Fires - 2,022 entries found
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Brandt-Rauf P.W., Cosman B., Fleming Fallon L., Tarantini T., Idema C.
Health hazards of firefighters: acute pulmonary effects after toxic exposures
As part of an environmental monitoring and medical surveillance programme to evaluate potential health hazards from firefighting, complete baseline medical examinations were performed on a cohort of 77 firefighters. During a 10-day study period, 37 follow-up medical examinations were performed after exposure to fire to monitor any significant differences in pre-fire and post-fire physiological indices, including pulmonary function and blood counts and chemistries. For the group as a whole, no significant differences were found. For individuals not wearing respiratory protective equipment, however, statistically significant post-fire decrements in FEV1 and FVC were noted. These decrements were consistent with previously shown levels of exposure to pulmonary toxicants in this cohort. These results support the need for more extensive use of respiratory protective equipment by firefighters.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.46, No.3, p.209-211. 14 ref.
Foam protection systems
This fire safety data sheet on foam protection systems covers: uses and applications; classification; foam generating systems (fixed, semi-fixed and portable systems); foam application rate; foam quality selection; special applications. It is usable for training.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India, 1988. 6p. Illus. 8 ref.
Decision on the measures to take on fire protection in industrial enterprises and their warehouses, as well as in warehouses where inflammable and explosive substances are stored [Greece]
Lēpsē metrōn puroprostasias stis Biomehanikes-Biotehnikes egkatastaseis kai apothēkes autōn kathōs kai apothēkes euflektōn kai ekrēktikōn ulōn [in Greek]
Regulation on fire protection measures in industrial enterprises and their storage areas, as well as in storage areas for inflammable and explosive substances. In annex: classification of enterprises according to their fire hazards; classification of fire protection measures.
In: Egheiridio nomothesias ugieinēs kai asfaleias tēs ergasias (ISBN 960-7389-04-2), Ellēniko Institouto Ugieinēs & Asfaleias tēs Ergasias, Patēsiōn 89, 104 34 Athēna, Greece, 1994, p.1039-1067 (Vol.B). Also in: Efēmeris tēs kubernēseōs, 22 Apr. 1988, No.241 B'.
Presidential decree concerning the regulation of fire protection in buildings [Greece]
Kanonismos puroprostasias tōn ktiriōn [in Greek]
Regulations on fire protection measures in new buildings. Contents: definitions; classification of buildings according to their use; fire protection in industry and warehouses.
In: Egheiridio nomothesias ugieinēs kai asfaleias tēs ergasias (ISBN 960-7389-04-2), Ellēniko Institouto Ugieinēs & Asfaleias tēs Ergasias, Patēsiōn 89, 104 34 Athēna, Greece, 1994, p.1028-1038. (Vol.B). Illus. Also in: Efēmeris tēs kubernēseōs, 17 Feb. 1988, No.32 A.
Clay G.A., Fitzpatrick R.D., Hurst N.W., Carter D.A., Crossthwaite P.J.
Risk assessment for installations where liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is stored in bulk vessels above ground
Methods of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) are described which will be used by the Health and Safety Executive for the risk assessment of installations where LPG is stored in bulk vessels above ground. Models are used to calculate the consequences of potential accidents involving fireballs, flash fires, vapour cloud explosions and jet flames. Levels of thermal radiation, blast overpressure and individual risk are calculated. If the population distribution around the installation is included, levels of societal risk can also be calculated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 1988, Vol.20, p.357-374. Illus. 15 ref.
Experiments and modelling: An overview with particular reference to fire engulfment
This paper discusses general modelling and experimental requirements, various modelling approaches currently used and model validation in the light of available data. The consequences and physical processes involved in losses of containment of pressurised liquefied gases are also discussed. Computer models for assessing the consequences of fire on LPG type storage vessels are reviewed along with experimental data currently available for model validation purposes.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 1988, Vol.20, p.149-175. Illus. 33 ref.
The hospital kitchen as a source of fire - Hygiene is the best protection against fire
Brandherd Krankenhausküche - Hygiene ist der beste Brandschutz für die Küche [in German]
Exhaust hood filters in hospital kitchens clogged by grease are a source of fire. Fire protection measures include: periodic washing of filters (intervals between cleaning should not be longer than 4 days); proper selection of material for and design of ventilation ducts; automatic fire extinguishers integrated into the exhaust hood.
