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Beaumont J.J., Chu G.S.T., Jones J.R., Schenker M.B., Singleton J.A., Piantanida L.G., Reiterman M.
An epidemiologic study of cancer and other causes of mortality in San Francisco firefighters
To test the hypothesis that firefighter exposures may increase cancer risk, mortality rates were calculated for 3,066 San Francisco Fire Department firefighters employed between 1940 and 1970. Vital status was ascertained through 1982, and observed and expected rates, rate ratios (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using United States death rates for comparison. The total number deceased (1,186) was less than expected and there were fewer cancer deaths than expected. However, there were significant excess numbers of deaths from oesophageal cancer (12 observed, 6 expected), cirrhosis and other liver diseases (59 observed, 26 expected), and accidental falls (21 observed, 11 expected). There were 24 line-of-duty deaths, which were primarily due to vehicular injury, falls, and asphyxiation. Heart disease and respiratory disease deaths occurred significantly less often than expected. It was concluded that the increased risks of death from oesophageal cancer and cirrhosis and other liver diseases may have been due to firefighter exposures, alcohol consumption, or interaction between alcohol and exposures. Because this was an older cohort and firefighter exposures have changed due to the increasing use of synthetic materials, it is recommended that the effects of modern-day exposures be further studied.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.3, p.357-372. Illus. 61 ref.
Components of a fire protection programme discussed: procedures for hot work; fire suppression systems; training; assessment of future needs. Aspects of plant security covered: marking of tools and equipment; lunch pail and tool box inspections; regular patrols and perimeter surveys; traffic control; authorised contractors or suppliers.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1991. 8p.
Emergency response to an underground fire at a remote mining site
This paper discusses the District Emergency Response Plan which was triggered to react to a scooptram fire when there was an insufficient number of mine rescue personnel on site.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1991. 6p.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: injury to kidneys, liver and brain; mild irritation of skin and eyes.
Loss Prevention News, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.13, No.4, p.21-22.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association in India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin absorption; moderately toxic; irritation of skin and eyes; dermatitis; narcosis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system).
Loss Prevention News, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.13, No.3, p.21-22.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: irritation of eyes, mucous membranes, nose, throat and skin; vesiculation and necrosis of the skin; pulmonary oedema; corneal oedema.
Loss Prevention News, Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.13, No.4, p.19-20.
Portable fire extinguishers
Handfeuerlöscher [in German]
Leaflet presenting in tabular form, for each portable extinguisher, the fire class and the type of fire (materials and substances involved) it is appropriate for, with an indication of the extinguishing agent used. Advice is given on places where this equipment should not be used, because of the presence of live electricity, ventilation or certain kinds of plastic.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1991. 4p.
Lacosta Berna J.M.
Fire safety in view of the 1993 European Market. Analysis of Community Directive 89/106/EEC
La seguridad contra incendios en la construcción, cara al Mercado Unico Europeo de 1993. Análisis de la Directiva Comunitaria 89/106/CEE [in Spanish]
Directive 89/106/EEC (see CIS 93-3) on construction materials whose objective is the free exchange of these materials with the European Community, is reviewed. This Directive, with 24 articles in ten chapters and four annexes, has a general character estabishing the essential safety requirements for construction materials. Four out of the six essential requirements established are directly related to safety and health aspects: fire safety; hygiene and health; safe use; noise protection. The essential requirements of general character are made more specific in the interpretative documents elaborated by the Technical Committees (one for each essential requirement). Annex I lists the products and installations covered by the fifth-edition draft of the essential requirement on fire safety.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 1991, No.118, p.50-61. Illus.
Sinks T., O'Malley M., Hartle R., Hales T.R., Ruhe R.
An epidemic of dermatitis at a large construction site
In 1986, an epidemic of dermatitis occurred among more than 5,600 construction site workers in the United States. To identify its cause, the medical facility nurses' log was used to characterise the outbreak by person, place, and time. A strong association was found between dermatitis and the handling of fire-retardant lumber and plywood. Carpenters experienced the greatest risk. Those working only with fire-retardant lumber had a rate of dermatitis four times that of carpenters working exclusively with untreated wood. Carpenters who occasionally worked with fire-retardant lumber and plywood were at moderate risk. Although laboratory tests showed that phosphate compounds could be leached with water from the fire-retardant wood, an extract of these phosphates did not irritate the skin of laboratory animals. The specific chemical agent in the fire-retardant lumber which caused the epidemic was not identified. In view of the observed association, construction workers should handle this material with caution, especially in high temperatures and humidity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.462-467. 12 ref.
