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Fires - 2,022 entries found

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  • Fires

1992

CIS 94-646 Manzo L., Weetman D.F.
Toxicology of combustion products
This book contains the proceedings of a conference held in Pavia (Italy) in 1992. There are altogether 14 papers, of which the following topics are relevant to OSH: toxicity of particles from combustion processes (Henderson R.F., Mauderly J.L.); experimental toxicology of inhaled automobile exhaust emissions (Brightwell J.); chemical risks from waste incineration (De Felip E., Di Domenico A.); coal combustion as a source of metallic pollutants (Sabbioni E., Manzo L.); toxicology of environmental tobacco smoke (Reasor M.J.); toxicology of compounds originating by pyrolitic or combustion processes (Gorrod J.W.); vehicle emissions and fuel quality (Fiumara A.); clinical toxicology of cyanide released by combustion (Bismuth C.H.); fire incapacitation (Beritic T.; Stilinovic L.); toxicology of carbon monoxide (Locatelli C., Candura S.M., Manzo L.). A selected bibliography and a list of participants are annexed.
Fondazione Clinica del Lavoro, IRCCS, Via Severino Boezio, 24-26, 27100 Pavia, Italy, 1992. 141p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 93-1162 Lee Y.S., Jun J.H.
Prevention of fires and explosions
Hwajaep'okbal jaehaebangji [in Korean]
Training material on the prevention of fires and explosions. Contents: handling of dangerous substances; fires; explosions; chemical installations.
Korean Industrial Safety Corporation (KISCO), Kukje Bld. 9F.191, 2-ka Hangang-ro, Yongsan-ku, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 1992. 82p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 93-1317 Broeckmann B., Schecker H.G.
"Boil over" in burning mineral oil tanks
"Boil over" in brennenden Mineralöltanks [in German]
In a burning mineral oil storage tank boil over is caused by evaporation of mineral oil components, such as water, with low boiling point. The arising water vapour causes the eruption of burning fuel droplets to great distances. The mechanisms leading to a boil over were studied with crude oil, gas oil and solvent naphtha in cylindrical tanks with a diameter of 1m and heights of 0.3 and 0.5m. Methods for preventing a boil over were derived from the results. These methods include: cooling of the tank walls, alteration of fuel viscosity and, in fuels such as solvent naphtha, the substitution of water by methanol or ethanol.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Mar. 1992, Vol.64, No.3, p.271-273. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 93-1316 Rubach T., Onken U., Schecker H.G.
Studies to improve the safety of water barriers
Untersuchungen zur Erhöhung der Durchzündsicherheit von Tauchsperren [in German]
The influence of 100µm glass particles or 45µm metal particles in suspension and solutions of polyethylene oxide or polyacrylamide on the efficiency of water barriers in preventing the spread of fires was tested in laboratory and field experiments. Highly explosive mixtures of methane and oxygen as well as hydrogen and air were used. Addition of particles or polymer solutions in amount of 10 to 35% by volume increased the volume flow of burning gas that could be extinguished by the water barrier with increasing amount of additive. Above 35% additive no further increases were achieved.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Mar. 1992, Vol.64, No.3, p.262-263. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 93-1240 Appleton B.
Health and Safety Executive
Appleton Inquiry Report: Report of an inquiry into health and safety aspects of stoppages caused by fire and bomb alerts on London Underground, British Rail and other mass transit systems
Contents of this report: risks from fires and delays; assessment of risks; London Underground Ltd.'s approach and the way forward; fire legislation on the Underground and British Rail; incidents involving bombs and packages; parallels on other systems; main conclusions and recommendations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iv, 32p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.25.

CIS 93-1320 Cowley L.R.
Steel Construction Institute
Current fire research: Experimental, theoretical and predictive modelling resources. Volumes 1 and 2
This report is one of a series concerning fire loading on offshore structures and provides a compilation of worldwide fire science and engineering activities. Organisations and individuals active in this area were approached and their responses are reproduced in this report. Information was requested on: organisation name, address, type and size; activities; policy on collaborative research and on open publication of research findings; experience; current research; future capabilities; research publications; predictive tools in use.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. Vol.1, 448p.; Vol.2, 344p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 80.00.

CIS 93-767 Ethyl nitrate
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); gastrointestinal disorders.
Loss Prevention News, Oct.-Dec. 1992, Vol.14, No.4, p.21-22.

CIS 93-764 Dinitrophenol
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and skin; corneal damage; cataracts; skin sensitisation; dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); may affect the liver and kidneys.
Loss Prevention News, Oct.-Dec. 1992, Vol.14, No.4, p.19-20.

