activity.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.20, p.22-34. Illus.

CIS 03-368 Soria García-Ramos P.
Performance-based design for fire protection: The answer or the problem?
Protección contra incendios basada en el cumplimiento de objetivos: ¿la solución o el problema? [in Spanish]
A new concept is on the point of being introduced into Spanish legislation concerning the protection of buildings against fire, that of performance-based design. This approach is carried out in parallel with the design based on legal requirements. This article describes the principles of this approach and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of this new objective, both from the standpoints of building design and building use and maintenance. It highlights the need of a change in thinking among all parties involved in the design, the management and use of a building.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.87, p.17-21. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 03-437 Rautiala S.H., Nevalainen A.I., Kalliokoski P.J.
Firefighting efforts may lead to massive fungal growth and exposure within one week: A case report
This article describes a case of extensive fungal growth that occurred in an apartment building as soon as eight days after a firefighting intervention. High concentrations of fungal spores, 107cfu/g, were found when material samples were analysed. Concentrations of airborne fungal spores (104 spores/m3) were also high and increased by two orders of magnitude during the demolition and evacuation of mouldy building materials. The results show that fast and extensive mould growth in a building may take place also in sub-arctic zones, at least during summer. High concentrations of fungal spores are released to the air during the demolition of mouldy building materials and the following clean-up. Therefore, personal protection is necessary during the demolition of contaminated building materials and their evacuation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.3, p.303-308. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1864 Fahy R.F., Leblanc P.R.
2001 firefighter fatalities report
The worst loss of firefighters in the history of the United States occurred on 11 September 2001, when the Fire Department of New York City lost 340 workers in the collapse of the towers of the World Trade Center. This article focuses, however, on the 99 other firefighters who died on duty in 2001, as a reminder that such fatalities take place every year. Statistics cover the following aspects: long-term trends in fatalities, the number of fires and the death rate per fire; fatalities as a function of age; fatalities as a function of the nature of injury; major causes of fatal accidents (burns, smoke inhalation, crushing injuries). Twelve short descriptions of fatal accidents having occurred in 2001 are included.
NFPA Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.96, No.4, p.68-80. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 02-1878
Health and Safety Executive
Construction fire safety
This information sheet aimed at persons managing or working on smaller sites where risks are relatively low sets out basic measures for construction fire safety. It lists the precautions for preventing fire occurring and to be prepared for fire if it occurs (alarm, means of escape, fire-fighting equipment, emergency plans, information of personnel). Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 98-271).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2002. 2p. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1529 Ministerial Standard on OSH concerning the prevention and extinction of fires in workplaces [Nicaragua]
Norma ministerial de higiene y seguridad del trabajador relativa a la prevención y extinción de incendios en los lugares de trabajo [in Spanish]
Contents of this legal standard on fire safety: definitions; responsibilities of employers and workers; fire prevention; workplace structures (fireproof construction); interior layout of workplaces with a fire hazard; passageways, corridors, doors and windows; stairways; passenger and goods lifts; special fire precautions on industrial premises; storage, handling and transportation of flammable materials; portable fire extinguishers; classification of fires; different methods of fire fighting; evacuation plans; emergency exits; fire detectors; training and personal protective equipment; alarms and fire drills.
La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Nicaragua), 21 June 2002, Year 106, No.116, p.4315-4323.