Prolonged asthma after smoke inhalation - A report of three cases and a review of previous reports
The development of prolonged obstructive airways disease after smoke inhalation is of concern to fire victims and fire-fighters. Three cases of asthma that developed following the inhalation of pyrolysis products are presented along with a review of previous reports of airway injury from smoke inhalation. Polyvinyl chloride pyrolysis products seem to pose a high risk, but other toxic inhalants are also implicated. There is substantial evidence that prolonged airway hyper-responsiveness and asthma may follow numerous inflammatory insults including smoke inhalation. Studies to identify specific individual risk factors and asthmagenic pyrolysis products are needed. Early, post-exposure anti-inflammatory treatment may modify the outcome.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.458-461. 42 ref.
Centro de Experimentación y Seguridad Vial (MAPFRE, Avila, Spain)
Safety and health in automobile repainting workshops
Seguridad e higiene en talleres de repintado de automóviles [in Spanish]
The importance of prevention, including personal protection measures, for workers who perform painting in automobile repair shops is discussed. Explosions and fires, and contamination by substances hazardous to health are identified as major hazards in painting areas. To this effect, preventive measures are recommended. In particular, the following prevention methods against fires and explosions are recommended: reduction of the inflammation sources and availability of fire-fighting equipment. Safety signs as a constant reminder of the hazards and the use of personal protective equipment are discussed.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1991, No.44, p.15-21. Illus.
Fire protection of LPG tanks with thin sublimation and intumescent coatings
The results of two full scale fire engulfment tests on a 3.6m3-Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) tank protected with a sublimation coating (THERMO-LAG 440) and on a 4.85m3-LPG tank protected with an intumescent coating (CHARTEK III) are presented. The tests have demonstrated a sufficient vessel safety during 90 minutes of full fire engulfment. Additional furnace tests on CHARTEK III-coated steel plates have been carried out to optimise the necessary coating thickness.
Hazard Prevention, 3rd Quarter 1991, Vol.27, No.3, p.18-24. Illus. 6 ref.
Fire hazard testing. Part 2: Test methods. Section 1: Glow-wire test and guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu. Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai. Section 1: Essai au fil incandescent et guide [in French]
This standard specifies a glow-wire test to simulate the effect of thermal stresses which may be produced by heat sources such as glowing elements or overloaded resistors in order to assess the resulting fire hazard. It is applicable to electrotechnical equipment, sub-assemblies and components, and to solid electrical insulating materials or other combustible materials. The specimen is brought into contact with a wire heated to 550-960°C for 30s and is considered to have passed the test if it does not ignite or remain glowing for 30s after removal of the wire. The choice of filament temperature depends on the conditions under which the tested article will operate, and on the possible consequences of failure.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., Oct. 1991. 25p. Illus.
Law No.91-39 of 8 June 1991 concerning the control and prevention of disasters and the organisation of disaster relief [Tunisia]
Loi n°91-39 du 8 juin 1991 relative ŕ la lutte contre les calamités, ŕ leur prévention et ŕ l'organisation des secours [Tunisie] [in French]
Major hazards are defined in this law as fires, floods, earthquakes, and other natural disasters whose severity is such that normally available regional or national means are not sufficient to control the situation.
Journal officiel de la République tunisienne, 14 June 1991, Vol.134, No.43, p.1144-1145.
Kodama T., Tabata Y.
