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Fires - 2,022 entries found

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  • Fires

1990

CIS 90-1328 Dosne R.
160,000 litres of ethanol on fire
160 000 litres d'éthanol en feu [in French]
Report of a railway accident in which a tank-car full of ethanol overturned and caught fire. Intervention by emergency personnel is described, including the measures necessitated by a shortage of water.
Face au risque, Feb. 1990, No.260, p.39, 41, 43, 44. Illus.

CIS 90-974 Code of Practice for the prevention of sulphur fires and explosions
Contents of this Code of Practice: interpretation and definitions; dust explosions; hazard rating of sulfur; dust explosion prevention and protection; specific hazards of the handling of sulfur; liquid sulfur; fertilisers containing sulfur; personal protective equipment and training. In appendices: properties of sulfur; hazards of sulfur dioxide; model hot work permit for New Zealand.
Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1990. 19p. 15 ref.

CIS 90-975 Code of Practice for the prevention, detection and control of fire and explosion in New Zealand dairy industry spray drying plant
Contents of this Code of Practice: application of the Code and related legislation and standards in New Zealand; hazards and their prevention (sources of ignition, processing and electrical equipment, management responsibilities); explosion protection; fire control and protection. In appendices: explosion test methods; operator's checklist; examples of permit-to-work systems; explosion suppression; drying in an inert gas atmosphere.
Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1990. 46p. Illus. 9 ref.

1989

CIS 93-711
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Oxygen [Germany]
Sauerstoff [in German]
These safety regulations apply to the installation, use and maintenance of all types of oxygen-carrying systems (compressors, rotary pumps for liquefied oxygen, oxygen piping, etc.).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, 1989. 22 + 25p.

CIS 93-431 Electrical safety handbook for firefighting personnel - Instructions on how to cope with electrical hazards in rescue and fire situations
Instructions on how to cope with electrical hazards in rescue and fire situations are outlined in this booklet. Topics covered: basic facts about electricity; injuries caused by electric shock; fallen wires on the street; victims trapped in vehicles by fallen wires; Padmount transformers and kiosk; using water safety on electrical fires; dealing with electrical wires when fire fighting in houses and other buildings; substation fires; unauthorised persons in substations; fires and explosions in underground electrical vaults; and special procedures.
Ontario Hydro, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1989. 44p. Illus.

CIS 93-284 Snee T.J., Griffiths J.F.
Criteria for spontaneous ignition in exothermic, autocatalytic reactions - Chain branching and self-heating in vessels in the oxidation of cyclohexane in closed vessels
Studies were made on the combustion of mixtures of cyclohexane and air using five closed vessels covering a wide range of volumes. The minimum ignition temperature was measured in each vessel to test scaling rules for the prediction of conditions for criticality. Measurements were also made of the yields of some products, the extent and rate of the reaction and the accompanying temperature change under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. Results highlight the potential combustion hazard in large-scale industrial systems when fuel-rich mixtures of vapour and air conditions prevail.
Combustion and Flame, 1989, Vol.75, p.381-395. 24 ref.

CIS 91-1999
Health and Safety Executive
The fires and explosion at BP Oil (Grangemouth) Refinery Ltd
This report describes the investigations into 3 separate maintenance related incidents within a major British company in 1987. Investigation of a fire of flammable liquids during maintenance of a refinery flare system showed that potential ignition sources had not been rigorously excluded, means of escape were inadequate, and permit-to-work procedures had been implemented without sufficient awareness of potential hazards. A fire and explosion during recommissioning of a refinery hydrocracker resulted from the rupture of a vessel following breakthrough of high pressure hydrogen, probably caused by inadequate operating practices and the disconnection of safety devices. Evasion of safety rules led to a fire in a storage tank at a crude oil terminal; smoking caused ignition.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 44p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 91-1308 Staendeke H., Scharf D.J.
Halogen-free fire retardants containing phosphorus compounds - Examples of more recent developments
Halogenfreier Flammschutz mit Phosphorverbindungen - Beispiele für neuere Entwicklungen [in German]
Results of recent studies of the flame retardant properties of red phosphorus and ammonium polyphosphate in plastics are presented. Red phosphorus reacts to form carbon rich residues on the polymer surface. The effect of ammonium polyphosphate is based on intumescence.
Kunststoffe, 1989, Vol.79, No.11, p.1200-1204. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 91-921 Hirz K.H.
Actions to be taken in case of PCB accidents
Verhalten bei PCB-Störfall [in German]
A fire of a PCB-filled capacitor in a power distribution facility was used as an example to point out mistakes in handling such types of accidents. At this fire, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins were released but no TCDD was detected. An emergency plan for dealing with fires involving PCB-filled equipment in the state of Hesse (Germany) is presented.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1989, Vol.20, No.8, p.16-18. Illus.