CIS 93-992
Steel Construction Institute
Availability and properties of passive and active fire protection systems
This report is one of a series concerning fire resistance of offshore structures and considers various types of passive and active fire protection systems. List of definitions and abbreviations. The philosophy of design of passive fire protection is outlined along with a list of commercially available fire protection products (intumescents, spray coatings, fire seals, rigid and flexible insulation, enclosures and casings and fire walls). Current active fire protection design is described along with alternative fire protection systems. List of definitions and abbreviations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 102p. 9 ref. Price: GBP 12.50.

CIS 93-991 Cotgreave T.
Steel Construction Institute
Passive fire protection: Performance requirements and test methods
This report is one of a series concerning fire resistance of offshore structures. Performance requirements for offshore passive fire protective systems are appraised along with an assessment of the adequacy of current tests for ensuring that performance. Types of fire and explosion events are described, followed by a review of passive fire protection usage and standard fire tests for elements of construction. Performance considerations include installation requirements, durability under service conditions in the pre-fire phase, exposure to fire conditions likely to be experienced offshore and the effects of explosions. Glossary of organisations and official bodies, and of terms and abbreviations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 77p. 77 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-990
Steel Construction Institute
Methodologies and available tools for the design/analysis of steel components at elevated temperatures
This report is one of a series concerning fire resistance of offshore structures. Design methods and tools which may be used to assess the structural response of steel structures under fire conditions are identified and their development and potential application to offshore structures are reviewed. The thermal response of structures is outlined in terms of types of fire, thermal loading and calculation of steel temperature. The application of the code-check and progressive collapse methods to the analysis of structures at elevated temperatures is described. Computer analysis packages are also reviewed. Glossary of terms and nomenclature.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 149p. 37 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 93-989
Steel Construction Institute
Experimental data relating to the performance of steel components at elevated temperatures
This report is one of a series concerning fire resistance of offshore structures. Temperature dependent material properties for the various types of steel that are commonly found in offshore installations are examined; these include structural steels and "boiler" steels used for pressure vessels and some piping. The effects of the steel making process and the chemical composition of the steels are considered and an outline of the use of steel on offshore structures is presented. The study shows that there is limited test data at elevated temperatures for steels which are not the common structural steels, and data which are available should be used with caution. Glossary.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 83p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-984
Steel Construction Institute
Oil and gas fires: Characteristics and impact
This report is one of a series concerning fire loading on offshore structures. A review is presented of the current knowledge of the characteristics and consequences of large, open oil and gas hydrocarbon fires of relevance to offshore safety and the ability to predict fire properties for hazard assessment and fire engineering. Types of fire include pool and running liquid fires, jet fires, cloud fires and fireballs. Predictive models are also reviewed. A major gap in current knowledge is the poor ability to predict effects of scale and fuel type. List of definitions and abbreviations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 238p. Illus. 173 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 93-982
Steel Construction Institute
Fire/blast performance of explosion/fire damaged structural and containment steelwork
This report is one of a series concerning fire resistance of offshore structures and reviews the behaviour of typical offshore structural elements and assemblies under combined fire and explosion loadings. Current regulations and design methods are outlined followed by a review of the effects of fire and explosions on undamaged components, the assessment of combined fire and explosion resistance and the development of acceptance criteria for fire and explosion resistant structures.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 49p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-981
Steel Construction Institute
Existing fire design criteria for secondary, support and system steelwork
This report is one of a series concerning fire resistance of offshore structures and relates to fire design criteria for secondary steelwork. Fire design requirements are discussed along with methods and calculations. The study shows that, almost without exception, secondary steelwork has not previously been designed to withstand fire loads. Fire protection of secondary steelwork in key areas may be increased by making use of materials with enhanced fire-resistant, durability and corrosion-proof properties.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 88p. 14 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-980 Cowley L.T.
Steel Construction Institute
Behaviour of oil and gas fires in the presence of confinement and obstacles
This report is one of a series concerning fire loading on offshore structures. A review is presented of current knowledge on the characteristics and hazards produced by hydrocarbon fires in offshore structures where there are degrees of confinement and presence of obstructions, and the ability to predict fire behaviour for hazard assessment and fire engineering. Specific predictive models are reviewed and a survey of computer models for fire and smoke is included. The report should be read with that on open fires (OTI 92 596, CIS 93-984).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 307p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 33.00.