Krankenhaustechnik, Dec. 1988, Vol.14, No.12, p.54-56. Illus.
Passive smoking at work
This booklet provides information about passive smoking at work. It suggests ways of reducing the exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke at work, and answers some common questions about risks to the health of non-smokers from tobacco smoke. Contact addresses for further information are provided.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 10p.
Igišev V.G., Portola V.A.
Effects of foam curtains on air leaks via coal mine goafs
Vlijanie pennyh zaves na utečki vozduha čerez vyrabotannoe prostranstvo [in Russian]
Air egresses from coal mine goafs into active workings create a major fire and toxic hazard because oxidation of the residual coal is promoted and firedamp spreads. It is thus important to seal off the active workings from worked-out spaces. Some mines treat their goafs with foamed suspensions and water-air and inert foams (in the form of foam curtains), exploiting the insulating properties of foams. This study used an electric model simulating a goaf of a flat coal seam 450m to the strike and 90m to the dip. The internal leaks caused by a pressure gradient of 100Pa between a vent drift and a conveyor drift were modelled. The findings testify to the necessity of regulating the location of foam curtains inside mine goaves. In flat seams, foam curtains are best upt up in the most hazardous zones adjoining vent and conveyor drifts in the vicinity of a working face.
Ugol', Nov. 1988, No.11, p.41-42. Illus.
Fire hazards of pesticides
Požarnaja opasnost' pesticidov [in Russian]
Contents: fire and explosion hazards of chemical agents for plant protection (fire hazards of preparation and application, fire and explosive characteristics of pesticides, thermal decomposition of pesticides and their self-ignition on reaction with water and oxidants, formation of hazardous mixtures in confined spaces, sources of ignition); safe storage and transportation (limitation of propagation of fires, disposal of chemicals and containers, fire safety training); special features of fire propagation and suppression in pesticide store-rooms; first aid in case of intoxication during a fire. Appendices: fire and explosion hazards of important pesticides and recommended fire-fighting devices; pesticide mixtures; example of a plan for fire-fighting in pesticide and mineral fertiliser store-rooms; model fire safety instructions for pesticide store-rooms; maintenance of fire-fighting equipment, communication devices and water supply systems.
Rosagropromizdat, Kržižanovskogo ul. 15, korp. 2, 117218 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 143p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.45.
Vasil'ev N.F., Hohlov N.N.
Detection of underground fires by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration change monitoring in return ventilation streams
Obnaruženie podzemnyj požarov po izmeneniju koncentracii okisi ugleroda v ishodjaščih strujah vozduha [in Russian]
The proposed Soviet system, SIGMA-SO, is based on the continuous monitoring of CO levels in coal mine return ventilation streams, with data presentation on a recorder chart. CO build-up may result from a multitude of factors other than a fire, such as coal or wood oxidation, mining processes (blasting, coal transport, etc.), spontaneous combustion of coal, etc. An equation obtained for deriving total CO levels in return air as a sum of different variables, has thus to be computer-processed in order to eliminate the interfering factors, (a) mean CO level does not exceed the mine's natural background of the working being monitored, a seat of fire is non-existent; (b) the mean level grows steadily for a long period at a slow, steady rate, spontaneous combustion of coal is evolving; (c) CO concentration builds up rapidly and, after having reached a certain limit value, persists as such for a certain period, an exogenous underground fire is developing.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Dec. 1988, No.12, p.35. Illus. 3 ref.
Megel' Ju.V., Paršikov N.B., Ljuev V.A., Kozljuk S.A.
Endogenous fire prevention method
Sposob profilaktiki ėndogennyh požarov [in Russian]
In the shield driving of steep coal seams, endogenous fires are usually caused by the spontaneous combustion of coal caving in from the overhanging edge of the coal block being worked. To prevent coal cave-ins and, consequently, underground fires, the overhanging coal edge is reinforced with a solution based on urea-formaldehyde resins. The operation normally takes 1 to 1.5hrs a day to execute under underground conditions. The method can bring initial methane emission rates virtually down to zero and reduce drill culm release by a factor of 1.5 (finer dust particles - 0.5mm - by a factor of 5). Blasthole boring time in the reinforced area increased by 1.5 to 2 times. The data obtained demonstrate improved strength properties of coal massifs treated with fast-setting polymeric solutions, which was conductive to better mining safety and higher underground fire prevention efficiency.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1988, No.10, p.43-44. Illus.