CIS 91-596 Veinot D.E., Langille K.B., Nguyen D., Bernt J.O.
Soluble silicate-based coatings for fire protection
A fire protective coating based on a soluble silicate was investigated in a laboratory fire test unit. An additive was incorporated into the formulation to increase water resistance and various fillers were tested to try to improve the degree of intumescence and durability. The formulation adhered well to aluminium and other metals and showed excellent fire protection. Addition of an acidic curing agent enhanced the water resistance of the coating and also resulted in a stronger, more refractory intumesced structure. Protection of the coating with an impermeable overcoat was found to eliminate the cracking and aging caused by the hygroscopic nature of the silicate.
Fire Technology, Aug. 1989, Vol.25, No.3, p.230-240. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 91-595 Lev Y., Strachan D.C.
A study of cooling water requirements for the protection of metal surfaces against thermal radiation
Among the hazards posed to storage tanks by thermal radiation are the effects of changes in the mechanical strength of the metal at high temperature that may lead to failure. In a large-scale experimental study, cooling mechanisms of water films and water sprays were investigated in a purpose-built rig, for both vertical and inclined steel plates. The experimental work was supported by a theoretical model. Results showed that a metal surface exposed to a nearby radiating source will remain below a temperature at which metal properties are impaired as long as a water film of minimum thickness can be maintained over it. The theoretical model may be used to calculate water cooling requirements to maintain a given temperature condition.
Fire Technology, Aug. 1989, Vol.25, No.3, p.213-229. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 91-266 Gallego-Preciado Martín A.
Safety in the handling of cryogenic atmospheric gases
Seguridad en el manejo de gases criogénicos atmosféricos [in Spanish]
This article explains the physical characteristics of the cryogenic atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen and argon) and the risks associated with the use and handling of these gases (cold burns, fires, explosions, over- and sub-oxygenisation of the work atmosphere). Guidance is provided on how to avoid the risk of over-oxygenisation, and thus of fire, and of explosion in the case of organic matter. Advice is also given on how to avoid sub-oxygenisation and the consequent risk of asphyxia. An emergency plan should be established in workplaces where cryogenic gases are used and periodic emergency drills should be practised.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.34, p.39-49. 7 ref. Illus.

CIS 90-2033 Fire extinguishers
Topics covered in this guidance note: selection of appropriate extinguishers according to materials likely to catch fire, size of possible fires, atmospheric conditions, description of various types of extinguisher and the class of fire for which they may be used; location and marking of extinguishers; employee training in the use of extinguishers; development of a maintenance program. Relevant Canadian regulations are also cited.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, 31st Floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1989. 11p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 90-2032 Fire protection
Topics covered in this guidance note: fire prevention measures in terms of workplace assessment and implementation of controls including correct plant and process design, scheduled inspections, employee training, adequate housekeeping procedures; implementation of a fire emergency plan covering communications, personal safety and fire extinguishment. Canadian legislation relevant to occupational fire safety is also cited.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st Floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1989. 8p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 90-1790 Acetic anhydride
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1990, Vol.12, No.2, 2p. Insert.

CIS 90-1789 Acetic acid
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1990, Vol.12, No.2, 2p. Insert.