CIS 93-974
Steel Construction Institute
Legislation, codes of practice and certification requirements
This report is one of a series addressing general issues relevant to blast and fire engineering for offshore structures. Regulations, codes of practice and certification requirements used in the specification and certification of blast and fire resistant structures are identified and summarised. In general, there is a lack of any regulations or guidance relating to the treatment of explosions offshore, while documents relating to fire stem largely from the shipping and onshore building industries. The implications of the report of the public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster are also discussed.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 42p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-973
Steel Construction Institute
Generic foundation data to be used in the assessment of blast and fire scenarios and typical structural details for primary, secondary and supporting structures/components
This report is one of a series addressing general issues relevant to blast and fire engineering for offshore structures. Information on 21 platforms was examined in order to establish generic data and information representative of existing and new installations in the North Sea. A description of previous and present-day practice for offshore structures is presented with particular emphasis on topside structures, modular construction, equipment and utilities, secondary structures, module cladding and non-structural components. A set of four representative modules has been established for each of which design details have been developed enabling the investigation of various fire/blast scenarios.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 69p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-972
Steel Construction Institute
The use of alternative materials in the design and construction of blast and fire resistant structures
This report is one of a series addressing general issues relevant to blast and fire engineering for offshore structures. The current use of alternative materials to steels in explosion and fire resistant structures is reviewed; in particular, glass fibre reinforced plastics and aluminium. The major suppliers and manufacturers are identified, along with brief descriptions of their existing and proprietary explosion and fire resistant products. Technical details regarding fundamental material properties and design approaches have been collated and existing design codes and regulations are reviewed. Definitions and glossary of terms.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 154p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 93-970
Steel Construction Institute
Representative range of blast fire scenarios
This report is one of a series addressing general issues relevant to blast and fire engineering for offshore structures and relates to the definition of a representative range of blast and fire scenarios. A selection rationale is presented, followed by a description of the approach adopted to establish the scope of this study. The specific methodology and priority rating system adopted is discussed and a description of the selected base event and scenarios is presented. The selected representative modules defined in report OTO 92 585 are used to develop a geometry and obstacle database which is described in this report.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 35p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 93-994 Fire protection
Topics covered in this revised guidance note (see CIS 90-2032 for previous edition): fire prevention measures in terms of workplace assessment and implementation of controls including correct plant and process design, scheduled inspections, employee training, adequate housekeeping procedures; implementation of a fire emergency plant covering communications, personal safety and fire extinguishment. Canadian legislation relevant to occupational fire safety is also cited.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 250 Yonge Street, 28th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2N4, Canada, 1992. 8p. 4 ref. Price: CAD 2.35 (CAD 1.15 IAPA members).

CIS 93-1040 Sothmann M.S., Saupe K., Jasenof D., Blaney J.
Heart rate response of firefighters to actual emergencies - Implications for cardiorespiratory fitness
Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) responses during actual fire-suppression emergencies were monitored in 10 male firefighters. These firefighters worked at 157 ± 8 beats per minute (bpm) for 15 ± 7 minutes. This was 88 ± 6% of their previously determined HR max. Based on treadmill testing, the HR x VO2 relationship was established for each firefighter. The predicted VO2 derived from HR monitoring in actual emergencies 25.6 ± 8.7mL/kg/h or 63 ± 14% of VO2 max (40.0 ± 6.5mL/kg/h). These values on the cardiorespiratory response to actual emergencies are very similar to results derived from studies employing fire-suppression simulations. Recommendations for the VO2 max of firefighters ranging from 33.5 to 42.0mL/kg/h that have been generated from simulation testing appear appropriate given the cardiorespiratory responses to actual emergencies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.34, No.8, p.797-800. 16 ref.

CIS 93-395 Sodium chlorate
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; damage to red blood cells on ingestion; respiratory difficulties; renal and hepatic damage.
Loss Prevention News, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.14, No.3, p.19-20.

CIS 93-388 Nitroglycerine
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin absorption; highly toxic; neurological effects; sensitisation; ulceration of the skin.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.14, No.2, p.19-20.

CIS 93-384 Hydrofluoric acid
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: delayed effects; strongly corrosive; highly irritating; poisonous; severe burns on contact with skin, eyes or mucous membranes; pulmonary oedema.
Loss Prevention News, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.14, No.3, p.21-22.

CIS 93-375 Butylamine
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of skin, nose, throat, mucous membranes and eyes; pulmonary oedema.
Loss Prevention News, Jan.-Mar. 1992, Vol.14, No.1, p.21-22.