Thermal degradation in the processing of plastics: evaluation of risks in the working environment (excepting fires)
La dégradation thermique lors de la mise en ¿uvre des matières plastiques: évaluation des risques en milieu de travail (en dehors des incendies) [in French]
This medical thesis reports 5 clinical cases due to the thermal degradation, in an occupational context, of polypropylene, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, epoxy resin and an aminoplast. It reviews the chemical properties, processing techniques, additions, applications and mode of thermal degradation for each material. Other cases have been drawn from the literature. They involve polyethylene, phenolics, polyurethane, polytetrafluoroethylene and polyvinyl chloride. Preventive, therapeutic and epidemiologic procedures to be followed in the workplace are reviewed.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Broussais Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1988. 197p. 59 ref.
Computers and fire: A hazardous combination
This paper looks at the special hazards associated with fire fighting in installations involving electronic data processing equipment and how to deal with them. Such hazards include the presence of high voltage cables which are often concealed under raised floors or above dropped ceilings. Many computers are fitted with battery devices which provide temporary power when the regular power fails. Thus even after disconnecting the main supply, high voltages may still be present in some equipment. A further hazard may be caused by automatic fire protection systems such as water sprinklers or chemical systems. Fire fighters are advised to wear breathing apparatus when entering rooms where halon systems have been installed. In view of the importance of computer equipment to a company's business, damage to all equipment should be kept to a minimum. Other hazards include the presence of large amounts of combustible material, elaborate security systems which may delay access, and the presence of large air conditioning systems.
Fire Command, Sep. 1988, Vol.55, No.9, p.14-19. Illus.
Prugh R.W., Johnson R.W.
Guidelines for vapor release mitigation
A survey of industrial practice for controlling accidental releases of hazardous vapours and preventing their escape from the source area. Topics covered: types of vapour clouds and the causes and consequences of vapour release; mitigation by means of inherently safer plants (process modification, siting considerations), engineering design (process integrity, emergency control systems, spill containment), safety management (training practices, inspection and maintenance), early detection and warning systems (sensors and alarms), vapour and liquid release counter measures; emergency response procedures; alerting local authorities and the public; selection of mitigation measures.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1988. 148p. Illus. Bibl.
Coleman R.J., Williams K.H.
Hazardous materials dictionary
This dictionary contains more than 2,600 concise definitions of words, phrases, abbreviations and acronyms related to work with hazardous materials. Its scope includes the classification, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous substances. It also covers terms specific to legislation concerning hazardous materials and processes, as well as the fields of industrial and public safety, fire services, emergency response, civil defence, plant management and materials transportation.
Technomic Publishing AG, Elisabethenstrasse 15, 4051 Basel BL, Switzerland, 1988 (in the US: Technomic Publishing Co., 851 New Holland Avenue, Box 3535, Lancaster, PA 17604). 184p. Price: CHF 78.00.
Karter M.J., LeBlanc P.R.
U.S. fire fighter injuries 1987
The statistics presented here are based on data collected during the NFPA Survey of Fire Departments for US Fire Experience (1987). The report includes: an estimate of the total number of 1987 fire fighter injuries; estimates of the number of injuries by type of duty; trends in fire fighter injuries and injury rates from 1983 through 1987; fire ground injuries by cause; average number of fires and injuries per department. Descriptions are also given of selected incidents that illustrate fire fighter safety problems. The statistics show that the total number of injuries increased 6.4% over 1986, a return to 1983-1984 levels. Although it is unlikely that all fire fighter injuries can be eliminated, good management practice and the application of existing technology can reduce present injury levels. Examples are given of actions that can be taken at the local level to reduce injury rates.
Fire Command, Nov. 1988, Vol.55, No.11, p.18-27. Illus.