Electrostatic charging of dielectric liquids mixed with powders caused by agitation and prevention of charging
Koeki nisōkei no kakuhan kongō ni yoru seidenki taiden no teiryōka to taiden bōshi [in Japanese]
A dispersed phase of solid particles or water droplets in a poorly conductive liquid produces a large electrostatic charge during agitation and thereby may lead to fires or explosions due to electrostatic discharges. Experiments using a cylindrical stainless vessel, 310mm in diameter and 315mm in depth with a paddle impeller, were conducted. Mixing of glass powders (frit), glass beads, adipic acid, titanium dioxide or epoxy resin, into kerosene or xylene gave not only a high charge density (>10µC/m3) during agitation but also a large increase of electric potential after cessation of agitation when the median particle diameter was below 200µm. Addition of a commercial conductivity additive, "ASA-3" or polar organic solvents such as methanol and acetone to the hydrocarbon liquids greatly reduced charge density (to 0.1µC/m3) both during and after the agitation, when the conductivity of liquid was raised to about 1nS/m.
Research Reports of the Research Institute of Industrial Safety, 10 May 1991, p.89-100. Illus. 9 ref.
Fujimoto Y., Ando T., Itagaki H., Morisaki S.
Prediction of thermal hazard data of benzene derivatives by multivariate statistical analysis of their chemical structure
Kagaku kōzō kara no netsu kikensei dēta no yosoku - benzen tankan yūdōtai [in Japanese]
Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the onset temperature of thermal decomposition and the heat of decomposition of mono-substituted nitrobenzenes. Multivariate regression analysis and discriminant analysis of the relation between thermal properties and substituent structure yielded values for the heat of decomposition contributed by each bond in the various substituents. When these values were used to predict the heats of decomposition of other substituted benzenes, the results agreed well with measured heats. The method was less successful for predicting decomposition temperature but still shows promise for the ranking of substances by hazardousness.
Research Reports of the Research Institute of Industrial Safety, 10 May 1991, p.59-74. 10 ref.
Rothman N., Ford D.P., Baser M.E., Hansen J.A., O'Toole T., Tockman M.S., Strickland P.T.
Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in wildland firefighters
Cross-seasonal changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in 52 wildland firefighters were studied. The mean cross-seasonal change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was -1.2% with a corresponding mean change in forced vital capacity (FVC) of -0.3%. Decreases in FEV1 and FVC were most strongly associated with hours of recent fire fighting activity (p=.002 and .01, respectively). When the study group was divided into 3 categories based on recent fire fighting activity, firefighters in the high activity category (>20 hours in a week) had a -2.9% (130mL) change in FEV1 and a -1.9% (102mL) change in FVC. There was a significant cross-seasonal increase in most respiratory symptoms evaluated. Several symptoms (eye and nose irritation, and wheezing) were associated with recent fire fighting. These findings suggest that wildland firefighters experience a small cross-seasonal decline in pulmonary function and an increase in several respiratory symptoms.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.11, p.1163-1167. 21 ref.
Cundy V.A., Lu C., Cook C.A., Sterling A.M., Leger C.B., Jakway A.L., Montestruc A.N., Conway R., Lester T.W.
Rotary kiln incineration of dichloromethane and xylene: A comparison of incinerability characteristics under various operating conditions
Comparisons are made, for the first time, between the combustion characteristics of dichloromethane and xylene in an industrial rotary kiln incinerator. The comparisons are made under different operating conditions, including variable kiln rotation rate and operation both with and without turbulence air. Continuous gas composition and temperature measurements and batch gas composition measurements were obtained from two vertical locations near the exit region of the rotary kiln. The measurements show that there is significant vertical stratification at the exit of the kiln. The field-scale data of this work suggest that the revolution rate of the test liquid was increased as kiln rotation rate increased. Many of the differences between xylene and dichloromethane processing during these experiments are explained by a simple stoichiometric analysis.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Aug. 1991, Vol.41, No.8, p.1084-1094. Illus. 13 ref.
Stollard P., Abrahams J.
Fire from first principles - A design guide to building fire safety
Contents of this manual: introduction to the theory of fire safety and technical terms of fire science; fire prevention (ignition prevention, fuel limitation, fire safety management); communication (detection, analysis, alarms, signs and fire notices); escape (occupancy, travel distances, rescue, escape lighting); containment (structural protection, compartmentation, envelope protection, active containment of smoke by pressurisation or venting); extinguishment (manual fire fighting, auto-suppression, fire service facilities and access); information (legislation, standards, guidance and advisory services). Glossary.
Routledge, Chapman and Hall Ltd., Cheriton House, (Dept. C), North Way, Andover, Hampshire SP10 5BE, United Kingdom, 1991. 153p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Lambrecht V., Fiedler S.