CIS 90-1989 Gustavsson P.
Cancer and ischemic heart disease in occupational groups exposed to combustion products
Investigation of the incidence of cancer, especially lung cancer, and the mortality from ischaemic heart disease in occupational groups exposed to combustion products. Chimney sweeps, waste incinerator workers, gas workers, bus garage workers, as well as slaughterhouse workers exposed to fumes from the smoking of meat, were studied. The overall evaluation strongly indicates that occupational exposure to combustion products, including diesel exhausts, increases the risk of lung cancer. An increased risk of ischaemic heart disease may also be related to such exposures. There also seems to be an association between exposure to combustion products and oesophageal cancer, but the numbers were small. The findings are corroborated by other recently published epidemiologic and experimental studies.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 48p. 134 ref.

CIS 90-2016 Hiles A.
Testing the fire hazards of computer tapes
Recent tests have shown that optical smoke detectors are rendered ineffective by air turbulence from computer equipment and air conditioning systems. Five tests on computer tapes have shown that fires take hold rapidly and become very intense and deep-seated. Laboratory analysis of tapes and pyrolysis products showed that pyrolysis products contained small amounts of hydrogen cyanide, although the main dangers were due to the toxicity of different levels of combustion, causing coughing and inhalation of large amounts of bad air. It is concluded that a fire in tapes in an air-conditioned environment could become well established before being detected. Recommendations are given for tape storage.
Fire Prevention, Oct. 1989, No.223, p.39-43. Illus.

CIS 90-2022 Thermal radiation monograph - Calculation of the intensity of thermal radiation from large fires
This report describes the behaviour of different types of fires classified as pool fires, jet fires, flash fires, fireballs and firestorms, and considers the significance of volatility in determining the magnitude of thermal radiation. Methods are given for the calculation of the intensity of thermal radiation at a given position in relation to a particular fire, along with examples of the application of these methods to different types of fires. It is concluded that thermal radiation intensities can be calculated with a fair degree of confidence, with the main sources of uncertainty being the estimates of fire shapes and surface emissive powers.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1989. 22p. 37 ref.

CIS 90-1864 Mumford C.
Unit: Safety technology - Module: Fire and explosion
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are four segments: 1 - Fundamentals of fires and explosions (combustion of liquids, gases and dusts; ignition sources; enrichment of air with oxygen; fire characteristics of materials; legislative controls); 2 - The practice of fire control (flammable materials; fire detection and extinguishment; fire prevention and protection on process plants and tank farms); 3 - Explosions (vapour clouds; boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions; dust explosions; highly reactive or unstable substances; explosive release of stored pressure); 4 - Major hazards and their control (explosion and toxic hazards; identification of major hazards; legislative controls; emergency planning).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1989. 109p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 90-1662 Washburn A.E., Leblanc P.R., Fahy R.F.
Fire fighter fatality report 1988
The total number of fire fighter fatalities in the US in 1988 was 129, compared to 127 in 1987. This report presents statistics on the types of duty associated with fire fighter deaths, the causes and nature of fatal injuries to fire fighters, and the ages of those who died. Fire ground deaths are analysed by the types of property where they occurred, with special attention given to deaths in vacant buildings, in incendiary fires and during rescue operations. The study also looks at deaths from 1979 to 1988 resulting from collisions while responding to alarms. Individual incidents are presented that illustrate problems in fire fighter safety.
Fire Command, June 1989, Vol.56, No.6, p.17-39. Illus.

CIS 90-1081
VEB Kombinat Spezialtechnik, Dresden
Fire protection. Fire extinguishing systems. General provisions for design, installation and operation [German Democratic Republic]
Brandschutz. Feuerlöschanlagen. Allgemeine Festlegungen für Projektierung, Errichtung und Betrieb [in German]
This standard, effective 1 Apr. 1990, covers general requirements for the design, installation, selection, application, maintenance, repair, operation as well as function testing of fire-fighting systems. A list of various kinds of fire-fighting systems including fields of application, extinguishing agents used, side effects and selection criteria is given.
Verlag für Standardisierung, PF 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Mar. 1989. 4p.