VEB Kombinat Umformtechnik "Herbert Warnke", Erfurt. VEB Schwermaschinenbau-Kombinat "Ernst Thälmann", Magdeburg
Occupational safety and health. Fire protection. Machine tools for metal forming and cutting. Safety engineering requirements for automatic blanking presses, transfer presses and straightening presses [German Democratic Republic]
Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz. Brandschutz. Werkzeugmaschinen zum Umformen und Zerteilen. Sicherheitstechnische Forderungen für Schneidautomaten, Stufenumformautomaten und Richtmaschinen [in German]
The 2 parts of this standard, effective 1 Jan. 1990 and 1 Nov. 1989, respectively incorporate CMEA standard 4850-84. They contain safety engineering requirements for main units, control and actuating devices, automatic safety equipment applying to automatic blanking presses, transfer presses and straighteners.
Verlag für Standardisierung, PF 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Oct. 1988. 4p.
VEB Kombinat Umformtechnik "Herbert Warnke", Erfurt
Occupational safety and health. Fire protection. Plastic and elastometer processing machines. General requirements for injection moulding machines [German Democratic Republic]
Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz. Brandschutz. Plast- und Elastverarbeitungsmaschinen. Allgemeine Forderungen für Spritzgiessmaschinen [in German]
This standard, effective 1 Nov. 1989, incorporates CMEA standard 5931-87. It applies to safety engineering of injection moulding machines. Safety requirements for main units, control systems, safeguards and danger zones are stipulated in detail. Special consideration is given to interlocks and their efficiency and operating modes. Mechanical, hydraulic and power interlocks are discussed. Instructions for users are provided. Rules for safe and fire-safety-conscious behaviour are given.
Verlag für Standardisierung, PF 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Oct. 1988. 4p. Illus.
Staatliches Amt für Technische Ueberwachung
Occupational safety and health. Fire protection. Coal-dust furnaces. Terms and definitions. Safety engineering requirements. Safety-conscious and fire-safety conscious behaviour. Tests. Documentation [German Democratic Republic]
Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz. Brandschutz. Kohlenstaubfeuerungen. Termini und Definitionen. Sicherheitstechnische Forderungen. Arbeits- und brandschutzgerechtes Verhalten. Prüfung. Dokumentation [in German]
This standard, effective 1 Sep. 1989, considers safety of coal-dust furnaces in connection with other related installations, buildings, bunkers and conveyors equipment, grinding machines, air supply, ignition and safety circuits. It also includes requirements concerning safety consciousness and behaviour according to the rules of fire safety.
Verlag für Standardisierung, PF 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Dec. 1988. 7p.
Occupational safety and health in quarries
Ohrana truda na kar'erah [in Russian]
Contents of this training manual written for vocational training school students: general aspects; fundamentals of Soviet OSH legislation; OSH organisation; occupational injuries and diseases; general requirements for the protection of workers and environment at the stage of quarry design and operation; workplace climate and microclimate; noxious dust and gas control; workplace lighting; radiation protection; safety of the main processes; safety of the pressure vessels and systems, hoisting and lifting equipment and repair work; electrical safety; fire safety; flood and snow-drift control; mine rescue fundamentals.
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 197p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: SUR 0.30.
A universal solution does not exist - Combating metal fires requires careful selection of extinguishing agents
Universallösung nicht vorhanden - Bekämpfen von Metallbränden erfordert Sorgfalt bei der Auswahl der Löschmittel [in German]
The suitability of carbon dioxide, foam, halon 1211 and 1301, dry chemical and water type extinguishers for combating metal fires is discussed. The best suited are extinguishers whose main components are sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), melamine and boron oxide. In addition, tar, graphite, talcum powder, SiO2 may be included. For large metal fires sand and cement have proved effective.
Maschinenmarkt, 1988, Vol.94, No.44, p.62-65. Illus. 6 ref.
Alber F., Altmann G., Pfeiffer R.
Fire behaviour of fluid-containing transformers
Brandverhalten flüssigkeitsgefüllter Verteilungstransformatoren [in German]
Exposure of transformers to a simulated fire in its environment revealed that fire resistance lasts only as long as no insulating fluid leaks out. This usually takes only a few minutes. The insulating fluids used such as mineral oil, silicon or ester, ignited on the hot surface of the transformer and escalated the fire.