Extinguishing systems in warehouses
Löschanlagen in Lägern [in German]
This article describes a non-automatic fire extinguishing system for warehouses with floor areas between 200 and 1000m2, which uses fixed pipes with nozzles. It differs from sprinkler systems in that the extinguishing agent is fed into the pipes upon outbreak of a fire. All extinguishing agents, water, foam, powder and CO2 can be used. The system is suitable if the warehouse is equipped with an automatic smoke detection system and the local fire brigade is capable of reaching the warehouse within 15 minutes.
Brandschutz, Mar. 1991, Vol.45, No.3, p.170-174. Illus.
Sankaran K., Roles A., Kasian G.
Fire in an intensive care unit - Causes and strategies for prevention
Two nearly disastrous fires occurred in 1988 within 4 days of each other in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital. A multifactorial theory was tested and demonstrated to explain the fire. Due to a pressure difference and other factors, oxygen-rich air streamed through electrical sockets into sealed cabinets containing electrical wires and pipes for oxygen and compressed air. The air flowing through the sockets also carried small amounts of lint which accumulated inside the electrical boxes and cabinets. A spark from an isolette plug ignited the oxygen and lint. Renovation of the unit ensured that the cabinets are no longer sealed and are left open to the ambient air. The re-design allows lint and spilled materials to be cleaned up. The electrical sockets are now above rather than below the oxygen outlets.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 15 Aug. 1991, Vol.145, No.4, p.313-315. Illus. 16 ref.
Stair pressurization systems for smoke control
The results of preliminary studies conducted during the first phase of the ASHRAE Research Project 559RP are presented. The studies examined the critical air velocities needed to prevent smoke backflow at an open stairdoor.
ASHRAE Journal, July 1991, Vol.33, No.7, p.14, 16-18. 16 ref.
Design of buildings against fire spread (A review)
Although the spread of fire in buildings takes place mostly by convection, conventional fire protection measures concentrate on the prevention of spread by destruction. This paper considers that the building code approach to the provision of safety by fire resistant compartmentation is of little value and reviews a number of more recent approaches. It is shown that the normalised heat load is a true quantifier of the fire's potential for spread by destruction and provides a sound basis for the assessment of fire resistance requirements. The design to counter the convective spread of fires is based mainly on common-sense considerations.
Journal of Applied Fire Science, 1990-91, Vol.1, No.1, p.65-81. Illus. 28 ref.
Omeish T.M., Sebastian M.
Overcoming electrical risks in hazardous process areas
A discussion of the importance of proper selection, operation and maintenance of electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas at petroleum processing facilities. Areas referred to are those where flammable petroleum gases and volatile flammable liquids are processed, stored or handled. Topics covered include: hazardous areas and their classification; sources of release and their likely frequency and duration; conditions for a fire or explosion; selection of electrical equipment according to the area classification; operations and maintenance; inspection of equipment and training of personnel (isolation of apparatus during inspection, hot work precautions, initial and periodic inspections, testing).
Fire Prevention, Dec. 1991, No.245, p.21-26. Illus. 6 ref.
Tepper A., Comstock G.W., Levine M.
A longitudinal study of pulmonary function in fire fighters
Pulmonary function changes among fire fighters were evaluated by re-examining 632 Baltimore city fire fighters 6 to 10 years after a baseline examination. Spirometry was used to determine forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Information about exposures was obtained by questionnaire and by combining data from fire department records regarding the number of fires fought by fire fighting units with individual work histories. Men who never wore a mask while extinguishing fires experienced a 1.7 times greater rate of FEV1 decline than mask wearers. Men with ammonia exposure experienced a rate of decline 1.7 times greater than non-exposed men. Neither length of time spent in exposed jobs nor number of responses were associated with the rate of decline. Active fire fighters experienced a rate of decline 2.5 times greater than those who had retired or resigned.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1991, Vol.20, No.3, p.307-316. Illus. 31 ref.
Upgrading factory buildings to control fire spread
This guide outlines simple measures management can take to upgrade an existing factory building to improve its resistance to fire spread. Improvements described include: subdivision of the factory into smaller units by fire-resistant walls; filling in of unnecessary openings; replacement of combustible building and lining materials; covering structural steelwork with heat-insulating materials; installation of fixed fire-extinguishing systems.
Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, Sep. 1991. 4p. Illus. 24 ref.
A first pass at computing the cost of fire safety in a modern society
The total cost of fires (damage, prevention and protection) in the United States is estimated at USD 115 billion per year, plus another USD 13 billion for the economic cost of fire deaths and injuries. This paper is an extract from a report by the National Institute of Standards and Technology describing the major components of the total cost of fire and providing new estimates for each. Computations discussed in the report include: property losses, business interruption and product liability; insurance; the fire service; preventive measures.
Fire Technology, Nov. 1991, Vol.27, No.4, p.341-345. 3 ref.
Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss in fire fighters assigned to airport fire stations
Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied hearing levels and noise exposures of 197 fire fighters at 5 metropolitan fire stations. Two of the 5 stations served an international airport. The noise surveys consisted of personal noise dosimetry on fire fighters for the entire 24-hr tour of duty over 2 consecutive days. The audiometric examinations were pure-tone, air conduction tests. The dosimetry results revealed time-weighted averages ranging from 60 to 82dB(A). However, the levels encountered during Code 3 responses (sirens and air horns) reached 109dB(A) for a 1 minute time period. The audiometric results showed that the average fire fighter exhibited a characteristic noise-induced permanent threshold shift. Hearing loss was related to the amount of time on the job with decreasing hearing ability a function of years of service.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1991, Vol.52, No.9, p.372-378. Illus. 14 ref.
Methyl ethyl ketone
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Toxic effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, respiratory tract and skin; narcotic effects; dermatitis; neurotoxic effects.
Loss Prevention News, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.13, No.3, p.19-20. 5 ref.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Toxic effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin; narcotic effects; dermatitis; neurotoxic effects.
Loss Prevention News, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.13, No.3, p.21-22. 6 ref.
This fire safety data sheet concerns access control systems for the regulation of people and vehicles entering or leaving premises. Topics covered: means of personnel access; control by security staff; control by discreet electrical and mechanical devices; control by integrated electronic systems; selecting a system.
Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, Apr. 1991. 6p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
The storage of flammable liquids in fixed tanks (exceeding 10,000m3 total capacity)
This document, together with booklet HS(G) 50, replaces HSE Guidance Note CS2 and the Home Office Model Code of Principles of Construction and Licensing Conditions Part II: Distribution depots and major installations. It gives guidance on the design, construction, operation and maintenance of installations used for the storage of flammable liquids in fixed tanks operating at or near atmospheric pressure. Contents: definitions; bulk storage in fixed tanks; road and rail tankers; fire precautions; emergency procedures; higher-flashpoint liquids. An appendix outlines legal requirements and enforcement arrangements.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 24p. Illus. 80 ref. Price: GBP 4.50.
EXPOSURE: an expert system fire code
This paper describes a computer program, EXPOSURE, developed to address the problem of preventing the spread of fire between buildings. EXPOSURE is an expert system version of NFPA 80A (Recommended practice for protection of buildings from exterior fire exposures), but expands the class of users to include non-fire safety professionals. The results of applying NFPA 80A and EXPOSURE to the same buildings are compared, and the implications of this work for the development of automated fire codes are discussed. Results indicate that significant cost savings and improved safety can be realised by using expert system fire codes such as EXPOSURE.
Fire Technology, May 1991, Vol.27, No.2, p.145-159. Illus. 15 ref.
Hardware for fire and escape doors
This data sheet concerns the requirements for security doors to be supplemented by additional fire exits for use in an emergency, and discusses the various components of fire doors, including: design of fire door assemblies; style and strength of hinges; screws and bolts; door closing devices; automatic door releases; locks and panic bolts; door furniture and other fittings; fire safety signs.
Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, July 1991. 6p. Illus. 13 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of fire hazards from solid materials and the precautions required for their safe storage and use
Contents of this guidance note: assessing the fire hazard of flammable solid materials, taking into account their characteristics and the conditions in which they are stored or used; process fire risks and precautions (storage, use, control of ignition sources); general fire precautions; fire behaviour properties of flammable solids; an HSE method for assessing fire characteristics of solid materials. Annexes provide a summary of the relevant law, examples of serious fires involving flammable solids and a definition of fire resisting construction.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 19p. 26 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.