CIS 02-1970 Borel P., Giudicelli M.C., Klarsy D., Liégois J.M.
Work in sewers: Study of heart rate during accelerated searches for leaks
Travail en égout: étude cardiofréquencemétrique des recherches accélérées de fuites (RAF) [in French]
There are few occupational health studies of the strenuous nature of work in sewers. Heart rate measurements during work are a good way of evaluating cardiac strain. Ten cardiofrequency plots were obtained from workers of a water utility. Nine were usable. These measurements confirmed the high cardiac strain associated with this type of work. It is advised that persons required to work in sewers undergo a cardiac check-up before they are assigned to the task.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.505-511. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1869 Munns P.A., Luong Y., Rew P.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Fire risk assessment for workplaces containing flammable substances
This study was undertaken with the purpose of assessing the effectiveness of current United Kingdom guidance relating to the control of fire hazards in workplaces containing flammable substances. Data relating to fires involving flammable substances (excluding offshore, mining, waste and transport accidents) were gathered and assessed with respect to the effectiveness of guidance in reducing fire risk. A method for a risk-based assessment of the fire safety within workplaces containing flammable substances was developed, its purpose being to enable high-risk buildings or processes to be identified and to rank the workplace with respect to risk.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 59p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1862 Hodous T.K., Washenitz F., Newton B.
Occupational burns from oxygen resuscitator fires: The hazard of aluminum regulators
There were more than 30 incidents of oxygen resuscitator fires in the United States during the period 1996-2002, causing severe burns to fire fighters, ambulance workers, emergency medical service personnel, health care workers and patients. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was requested to investigate three such incidents. NIOSH conducted site investigations of the incidents, and the oxygen resuscitators were sent to a testing laboratory for analysis of the fire causes. The three investigated fires were associated with aluminium regulators from the same manufacturer, mounted on oxygen cylinders. It was found that the cause of the fires was an initial small ignition in the high-pressure area of the aluminum regulator, which then resulted in a massive burnout. Aluminium regulators used with compressed oxygen cylinders are subject to potentially catastrophic combustion during normal use. Replacement of such regulators as well as education and improved safety practices are needed to reduce this hazard.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.63-69. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1747 Giguère D., Marchand D.
Low-back pain and musculoskeletal injuries among fire fighters - Identification and analysis of hazardous situations during vehicle access and the handling of tools
Lombalgies et accidents musculosquelettiques chez les pompiers - Identification et analyse des situations à risque lors de l'accès aux véhicules et de la manutention d'outils [in French]
Due to the nature of their work, fire fighters are vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders. Statistics show that sprains are among the most frequent lesions. The back is the main location of injury, followed by the feet and the ankles. Body movements, layouts of workplaces and vehicles are among the causes that are mentioned the most often. The purpose of this study was to identify hazardous tasks or situations in relation to fire fighting vehicles, to analyse the tasks and biomechanical constraints and to recommend ergonomic improvements. Various methods of acceding to vehicles were studied at two fire fighting stations. Practices with respect to the handling and use of tools and equipment were studied among 32 experienced fire fighters (28 men and four women) working at nine fire fighting stations. Several recommendations are made in the areas of vehicle access and the handling and storage of tools.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. [1 vol. ] Illus. 61 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM. [in French]

CIS 02-1942 Averhoff F.M., Moyer L.A., Woodruff B.A., Deladisma A.M., Nunnery J., Alter M.J., Margolis H.S.
Occupational exposures and risk of hepatitis B virus infection among public safety workers
A questionnaire and seroprevalence survey was conducted to determine the frequency and type of occupational exposures (OEs) and the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection experienced by public safety workers (PSWs). Of the 2910 PSWs who completed the survey, 6.8% reported at least one OE in the previous 6 months, including needlestick (1.0%), being cut with a contaminated object (2.8%), mucous membrane exposure to blood (0.9%), and being bitten by a human (3.5%). The rate of OE varied by occupation with 2.7% of firefighters, 3.2% of sheriff officers, 6.6% of corrections officers, and 7.4% of police officers reporting ≥1 OE. The HBV infection prevalence was 8.6%, and after adjustment for age and race, it was comparable to the overall US prevalence and did not vary by occupation. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine to PSWs early in their careers will prevent HBV infection associated with occupational and non-OEs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.591-596. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1941 Rischitelli G., McCauley L., Lambert W.E., Lasarev M., Mahoney E.
Hepatitis C in urban and rural public safety workers
A sample of 719 Oregon public safety personnel (police officers, firefighters and corrections officers) was tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody after completing a risk questionnaire. Seven of nine positive enzyme immunoassay tests (78%) were confirmed with recombinant immunoblot assay, yielding confirmed prevalence estimates of 1.2% among the 406 firefighters and emergency medical technicians, and 0.7% in 274 corrections personnel. No cases were observed in the 29 participating police officers. Self-reports of the number of workplace exposures to blood were not associated with HCV positivity, and the number of years of public safety employment seemed to be slightly less for HCV-positive subjects. Two of the seven (28.6%) HCV-positive individuals reported having at least one non-occupational risk factor (odds ratio, 4.3), suggesting the greater relative importance of non-occupational exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.568-573. 21 ref.