Elektro-Anzeiger, Oct. 1988, Vol.41, No.10, p.51-54. Illus.
Kunkelmann J., Schatz H.
Fire propagation and fire fighting in storage racks
Brandausbreitung und Löscheinsatz bei gelagerten Stoffen [in German]
Fire propagation and the efficiency of various smoke detection and sprinkler systems were studied on an experimental rack filled with cardboard boxes. Major findings: independently of the location at which the fire started and the arrangement of the boxes, fire spread much more rapidly in the vertical than in the horizontal direction, because of thermal buoyancy; in most cases, ionisation-chamber detectors triggered sprinkler action the fastest.
TÜ, Oct. 1988, Vol.29, No.10, p.344-346. Illus. 6 ref.
Safety measures during the use of coal and coal dust
Sicherheit beim Umgang mit Kohlen und Kohlenstäuben sowie mit Koksen und Koksstäuben [in German]
Safety rules for workers, classification of coal and coke, fire and explosion risks associated with coal dusts, applicable standards in the German Democratic Republic, terminology, risks associated with transport and storage, preventive measures (particularly in storage areas), use of coal dust in steam generation, fire control measures, comments on standards. Useful for training purposes.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 2nd edition, 1988. 64p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: DDM 1.00.
Fire prevention, explosion prevention - Research and practice
Brandschutz, Explosionsschutz - Aus Forschung und Praxis [in German]
The booklet contains four scientific papers which deal with the following subjects: escape of gases, vapours, liquids and dusts during plant operation and relief and evacuation processes; hazards due to liquefied gases and selection and dimensioning of safety valves; safety engineering indices as rules in fire and explosion protection; heat-mass transmission in the case of indoor fires.
Staatsverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Otto-Grotewohl-Str. 17, DDR-1086 Berlin, 1988. 224p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DDM 5.80.
Explosion and fire at a phenol plant
Description of events that occurred in a phenol production plant in 1982 in the USA; determination of the causes; preventive measures.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Oct. 1988, No.83, p.28-32. Illus.
Brandt-Rauf P.W., Fallon L.F., Tarantini T., Idema C., Andrews L.
Health hazards of fire fighters: Exposure assessment
To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters, members of the Buffalo Fire Department (USA) were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. In many cases of the worst exposure to these materials, respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity. Many of these materials have been implicated in cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases. This may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk of developing such diseases among firefighters.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1988, Vol.45, No.9, p.606-612. Illus. 30 ref.
Dioxins and fire damage
Dioxine und Brandschäden [in German]
The substances known to form dioxins under the influence of heat (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls or phenols) and the conditions under which they give off dioxins are reviewed. The protection afforded by the acceptable daily intake for adults of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin of 1 to 10pg/kg body weight is discussed. High-powered vacuum cleaners with activated coal filters are considered efficient in removing dioxin-containing soot after fires.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, 1988, Vol.37, No.3, p.122-128. Illus. 19 ref.
Analytical methods for firesafety design
The ability to predict aspects of fire and its impact on a building's structure, contents, and people is discussed in terms of its application to safety design. It is presented from the perspective of how research has addressed the prediction of fire phenomena. A review of the state of the art on the capability for predicting the fire, its impact and response, is given. Examples are cited to illustrate the scope and accuracy of predictive methods and how they are being incorporated into some codes and standards.
Fire Technology, Nov. 1988, Vol.24, No.4, p.333-352. Illus. Bibl.
Fire prevention in a high rack warehouse
Vorbeugender Brandschutz im Hochregallager [in German]
Fire prevention measures in high rack warehouses include: non-flammable pallets, sprinklers with autonomous water supply, steel and steel-reinforced concrete construction, self shutting air ducts, wind direction dependent wall and roof openings for removal of hot air and smoke triggered by fuses melting at 93°C, steel doors between compartments, microprocessor controlled smoke and heat detectors connected to a central control room and the local fire brigade, an emergency diesel generator and a no-smoking order for the entire warehouse.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, 1988, Vol.37, No.2, p.78-81. Illus.