CIS 90-717 Legislation on flammable and explosive articles [Sweden]
Lagstiftning om brandfarliga och explosiva varor [in Swedish]
This 2nd edition of Swedish legislation concerning flammable and explosive articles contains the full texts of: Act on Flammable and Explosive Articles (SFS 1988:868; entry into force: 1 July 1989); Regulations on flammable and explosive articles (SFS 1988:1145; effective 1 July 1989); extracts from the directives of the explosives' inspection concerning the handling and transport of explosive articles; two registers of flammable articles (list of flammable gases and liquids, list of other flammable articles); notification of the inspection of explosives concerning the labelling of flammable articles; tables of permits and notification of the storage of flammable articles.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 2nd ed., 1989. 76p.

CIS 90-1047 Borland R., Owen N., Hill D., Chapman S.
Staff members' acceptance of the introduction of workplace smoking bans in the Australian public service
The acceptability to employers of workplace smoking bans is an important factor in their introduction and in subsequent compliance. This study describes the acceptance by affected staff members before the ban on smoking in Australian public service premises. 4215 (79% of those who were approached) public servants were surveyed from areas of 6 departments across 3 states. 25 per cent of the sample were current smokers. Support for the bans was strong, with 76% of the sample approving over all. Approval among smokers was less, with 40% of smokers approving, compared with 82% of ex-smokers and 90% of "never" smokers. Thus, the results show a generally favourable attitudinal milieu among employees who were facing an impending ban on smoking, and far from unanimous opposition from smokers.
Medical Journal of Australia, 6 Nov. 1989, Vol.151, No.9, p.525-528. 18 ref.

CIS 90-872 Rother
Safety in flame scarfing operations
Sicherheit bei Flammstrahlarbeiten [in German]
Outlined hazards arising from flame scarfing of steel and concrete include explosion of the pressurised gas supply unit, burns by sparks and flying particles, eye injuries by exposure to visible and ultraviolet radiation emitted by the flame, and effects of toxic substances and noise. Described protective measures comprise protective clothing, safety spectacles, hearing protectors, safe design of the gas supply unit, colour coding to indicate what type of gas is used.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, 1989, No.1, p.16-21. Illus.

CIS 90-969 Jaeger H.P.
Modern storage facilities and systems for hazardous substances
Moderne Lagereinrichtungen und -systeme: Lagerung von Gefahrstoffen [in German]
A survey is made of German (Fed.Rep.) laws, regulations and guidelines on the storage of flammable and toxic substances. It is shown that provisions on combined storage of hazardous substances and on containment basins for fire extinguishing liquids are contradictory. Storage facilities equipped with sprinklers and smoke detectors are described, allowing separate storage according to hazard category.
Sicher ist Sicher, 1989, Vol.40, No.5, p.246-248, 250-252, 254. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 90-820 Guide to safety in business and the community
Guide de la sécurité des entreprises et collectivités [in French]
Practical guide to safety in France. This directory begins with the addresses of official and quasi-official bodies, safety organisations, trade unions, associations and testing laboratories. The second part covers manufacturers and installers of fire safety equipment, as well as services connected with fire safety. Part 3 deals with prevention of theft. Part 4 lists manufacturers and installers of pollution-control equipment, as well as anti-pollution services. The last section covers manufacturers of personal protective equipment. Thematic and alphabetical indexes are provided.
Face au risque, Dec. 1989, Supplement to No.258, 306p. Illus.