CIS 02-1831 Caux C., O'Brien C., Viau C.
Determination of firefighter exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene during fire fighting using measurement of biological indicators
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene among firefighters was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and trans,trans-muconic acid (TTMA), respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period extending for 20h following the end of exposure during a fire. A control sample was also obtained from each participant after at least four days without involvement in fire fighting activities. Following exposure to fire, the level of 1-hydroxypyrene exceeded 0.32µmol/mol creatinine value in 38% of the cases. 17 firefighters had measurable TTMA in the urine samples, among which only 6 had concentrations exceeding 1.1mmol/mol creatinine considered to correspond to a benzene concentration of approximately 1ppm. The low exposure evaluations could be due to either low concentrations of the contaminants during fire fighting or to the efficiency of protective equipment worn.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.379-386. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 02-1860 Dosne R.
Fire in the tunnel of the A 86 motorway under construction
Incendie dans le tunnel en chantier de l'autoroute A 86 [in French]
This article describes the fire that occurred on 5 March 2002 during drilling work in a tunnel of the future Paris bypass motorway. 19 construction workers at the site were trapped for more than five hours, but were able to escape unharmed thanks to their discipline, training, familiarity with the site (which enabled an efficient rescue effort) and the high level of coordination between the persons responsible for the site and rescue workers. Four fire scenarios had been prepared. Even if none corresponded exactly to this incident, they no doubt helped manage the intervention efforts.
Face au risque, June-July 2002, No.384, p.38-41. Illus.

CIS 02-1859 Bluteau T., André C.
The emulsifier standard EN 1568
Norme émulseurs EN 1568 [in French]
These two articles discuss the contents of EN 1568, a new European standard on emulsifiers having come into effect in March 2001. The first article highlights progress that this standard represents, in particular the fact that fire testing takes place under conditions close to those of real interventions, and the more stringent requirements with respect to heat stability, viscosity measurements and the propensity to form a film. The second article highlights the weaknesses of the NF EN 1568 standards and discusses issues not addressed by these standards (miscibility, compatibility with other emulsifiers and extinguishing agents, ecotoxicity, biodegradability and corrosiveness.
Face au risque, June-July 2002, No.384, p.31; 33. Illus.

CIS 02-1408 Fuertes Peña J., Rubio Romero J.C.
The FRAME method for evaluating fire risk
El método FRAME de evaluación del riesgo de incendio [in Spanish]
This article presents the FRAME (Fire risk assessment method for engineering) method for evaluating the risk of fire in buildings as a function of three parameters: the value (building envelope and contents), the occupants and the activities carried out within the building. The calculations take into account the potential hazard, the admissible risk and the level or protection, together with a number of additional factors such as thermal load, propagation, geometry, floors, ventilation, access, activation, evacuation time, contents, reserves in water and fire resistance.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2002, No.159, p.52-66. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-738 Szubert Z., Sobala W.
Work-related injuries among firefighters: Sites and circumstances of their occurrence
To determine the injury ratio, causes and duration of temporal work disability from on-duty injuries among firefighters, a sample of 1503 firefighters from 29 fire stations who were employed between 1994 and 1997 was studied. Data examined included the number of days and cases of work disability due to on-duty injury, personal data (age, work duration) and data on the circumstances of injury. The analysis revealed that the large proportion of injuries (40%) occurred during compulsory physical training, being responsible for 41% of post-injury absence at work. The workers employed for less than one year were at highest risk of injury. Injuries during emergency operations made 25% of all injuries and accounted for 24% of post-injury absence. The frequency of injuries was not significantly aged-dependent, however, the duration of work disability was found to increase by 20% with increasing age of workers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.1, p.49-55. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 02-887 Gale M.
Fire protection yearbook 2002
This edition of the yearbook contains the following information: fire risk assessment in small enterprises; safety measures in small enterprises; the fire certificate and how it can be obtained; fire services in the UK (including a map of fire brigade areas and an address list of fire brigades); UK fire organizations; fire testing in Europe; sources of further information; the Fire Protection Association (FPA) and its services; major fire protection associations in other countries and at the European level; list of FPA publications, training programmes and accredited consultants: buyers' guide to fire protection equipment. 2001 edition abstracted: CIS 01-1795.
Fire Protection Association, Bastille Court, 2 Paris Garden, London SE1 8ND, United Kingdom, 2002. 335p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index. Price: GBP 25.00