HSE standard for outdoor fireworks
Contents of this standard: classification of fireworks; definitions, construction and performance (general, point of ignition, explosion, burning matter, projected debris, principal effects, angle of flight of rockets, table of requirements for category 2 fireworks); tests of various kinds of fireworks; sampling; labelling.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1988. 59p. Illus. Bibl.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsschutz
Occupational safety, health and fire protection regulations [German Democratic Republic]
Geltende Vorschriften für den Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz sowie Brandschutz (GAB) [in German]
List of titles, sources and effective dates of laws, regulations, and standards on the entire field of occupational safety and health, fire protection and occupational hygiene, effective in the GDR as of 1 October 1987.
Staatsverlag der DDR, DDR-1080 Berlin, Otto-Grotewohl-Strasse 17, 1988. 160p.
Ziegler K., Meyer H., Meyer W.
Safety and test requirements for electric detonators in pressurised gas systems subject to licensing
Anforderungen und Prüfvorschriften für Sprengkapseln mit elektrischer Auslösung in genehmigungspflichtigen Druckgasarmaturen [in German]
Electric blasting caps are used in halogenated hydrocarbon extinguishing systems for rapid release of the fire extinguishing agent. According to the Federal German Explosives Act, an operating licence must be obtained for them, which is granted after extensive compliance tests. Test methods and test equipment applied in compliance testing as required by law or recommended in the directive on pressurised gas systems are described.
Amts- und Mitteilungsblatt der Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung, 1988, Vol.18, No.2, p.119-127. Illus. 12 ref.
White M.K., Hodous T.K.
Physiological responses to the wearing of fire fighter's turnout gear with neoprene and Gore-Tex
Eight healthy men, experienced with the use of respirators and protective clothing, each performed moderate and high intensity treadmill exercise (44% and 71% of maximum work capacity) in a double-blind study at 27.6°C (50% RH) while wearing complete fire fighter's turnout gear (weighing 23kg) with either a neoprene or Gore-Tex barrier liner. Mean tolerance times for the moderate intensity exercise were 27.4(±7.3 S.D.) and 30.9 (±7.9)min, respectively, for the neoprene and Gore-Tex barrier liners and at the high intensity were 7.2(±2.1) and 7.5(±2.3) min, respectively. Significant differences caused by liner were observed in skin temperature (0.6°C higher with the neoprene ensemble). No significant differences caused by liner were seen in tolerance time, heart rate, seat rate or subjective ratings. These results suggest that the physiological benefits normally attributed to vapour permeable garments (such as Gore-Tex barrier liners) are minimised when such liners are used in conjunction with the fighter's turnout gear during sustained moderate to heavy work in a warm environment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1988, Vol.49, No.10, p.523-530. Illus. 33 ref.
Vasil'ev A.N., Vertkin A. Ju., Sonečkin V.M.
Increasing the fire and explosion safety of wood dust removal from air
Povyšenie požarovzryvobezopasnosti očistki vozduha ot drevesnoj pyli [in Russian]
Description of a dust collector in which supercooled steam is injected into a stream of dust-laden air. Condensation of the steam on the dust particles promotes their cohesion and precipitation. Wood dust particles with diameters of 100-160µm are removed with an efficiency of 98.6% over the concentration range 1.44-20g/m3. The high humidity in the collector inhibits the accumulation of static electricity, thus reducing the chance of fire or explosion.
Derevoobrabatyvajuščaja promyšlennost', Apr. 1988, No.4, p.20-22. Illus.
Rubcov Ju.I., Striževskij I.I., Moškovič E.B., Kazakov A.I., Andrienko L.P.
Safety problems in work with urea-ammonium nitrate solutions
Voprosy bezopasnosti pri rabote s rastvorami karbamid-ammoniačnaja selitra [in Russian]
Aqueous solutions of urea and ammonium nitrate do not themselves present fire and explosion hazards. However, in plants where these liquid fertilisers are prepared or processed, measures must be taken to prevent them from leaking into insulation and drying, and insulation that may have been impregnated with urea-ammonium nitrate should be treated with care. Examples: flanged joints and valves should not be covered with insulation; cutting torches should not be used in the removal of insulation; insulation should be soaked with water before repair work is undertaken.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1988, No.2, p.29-31. Illus. 6 ref.
Ihno V.A., Fajnštejn V.S., Židovec V.D.