CIS 90-972 Toxicity testing of fire effluents - Part 1: General
Essais de toxicité des produits de combustion des incendies - Partie 1: Généralités [in French]
Review of the philosophies behind the development of tests for assessing toxic hazards in fire. The report is designed to provide essential information to all those involved with the evaluation of the toxicity of fire effluents not only in the development of meaningful test procedures but also in their use for mitigating hazards. Definitions and generalities are followed by chapters on: life threat in fire; chemical nature of fire effluents; experimental fire studies; toxicity testing of effluents; hazard analysis risk assessment. Appendices include a bibliography and tables of tenability limits for narcotic and irritant pyrolysis products.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 15 Sep. 1989. 18p. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 90-966 Weinroth J.
An adaptable microcomputer model for evacuation management
A simulation method is presented which enables a modeller to identify dangerous bottlenecks for emergency building evacuation and to test the sensitivity of occupant exit behaviour to evacuation improvement strategies. The modelling method is tested against landmark evacuation data by Pauls and Jones, and used to predict problems and solutions for a complex evacuation situation involving a large university building with several exit choices. Some concluding remarks are addressed to a future research agenda for this method.
Fire Technology, Nov. 1989, Vol.25, No.4, p.291-307. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-597 Duclos P., Binder S., Riester R.
Community evacuation following the Spencer metal processing plant fire, Nanticoke, Pennsylvania
On Tuesday, 24 March 1987, 15,000 persons were evacuated from communities surrounding a fire at the Spencer Metal Company in Nanticoke, Pennsylvania. To evaluate the evacuation process, a phone survey was conducted and representatives of 504 households were interviewed. Ninety-eight percent of all households complied with the order to evacuate. Factors that might have been responsible for the high compliance rate are the proximity of a nuclear power plant; the warning of most persons by officials; the social structure of the community; previous knowledge of evacuation plans by part of the population; the ability of many residents to see the fire; and the time of day. In 30% of interviewed households, at least one member reported mild symptoms that are consistent with an acute exposure. For future evacuations, the following are recommended: improve advertising of evacuation plans; make plans more flexible; improve the warning message and address people's concerns; develop research on the risks of indoor versus outdoor exposure from chemical accidents to improve guidelines for decision-making.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1989, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-11. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 90-377 Order of 17 Jan. 1989 on flammable liquid dielectrics used in electrical equipment. Risks in the event of spillage and ignition [France]
Arrêté du 17 Janv. 1989 concernant les diélectriques liquides inflammables utilisés dans les matériels électriques - Risques d'incendie présentés par leur épandage et leur inflammation [France] [in French]
This government order of 17 January 1989 (published in the Journal officiel of 2 February 1989) provides a classification of flammable liquid dielectrics. In the appendices, it specifies the various protective measures which can be taken and examines in particular the case of equipment in which more than 25L of class 01 or K1 dielectrics, or more than 50L of class K2 dielectrics are used.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.135, Note No.1739-135-89, p.365-367.

CIS 90-603 Fire protection - Fire extinguishing media - Halogenated hydrocarbons - Part 1: Specifications for halon 1211 and halon 1301
Protection contre l'incendie - Agents extincteurs - Hydrocarbures halogénés - Partie 1: Spécifications pour les halons 1211 et 1301 [in French]
This standards specifies the requirements to be met by halon 1211 and 1301 (bromochlorodifluoromethane and bromotrifluoromethane) used as fire extinguishers.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1989. 3p.

CIS 90-602 Fire protection - Fire extinguishing media - Carbon dioxide
Protection contre l'incendie - Agents extincteurs - Dioxyde de carbone [in French]
This standard specifies requirements for carbon dioxide for use as a fire extinguishing medium. Methods for determination of contaminants are appended.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1989. 12p. Illus.

CIS 90-433 Vinyl acetate
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Oct.-Dec. 1989, Vol.11, No.4, 2p. Insert.

CIS 90-429 Phthalic anhydride
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.11, No.2, 2p. Insert.

CIS 90-423 Ethylene
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Oct.-Dec. 1989, Vol.11, No.4, 2p. Insert.

CIS 90-395 Acetaldehyde
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir. P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.11, No.2. 2p. Insert.

CIS 90-273 Büssem R.
Fire extinguishing systems in warehouses for chemicals - what is the best method?
Löschanlagen in Chemielagern - Welches ist das beste Verfahren? [in German]
Advantages and disadvantages of foam, water spray, dry powder and carbon dioxide extinguishing systems as well as sprinkler systems for fire extinction in warehouses for chemicals are discussed. Sprinkler systems or a combination of the sprinkler and foam extinguishing systems proved most efficient in many cases. They do not cause major waste and wastewater disposal problems. If dangerous reactions between stored chemicals and water are to be expected, CO2 or dry powder extinguishers are suitable.
Fördern und Heben, 1989, Vol.39, No.7-8, p.622-626. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 90-272 Prevention of fires caused by shrink fitting of wrapping foils
Sicherheitsmassnahmen gegen Brandgefahren durch Folienschrumpfanlagen und -geräte [in German]
Wrapping of products in plastic foils by shrink fitting with gas heated units has caused several damaging fires. Alternative packing methods, which pose no fire hazard, comprise: wrapping in stretch foil, strapping, electrically heated shrink fitting of wrapping foil and encapsulated gas-heated shrink fitting.
Informationsdienst Arbeitsschutz (Nordrhein-Westfalen), 1989, No.156, p.1-4.