CIS 02-888 Kacimi F., Guérin S.
Fire hazards
Le risque incendie [in French]
Contents of this safety guide on fire hazards: origins and propagation of fire (definitions, origins, propagation); consequences (on humans, on buildings); means of prevention (suppression and limitations of causes, design and construction of buildings, firefighting techniques); emergency organization (training and information of personnel, safety rules, escape and exit procedures, first aid and rescue).
Cahier Pratique Tissot - Guide de la santé, sécurité au travail, Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France, Jan. 2002, No.10, p.1-32 (whole issue). Illus.


CIS 04-685 Duarte Viejo G., Piqué Ardanuy T.
Safety regulations on fire precautions in industrial establishments (RD 786/2001)
Reglamento de seguridad contra incendios en establecimientos industriales (RD 786/2001) [in Spanish]
The aim of this information note is to help enterprises implement the requirements of the technical appendices to the Regulations on fire precautions in industrial establishments (RD 786/2001, CIS 02-21). Contents: provisions of appendix 1 on the characterization of industrial establishments with respect to fire safety (layout and location of industrial establishments as a function of their environment, intrinsic fire hazards); provisions of appendix 2 on the requirements with respect to construction as a function of the plant hazard level (maximum surface area of fire sectors, fire behaviour of construction elements, integrity of structural elements in the advent of fire, fire resistance of separation elements, number of escape and evacuation ways and their layout, ventilation and smoke evacuation); provisions of appendix 3 on the requirements with respect to fire protection as a function of the type of plant (detection systems, extinguishing systems, alarm systems); related legislation and applicable standards.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 8p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 04-684 Duarte Viejo G., Piqué Ardanuy T.
Risk evaluation in case of fire: Criteria
Evaluación del riesgo de incendio: criterios [in Spanish]
This information note specifies the criteria for evaluating fire hazards. Contents: general considerations on fire hazards; hazard evaluation (probability of initiation, damage caused by the fire); active and passive preventive measures; check-lists for risk factors (initiation and propagation factors) and safety measures (evacuation and means of fire fighting); methods for evaluating fire hazards (α factor methods, k coefficient method, Gretener method, Gustav Purt method); provisions concerning fire hazard evaluation according to the Regulations on fire precautions in industrial establishments (CIS 02-21).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 5p. 9 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-109
Health and Safety Executive
Fire safety in construction work
Training guide and manual on fire prevention and fire fighting in relation to construction work in the United Kingdom. Main topics covered: prevention of fires; reduction of ignition sources; general fire precautions; emergency procedures; fire safety in temporary accommodation units and sleeping accommodation. In appendices: enforcement authorities; scope of the Fire Certificates (Special Premises) Regulations 1976; responsibilities for fire safety on a construction site. Replaces CIS 97-1482.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. viii, 48p. Illus. 70 ref. Price: GBP 8.95.