CIS 93-374 Butadiene
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin burns; severe damage to eyes; irritation of skin, eyes, nose and respiratory tract; carcinogen.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.14, No.2, p.21-22.

CIS 93-372 Acetyl chloride
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes, nose, throat and mucous membranes; skin burns.
Loss Prevention News, Jan.-Mar. 1992, Vol.14, No.1, p.19-20.

CIS 93-602 Lewit E.M.
Responses among New Jersey's largest employers to legislation restricting smoking at the worksite
In 1985, the state of New Jersey (USA) enacted a law requiring that employers with more than 50 employees implement policies to control smoking in places of employment. The 104 largest private employers in New Jersey were surveyed in 1988 to assess their worksite smoking policies. Of the 92 respondents, 97% had implemented restrictive workplace smoking policies. Only 12% of respondents had implemented such policies prior to the date required by the law, and 86% cited the law as the reason for restricting smoking in the workplace. Over two-thirds of respondents placed restrictions on smoking in open areas, while only one-third restricted smoking in private offices. Non-smoking employees were reported by 80% of respondents to be supportive of restrictive smoking policies, but 23% reported dissatisfaction by their smoking employees. The New Jersey law appears to have been an important factor in the adoption of workplace smoking restrictions by the state's largest employers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.22, No.3, p.385-393. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-639
The Scottish Office
Fire safety in the printing industry
Contents of this guidance note: legal requirements; causes of fires; fire risk management; general fire precautions (training, means of escape, fire alarms, sprinklers and smoke control systems, extinguishers, maintenance and testing); housekeeping; hazards and precautions in various operations. Appendices include: examples of fires in the printing industry; selecting the appropriate extinguisher; permit-to-work; fire-resisting structures; solvent recovery; safety precautions for blanket wash systems in heat-set web offset printing.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 50p. Illus. 77 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 93-603 Sasco A.J., Dalla-Vorgia P., Van der Elst P.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
Comparative study of anti-smoking legislation in countries of the European Economic Community
This document examines both existing and proposed legislation and regulations involving tobacco use. Topics covered: advertising; labelling and limits on tar levels; protection of children; definition of tobacco products and prohibition of certain smokeless products; smoking in public places and workplaces. A table lists those countries with projected legislation or regulation for the workplace.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1992. 82p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 30.00.

CIS 93-632 Eisner H.S., Stoop J.A.A.M.
Incorporating fire safety in the Channel Tunnel
Provisions made for fire safety in the Channel Tunnel are reviewed. Fire hazards and risk assessment are briefly discussed and the passage of the fire provisions through the design and authorisation systems set up by the British and French governments is examined. It is concluded that the design of fire prevention and mitigation has greatly lagged behind the design, tendering and, in some cases, construction of the Channel Tunnel structure, equipment and rolling stock. Much irreversible construction and engineering work had clearly been carried out before a full assessment of the fire hazard had been made.
Safety Science, July 1992, Vol.15, No.2, p.119-136. 38 ref.

CIS 93-183
Commission of the European Communities
Measures to reduce explosion and fire hazards in mine workings with secondary ventilation and to improve the protection of workers in case of explosion or of fire in coal mines [CEC]
Mesures visant ŕ réduire les risques d'explosion et d'incendie dans les ouvrages miniers en aérage secondaire et ŕ améliorer la protection du personnel en cas d'explosion et d'incendie dans les mines de charbon [CCE] [in French]
Contents of this report on a symposium held at Luxembourg on 6 and 7 Dec. 1990 include: 1. Session A. On-going ventilation; improving the monitoring of secondary mine ventilation; electricity; reducing explosion hazards; fire safety in mine workings with secondary ventilation; human factors. 2. Session B. triggered barriers; portable respirators; secondary ventilation system. 3. Session C. firedamp monitoring instruments; alarms; ventilation and air conditioning; fire at the King's Cross metro station in London. 4. Session D. The Channel tunnel (construction - general observations; ventilation of lung tunnels during excavation); conclusions and summaries. Annexes. List and addresses of session chairpersons and speakers.
Directorate General Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Jean Monnet Building, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Complete report: doc. No.5147/89, 315p. Illus. Summary report: doc. No.5148/1/89.

CIS 93-98 The NFPA catalog - Fire safety products and services from the National Fire Protection Association
Contents of this catalogue: codes and standards; fire protection equipment; hazardous materials; management of a fire service; fire safety education; special groups (hotels, health care, business and industry); law and reference books.
National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, Fall 1992. 83p. Illus.