Fire resistant protective clothing (Nomex suits)
During a fire caused by ignition of a vapour cloud of escaping hydrocarbons at a USA refinery in 1989, a workers suffered burns to the head, hands and leg but was saved from more serious burns to the body by the wearing of flame retardant overalls (Nomex suits). The incident demonstrates the value of fire resistant protective clothing which it is recommended should be made available for all high risk operations.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Aug. 1991, No.100, p.28-30. Illus.
The benefits of flame retardant clothing
This paper briefly describes 3 fire incidents where workers were protected by flame retardant clothing. The examples illustrate that the wearing of such clothing has a role in avoiding or minimising injuries when unforeseen circumstances or equipment failure create a potentially dangerous situation.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Aug. 1991, No.100, p.27-28.
Fire protection equipment
This data sheet concerns a four-part linked system of fire defence comprising detection, warning, calling the fire brigade and immediate attack. Contents: manually operated warning systems; automatic fire detection and alarm systems (suitability of smoke, heat and flame detectors); automatic fire detection and extinguishing systems (water sprinkler and spray systems, gas extinguishing systems, foam); portable fire extinguishing equipment (portable extinguishers, fire points, hose reels, hydrant systems).
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, Aug. 1991. 11p. Illus. 12 ref.
Large property damage losses in the hydrocarbon chemical process industries: A thirty year review
A series of three articles covering the hundred largest losses in the last thirty years. Following an introductory article describing the criteria for inclusion and major causes for concern, the losses are described and reviewed under the following headings: refineries, petrochemical plants, gas processing plants, terminals and miscellaneous. The trended (adjusted for inflation) value of the loss caused by each accident is given with a short description of the incident. A concluding article interprets the results and identifies trends and implications for the chemical and process industries.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, June 1991, No.99, p.1-30. Illus.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.13, No.1, p.23-24. Insert. 4 ref.
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India.
Loss Prevention News, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.13, No.1, p.25-26. Insert. 4 ref.
McDiarmid M.A., Lees P.S.J., Agnew J., Midzenski M., Duffy R.
Reproductive hazards of fire fighting. II - Chemical hazards
Studies of the health of fire fighters have historically focused on non-malignant respiratory disease and cancer. More recently, concerns have surfaced about reproductive health effects in many areas of the workforce, including fire fighting. These concerns prompted this review of chemical exposures that may contribute to adverse reproductive health outcomes in male as well as female fire fighters. A review of the industrial hygiene literature was undertaken to identify agents commonly found in fire smoke. These agents were then examined for evidence of reproductive toxicity or mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. This profile of chemical agents and their reproductive toxicities permits a qualitative determination that fire fighters are exposed to potential reproductive toxicants as a part of their normal fire fighting duties. Considerations for mitigating these risks are also discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.19, No.4, p.447-472. ca. 220 ref.
Agnew J., McDiarmid M.A., Lees P.S.J., Duffy R.
Reproductive hazards of fire fighting. I - Non-chemical hazards
Fire fighters are regularly exposed to chemical and non-chemical agents that have known or suspected adverse effects on reproductive health. Although chemical agents have received some attention, non-chemical hazards such as heat, noise, and physical exertion have only recently been examined for their reproductive effects. There is evidence that heat, noise, and physical exertion may have various effects on reproductive health, including loss of fertility, foetal loss, and retarded growth of offspring. In particular, hyperthermia, a major fire fighting hazard, has been shown to impair male fertility and may also be teratogenic. Further study of the potential reproductive effects of this and other common non-chemical agents in the fire environment is needed to learn more about the reproductive effects of non-chemical hazards on male and female fire fighters.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.19, No.4, p.433-445. 86 ref.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Calculations of the effect of thermal radiation on a vessel containing propylene oxide
This report gives details of the data used in calculations to find probable times to failure for a spherical vessel containing propylene oxide, subjected to incident thermal radiation from a distant pool fire of 38kW/m2 at the nearest point. Calculations were made using the ENGULF computer code and showed that for a 100,000kg mass of propylene oxide the tank would still be intact after nearly 14 hours.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, 1991. 9p. 10 ref.