CIS 03-207 Choi B.C.K.
Mathematical procedure to adjust for the healthy worker effect: The case of firefighting, diabetes and heart disease
This article describes a mathematical procedure to adjust for one component of the healthy worker effect (HWE), namely, the healthy hired effect, such that among firefighters, the exclusion of individuals with diabetes leads to lower-than-expected heart disease deaths. Three examples from real studies are provided to illustrate the application of the mathematical procedure. It can be applied to adjust for other components of the HWE, such as the exclusion of obese individuals and smokers at the time of hire.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1057-1063. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1278 Kales S.N., Freyman R.L., Hill J.M., Polyhronopoulos G.N., Aldrich J.M., Christiani D.C.
Firefighters' hearing: A comparison with population databases from the International Standards Organization
This study investigated firefighters' hearing relative to general population. For five groups of male firefighters with increasing mean ages, their hearing thresholds at the 50th and 90th percentiles were compared with normative and age- and sex-matched hearing data from the standardized ISO and United States population databases (databases A and B, respectively). At the 50th percentile, from a mean age of 28 to a mean age of 53 years, relative to databases A and B, the firefighters lost an excess of 19 to 23dB, 20 to 23dB, and 16 to 19dB at 3000, 4000, and 6000Hz, respectively. At the 90th percentile, from a mean age of 28 to a mean age of 53 years, relative to databases A and B, the firefighters lost an excess of 12 to 20dB, 38 to 44dB, 41 to 45dB, and 22 to 28dB at 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000Hz, respectively. The results are consistent with accelerated hearing loss in excess of age-expected loss among the firefighters, especially at or above the 90th percentile.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.650-656. 19 ref.

CIS 02-737 Austin C.C., Dussault G., Ecobichon D.J.
Municipal firefighter exposure groups, time spent at fires and use of self-contained-breathing-apparatus
The objective of this study was to develop better estimates of firefighter exposures for use in future epidemiological studies. The study population consisted of the 1883 firefighters of the fire department of the city of Montreal. The storage and distribution of self-contained-breathing-apparatus (SCBAs) were tracked for 12 months. Time spent at fires and use of SCBAs were calculated. Eight firefighter exposure groups were identified (based on job title, assignment to a fire district and time spent at fires), ranging from no exposures to 3,244min/year/firefighter. SCBAs appear to have been used for approximately 50% of the time at structural fires but for only 6% of the time at all fires. Failure of previous studies to identify homogeneous exposure groups may have resulted in misclassification and underestimates of health risks. The approach used in this study should facilitate the highlighting of exposure/response relationships in future epidemiological studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.683-692. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 02-884 Chakrabarti C.S.
Foam systems for fire protection in petroleum storage tanks
Hydrocarbon storage tanks are a source of fire hazard and require elaborate fire protection systems in India to ensure safety. This article describes foam-based fire-extinguishing systems specially suited for hydrocarbon storage tanks. Contents: types of storage tanks; fire risk in storage tanks; fire protection in petroleum storage tanks; foam as an extinguishing medium; foam concentrates; selection of foam for hydrocarbon tank fires; foam application; preparation of the foam solution; generation and distribution of foam; sub-surface foam injection systems.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.XXXI, No.4, p.57-61. Illus.

CIS 02-21 Royal Decree No.786/2001 of 6 July 2001 approving the safety regulations on fire precautions in industrial establishments [Spain]
Real Decreto 786/2001, de 6 de julio, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de Seguridad contra incendios en los establecimientos industriales [España] [in Spanish]
This decree implements fire safety regulations for industry, including those covering industrial storage establishments and vehicle repair shops and parking facilities. Contents: new site preparation, construction and start-up of new industries; periodic inspections; reporting of fires; minimum fire safety standards; responsibilities and penalties for non-compliance. In annex: classification of industrial establishments from the viewpoint of fire safety; safety codes for buildings in relation to their layout, location and level of intrinsic risk; general fire safety requirements of industrial establishments; list of relevant Spanish (UNE) standards.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 30 July 2001, Year 341, No.181. Illus. [in Spanish]

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