CIS 90-150 The new accident prevention regulations concerning oxygen
Die neue Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Sauerstoff" [in German]
This comment points out the changes contained in the new accident prevention regulations of 1 April 1989 concerning oxygen in comparison with the old regulation of 1969. Changes concern personnel- and fire-protection measures regarding oxygen compressors, rotary pumps for liquefied oxygen, pipe fittings, oxygen piping, cleaning and testing of oxygen-carrying systems.
Sichere Chemiearbeit, July 1989, Vol.41, No.7, p.75-77. Illus.

CIS 90-197 Lamant V., Oury B., Peltier A.
A method for characterising working environments in hot-dip galvanising
Méthode de caractérisation des ambiances de travail en galvanisation à chaud [in French]
Although no pathological disorder has ever been reported in hot-dipping workshops in France, the thick grey-white fumes given off when pieces are dipped in the molten zinc cause concern to occupational physicians, who are not convinced that they are harmless. The main pollutants encountered in the workshops are hydrochloric acid (pickling), ammonium chloride and zinc chloride (fluxing and zinc bath), zinc and zinc oxide (zinc bath). Since zinc chloride is a greater health hazard than zinc oxide (metal fume fever), it was decided to develop a sampling method for selective determination of gaseous and particulate chlorides, ZnO and ZnCl2, ammonium chloride and the ammonia which can be released during the thermal decomposition of ammonium chloride. On the strength of tests carried out in 10 hot-dip workshops which were used as development laboratories, the following retention supports were selected: combined PVC filter + filter impregnated with sodium carbonate, for use in the vicinity of the pickling and fluxing baths or the molten zinc bath to trap ZnCl2, already used for inorganic acid sampling; a quartz fibre filter for use in the vicinity of the molten zinc bath, to trap the insoluble zinc; this type of filter is already recommended for sampling aerosols containing the salts of metals such as nickel or chromium.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1989, No.134, Note No.1721-134-89, p.87-97. 25 ref.

CIS 90-270 Becker F.
The Channel Tunnel and fire safety
Le tunnel sous la Manche et la sécurité incendie [in French]
Description of fire safety organisation in the tunnel: studying the hazards, choosing an extinguishant, evacuation and rescue, ventilation.
Sécurité - sciences et techniques, June-July 1989, No.85, p.39-41, 43-45, 47. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 90-279 Haessler W.M.
Fire fundamentals and control
Contents of this textbook: modes and types of combustion; flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapours; flammability limits of mixtures of two or more flammable gases; pyrolytic decomposition of fuel vapours and combustion chain reactions; combustion of fire generated gases; fire extinguishment; environmental considerations.
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1989. 248p. Illus. Price: USD 99.75 (US and Canada); USD 119.50 (all other countries).

CIS 90-268 Christill M., Leuckel W.
Experimental studies of the influence of mixture turbulence on the velocity of flame spread during the deflagrating combustion of gas/air mixtures
Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Gemischturbulenz auf die Flammenausbreitungs-Geschwindigkeit in deflagrierenden Brenngas/Luft-Gemischen [in German]
The acceleration of flame spread by obstacles was studied in a 4m duct with a square cross-section. Flames were produced by burning methane in air at various ratios. Flame spread was faster with a greater number of obstacles, while increasing the dimensions of obstacle components led to even greater flame spread.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, 1989, Vol.61, No.2, p.174-175. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 89-2008 Hall J.R., Harwood B.
The national estimates approach to US fire statistics
The development of the National Fire Incident Reporting System in the late 1970s made detailed, representative national fire statistics possible for the first time. However, calculation rules used to produce these statistics have varied among users. The authors present a detailed consensus procedure for such calculations and the supporting rationale.
Fire Technology, May 1989, Vol.25, No.2, p.99-113. Bibl.