Merritt J.R., Herington L., Jones S.B., Sayed Y.
Analysis of hexamine combustion
Hexamine was combusted under varying amounts of oxygen in a modified Parr combustion bomb. The products were collected and analysed by gas chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and colorimetric tests. The primary products were nitrogen and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ammonia. Other possible products such as hydrogen cyanide, dinitrogen monoxide, and carbon monoxide were not detected. Experiments conducted in larger concentrations of oxygen showed an increase in the amounts of nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and a decrease in the amount of ammonia relative to experiments conducted in smaller concentrations of oxygen.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan.1991, Vol.52, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 5 ref.
Hara Y., Akiyoshi M., Nakamura H., Sato S.
Evaluation of hazardous properties of aliphatic nitrates
Shibōzoku shōsan esuteru no kikensei hyōka [in Japanese]
Thermochemical data such as boiling point, heat of vaporisation and flash point, and kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition for C3-C10 aliphatic nitrates were measured to evaluate their hazardous properties. Intermolecular attractive forces increase as the carbon chain becomes longer, resulting in higher boiling points and greater heats of vaporisation. Flash point is a linear function of boiling point, as in the case of alkanes. The rate equations for isothermal decomposition are 1/2-order. Decomposition proceeds by similar reaction mechanisms for all the nitrates.
Journal of the Japan Society for Safety Engineering - Anzen kōgaku, 15 Apr. 1991, Vol.30, No.2, p.84-87. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The storage and handling of organic peroxides
This guidance note applies to commercially available organic peroxides packaged in accordance with the British Approved Code of Practice, Packaging of Dangerous Substances for Conveyance by Road (CIS 88-1722). It does not cover storage in either tank or intermediate bulk containers, nor formulations with a peroxide content of less than 10%. Contents: properties and hazards of organic peroxides; principal storage recommendations; flammability types; storage requirements for various types and quantities of peroxides; minimum separation distances for detached stores holding more than 150kg of peroxides; marking and labelling; store management; handling; emergency procedures and training; legislation relating to the handling of hazardous substances and the control of major accident hazards. An appendix lists various organic peroxides with their flammability type and other data.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 15p. Illus. 18 ref.
Informative fire warning systems
Successful evacuation of a building depends on early detection of a fire and timely and convincing communication to occupants about the location of the fire and its size and spread. These two requirements for increasing life safety can be met by computer-based Informative Fire Warning Systems (IFWS). This Technical Note reviews briefly research carried out in the United Kingdom on IFWS and the basic features desirable in such fire detection systems.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1991, Vol.27, No.1, p.66-81. Illus. 23 ref.
Hall J.R., Sekizawa A.
Fire risk analysis: general conceptual framework for describing models
A general conceptual framework has been developed as an aid to discussions of alternative approaches to fire risk analysis. The purpose is to show how each alternative seeks to address a few common concerns. Basic concepts and key elements - notably scenario structures, appropriate probability functions, and severity and outcome measures - are defined and discussed, as are types of modelling approaches. A number of diverse examples are then presented using the framework to illustrate its value in making comparisons.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1991, Vol.27, No.1, p.33-53. 11 ref.
Industrial fire hazards handbook
Contents of this manual: industrial fire risk management; hazard analysis and risk assessment; life safety in industrial occupancies; plant emergency organization and training; pre-planning for industrial emergencies; fire hazards in 22 major industries and in 14 processes; general occupancy fire hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids, industrial gases, liquefied petroleum gases, computer centres, clean rooms, laboratories, boiler-furnaces, fluid power systems, refrigeration systems, air moving equipment, materials handling systems, electrical installations, and industrial storage; warehouse pre-fire planning and fire fighting operations; industrial waste control; record storage; industrial housekeeping.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 3rd ed., 1990. 1304p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Incendiary devices: Information and guidance
This data sheet provides guidance on dealing with incendiary devices used in arson attacks on business premises. The nature of an incendiary device is outlined along with targets for such devices, how devices may enter the premises, dealing with advance warnings, police activities, searching the building, recognizing a device, action to take if a device is discovered and implementation of precautionary measures.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, 1990. 6p. Illus. 13 ref.
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