Assessing the fire safety of mine circuits with thyristor power supplies
Ocenka požarobezopasnosti šahtnyh setej s tiristornymi ėlektroprivodami [in Russian]
A power supply, the motor that it drives and the cable that connects the two are set up on a test bed. One conductor of the cable is bared and the supply is turned on to produce an arc between the conductor and the conductive shielding of the cable. The time required for operation of the protective circuitry in the power supply is noted. The faults are created near the motor and of the cable and near the power-supply end. Measurements at the motor end are made at minimum working voltage, while those at the supply end are made at maximum working voltage. Each test is repeated 11-37 times, depending on the frequency of negative results. If the protective circuitry fails to act in the required time but does act before the insulation of the cable catches fire, the fact is noted as a minimal indication of safety.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Feb. 1988, No.2, p.36. Illus.
Hot work on drums and tanks
Guide describing the safety procedures to be followed in order to prevent fires or explosions during welding, gas cutting, brazing or soldering operations involving fuel tanks and drums, fuel pipes etc.
Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1988. 39p. Illus.
Brown E.R., McCarthy W.J., Marcus A., Baker D., Froines J.R., Dellenbaugh C., McQuiston T.
Workplace smoking policies: Attitudes of union members in a high-risk industry
Two surveys were conducted that involved 690 respondents in 1984 and 593 respondents in 1985. Respondents overwhelmingly (82%) favoured restrictions on smoking in the workplace but less than half agreed that companies or unions should be concerned about workers smoking off the job. For both smokers and nonsmokers, beliefs that cancer has specific causes and can be prevented strongly predict support for workplace smoking control policies. Exposure to company occupational health training also influenced smokers and nonsmokers to support selected smoking control policies. These and other findings led to the conclusion that: (1) educating workers about cancer may promote support for smoking control policies, and (2) smoking control policies are more acceptable in the context of a strong company health and safety programme.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1988, Vol.30, No.4, p.312-320. 11 ref.
Smouldering of phosphate fertilisers
Sigaroobraznoe gorenie fosfornyh udobrenij [in Russian]
Twenty-one fertilisers were tested for their ability to support smouldering combustion and the results were tabulated. Most nitrate-containing fertilisers supported slow burning. Those containing manganese and cobalt were more likely to burn than fertilisers of otherwise identical composition that lacked those elements. Iodine, boron, zinc and molybdenum had no effect. The nitrate-free fertilisers tested absorb heat on decomposition and so do not support slow burning.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1988, No.4, p.26-28. 3 ref.
Panova L.G., Artemenko S.E., Andreeva V.V., Besšapošnikova V.I., Valetdinov R.K., Halturinskij N.A., Berlin A.A.
Reducing the flammability of epoxy composites reinforced with fire-retardant-treated viscose fibre
Sniženie gorjučesti ėpoksidnyh kompozicionnyh materialov, armirovannyh ognezaščiščennym viskoznym voloknom [in Russian]
Treatment of viscose fibre with trihydroxymethylphosphine before use as reinforcement for epoxy composites gives products with enhanced fire resistance and stable physical and mechanical properties.
Plastičeskie massy, Mar. 1988, No.3, p.48-50. Illus. 2 ref.
DOW's fire and explosion index: Hazard classification guide
This edition includes improvements on: adjustments to the determination of the Material Factor to represent the probable effects of temperature and reactivity more accurately; addition of a Toxicity Penalty to reflect possible emergency response complications; simplification of the Credit Factor determination; clearer definition of Process Hazard Penalties to make them more readily applicable to current process situations; definition of the Risk Analysis Package, including Business Interruption Risks; and use of many examples to demonstrate how the various components of a Fire Explosion Index calculation are used.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1988. 6th edition. 74p. Illus. Price: USD 30.00.
Fire hazard analysis
Brandgefährdungsanalyse [in German]
This manual is intended for managers responsible for fire safety in their enterprises, and for others who are active in the practice of fire prevention. Chapters cover: fire prevention as a management task; basic problems in fire hazard analysis; organisation and carrying out of a fire hazard analysis; fire hazards of substances; systematics of fire hazard analysis; classification of fire safety measures; fire safety measures (fire prevention, limitation of fire spread, fire fighting personnel and equipment, evacuation and medical care). Reference is made to relevant standards and regulations of the German Democratic Republic, especially standard TGL 30002/01, "Concepts of Fire Safety".
Staatsverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 190p. Illus. 106 ref. Index.
Cable conduit as dangerous fuse - Fire retardant measures prevent spread of fire to neighbouring buildings
Kabelschacht als gefährliche Zündschnur - Abschottmassnahmen verhindern das Übergreifen eines Feuers auf benachbarte Gebäude [in German]
Fire retarding measures include: (1) doors with smoke sensors and an automatic closing mechanism; (2) protective coatings which expand to 15-20 times their original volume through the effect of temperatures between 120°C and 180°C. The coatings can be applied to cables or panels used as partitions.
Betriebstechnik, 1988, Vol.29, No.2, p.51-52. Illus.
On the distinction between "non-flammable" and "low-flammability" dielectric insulating liquids
Zur begrifflichen Unterscheidung "nichtbrennbar" und "schwer-entflammbar" bei dielektrischen Isolierflüssigkeiten [in German]
Experimental transformer fires in the Federal Republic of Germany and in France were analysed. The practice of classifying dielectric cooling and insulating fluids as non-flammable if they are not ignited prior to reaching the boiling point is questioned. Transformer design (e.g. round shape versus rectangular) and interactions among substances liberated in fires may influence thermal properties.
Der Maschinenschaden, 1988, Vol.61, No.1, p.9-14. Illus. 16 ref.
Major hazard control: A practical manual - An ILO contribution to the International Programme on Chemical Safety of UNEP, ILO, WHO (IPCS)
A practical guide to major hazard control, written primarily for government officials, labour inspectors, management and labour union officials and emergency personnel in developing countries. Contents: introduction (description of major types of hazards; explosions, fires, toxic releases; components of major hazard control systems); identification of major hazard installations; role of management (assessment of hazards; causes of major industrial accidents; safe operation of major hazard installations; mitigation of consequence; reporting to authorities); role of authorities; role of workers and of workers' organisations; emergency planning; implementation of major hazard control systems; prerequisites for a major hazard control system. Appendices contain: list of dangerous substances and threshold quantities (derived from EC Directive 82/501/EEC, see CIS 83-889); example of a rapid ranking method for the classification of units/plant elements; guide to hazard and operability studies; consequence calculation methods; storage of LPG at fixed installations; safety advice for bulk chlorine installations; storage of anhydrous ammonia under pressure in the United Kingdom; example of a safety report; example of an accident report form; land use near major hazard works.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1988. 296p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 45.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/1988/88B09_382_engl.pdf [in English]
Public safety in kitchens and grills
Verkehrssicherungspflicht in Küchen- oder Grillbetrieb [in German]
In its ruling of 2 Feb. 1988, the supreme court of the Federal Republic of Germany confirmed the responsibility of kitchens and grills that serve the public to regularly clean grease deposits in exhaust hoods, ducts and ventilators to avoid fires. The court based its ruling on the regulations contained in the safety rules for kitchens, effective Aug. 1984.
Monatsschrift für Deutsches Recht, 1988, Vol.42, No.7, p.571.
Fire protection for offshore installations
Description of fire protection systems on oil production platforms: fire water mains, water deluge systems, automatic sprinkler systems, foam systems, inert gas systems, passive fire protection elements (fire walls), fire and gas detection systems.
Safety Practitioner, Jan. 1988, Vol.6, No.1, p.18-22. Illus. 5 ref.
Gressel M.G., O'Brien D.M., Tenaglia R.D.
Emissions from the evaporative casting process
The emissions generated during the pouring, cooling, and shakeout of a water-pump casting made by the evaporative casting process (ECP) were compared with those from a conventional green sand process. The ECP moulds produced more soot, hydrocarbons (styrene, benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons than the green sand process. Benzene was a major hazard.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.11-17. Illus. 8 ref.
The use of foam for vapor mitigation
Guide on the choice and use of extinguishing foams for the suppression of vapours evolving from spills of organic, acidic or basic materials.
Fire Command, Apr. 1988, Vol.55, No.4, p.18-20. Illus.
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