CIS 89-1755
Staatssekretariat für Arbeit und Löhne
List of regulations in force relating to occupational safety and health and to fire protection [German Democratic Republic]
Geltende Vorschriften für den Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz sowie Brandschutz, Ausgabe 1989 [in German]
List of titles of regulations and standards) and by industry. in force in the German Democratic Republic (up to Dec. 1988) in the fields of occupational health, occupational safety and fire protection. Classification is by type of document (laws, decrees, ordinances, directives, orders, guidelines for application, standards) and by industry.
Staatsverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Otto-Grotewohl-Str. 17, 1086 Berlin, 1989. 112p.

CIS 89-1821 Fire fighting on site
The discussion of fire prevention is based on the basic sources of fires (fuels, oxygen, heat sources): cleaning of equipment, removing ignition sources, covering with foam, elimination of static electricity. In addition, workers are instructed on the sounding of alarms and the using of the appropriate extinguishing agents for fire fighting and cooling.
Aix Audio-Visuel, Chemin de la Blanque (Barre Saint Jean), 13080 Luynes-Aix en Provence, France, 1989, Videotape (VHS, PAL). 18 min.

CIS 89-1854 Markowitz J.S.
Self-reported short- and long-term respiratory effects among PVC-exposed firefighters
Firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied to assess respiratory effects at 5-6 weeks post-incident and again 22 months following the fire. Exposed subjects reported significantly more frequent and severe respiratory symptoms at both time points than did firefighters controls. In longitudinal analyses, a number of symptoms persisted over time, and acute symptom scores were significantly correlated with chronic scores. At time 2, approximately 18% of exposed firefighters, compared with none of the controls, reported that since the time of the PVC exposure, a physician had told them that they had either asthma and/or bronchitis.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1989, Vol.44, No.1, p.30-33. 16 ref.

CIS 89-1892 Heineman E.F., Shy C.M., Checkoway H.
Injuries on the fireground: Risk factors for traumatic injuries among professional fire fighters
This case-control study involving 75 injured firefighters and 144 controls within a metropolitan fire department evaluated the effect of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and other risk factors on three types of injury at the scene of a fire (smoke inhalation, burns, and falls). Smoke inhalation cases were not significantly different from controls in SCBA use, cigarette smoking, previous fires in the shift, or injury history. Jobs with high risk of burns included nozzle operator, engine officer, and forcible-entry person in first-due companies. Other risk factors for burns were: basement origin of fire; prior fire-fighting training outside the present department, and on-duty injury in the prior 12 months. When other risk factors were considered, consistent SCBA use was associated with falls but not with burns. Neither age nor experience was related to injury in this population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.3, p.267-282. 43 ref.

CIS 89-1502 A guide to fire safety
Illustrated guide to fire safety, including check lists for houses, high-rise buildings and industries.
Singapore Fire Service, no date. 32p. Illus.

CIS 89-1282 Brandt-Rauf P.W., Cosman B., Fleming Fallon L., Tarantini T., Idema C.
Health hazards of firefighters: acute pulmonary effects after toxic exposures
As part of an environmental monitoring and medical surveillance programme to evaluate potential health hazards from firefighting, complete baseline medical examinations were performed on a cohort of 77 firefighters. During a 10-day study period, 37 follow-up medical examinations were performed after exposure to fire to monitor any significant differences in pre-fire and post-fire physiological indices, including pulmonary function and blood counts and chemistries. For the group as a whole, no significant differences were found. For individuals not wearing respiratory protective equipment, however, statistically significant post-fire decrements in FEV1 and FVC were noted. These decrements were consistent with previously shown levels of exposure to pulmonary toxicants in this cohort. These results support the need for more extensive use of respiratory protective equipment by firefighters.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.46, No.3, p.209-211. 14 ref.

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