CIS 93-32
Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Storage of packaged pesticides: Storage of pesticides in distribution and related enterprises (in excess of 400kg) [Netherlands]
English translation of the directive originally abstracted as CIS 91-1069. It contains guidelines for the safety of large storage facilities for pesticides. Attention is given to: site admission, fire prevention, containment of water used for fire extinguishing, separate storage of pesticides, clean-up of spilled pesticides, instruction and training of personnel, heating, emergency lighting, emergency and first aid, personal protection equipment.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1992. 55p.

CIS 93-31
Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Storage of packaged hazardous materials: Storage of liquids and solids (0-10 tons) [Netherlands]
English translation of the directive originally abstracted as CIS 91-1070. Contents: definitions; general lay-out of storage facilities for hazardous substances; general provisions (labelling, training and instruction of personnel, clean-up of spilled material, notification of accidents); siting and construction of cupboards, strongboxes, storage sheds, stacks of barrels; technical provisions; personal protection and hygiene.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1st ed., 1992. 43p. Illus.

CIS 93-279 Karter M.J.
NFPA reports on 1991 U.S. fire loss
Statistics and comment are provided on the numbers and types of fires occurring in the USA in 1991 along with estimated costs. Topics covered: numbers of fires, fire deaths and fire injuries; estimated property loss by property use; numbers of incendiary and suspicious fires.
NFPA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1992, Vol.86, No.5, p.32-43. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 93-179 Sothmann M.S., Landy F., Saupe K.
Age as a bona fide occupational qualification for firefighting - A review on the importance of measuring aerobic power
Recent federal and judicial initiatives in the USA have led to controversy over the justification of mandatory retirement policies applied to public safety occupations. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has been mandated to study this issue, and a critical element of that study will be to determine the types of tests to be employed as substitutes for a mandatory retirement age. In this review, a rationale is presented for the measurement of aerobic power (VO2max) as a predictor of the physical performance capability of firefighters. Task simulations rarely replicate the environmental conditions present at structural fires that stress the cardiorespiratory capability of firefighters. VO2max is an important predictor of performance effectiveness of firefighters to be used in conjunction with task-specific testing.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.26-33. 77 ref.

CIS 92-2014 Lacosta Berna J.M.
Fire hazard assessment of plastics used in electrical applications
Valoración del riesgo de incendio de los materiales plásticos utilizados en aplicaciones eléctricas [in Spanish]
The use of plastics with high-voltage electrical wires creates a significant fire risk. Causes, prevention and assessment of this fire risk are discussed. Relevant standards for safety testing of electrical apparatus are reviewed.
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 1992, No.45, p.27-35. Illus.

CIS 92-1563 House R.A., Jakubovic H., Wong L., Holness D.L.
Work-related toxic epidermal necrolysis?
A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis is described in an employee of a company that carries out plastic extrusion using various resins, including cellulose acetate, co-polyester, polyvinyl chloride, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and polyethylene. Air sampling during normal operating conditions indicated only trace amounts of hydrogen chloride and the plasticiser diethylphthalate. However, pyrolysis products of resin plugs could include compounds such as formaldehyde, acrylonitrile, and chlorinated hydrocarbons that have been associated with previous case reports of either erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis. The development of toxic epidermal necrolysis in this worker was directly preceded by exposure to a vapour from a machine used to dry cellulose acetate. The problems in determining work relatedness and advising about return to work are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.34, No.2, p.135-139. 36 ref.

CIS 92-1680 McMahon C.K., Bush P.B.
Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the southern United States
A field study was conducted to measure breathing zone concentrations of smoke suspended particulate matter (SPM), herbicide residues, and carbon monoxide (CO) on 14 prescribed fires. The sites were burned within 30-169 days after herbicide application. Tract size ranged from 2.4 to 154 hectares. No herbicide residues were detected in the 140 smoke samples from the 14 fires. Concentrations of SPM and CO were highly variable depending on fire conditions and the location of personnel. Worker respirable SPM concentrations ranged between 0.2 and 3.7 mg/m3. Exposure periods depended on fire size and ranged from 1.2 to 6.3hrs. Area monitors placed in high-density smoke zones had total SPM concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 45 mg/m3. CO breathing zone concentrations ranged from <6 to 30ppm/hr while the fires were being worked on. These values are well below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 35ppm/hr for an 8-hour work shift.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.265-272. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 92-1679 Materna B.L., Jones J.R., Sutton P.M., Rothman N., Harrison R.J.
Occupational exposures in California wildland fire fighting
Industrial hygiene measurement of exposures to wildland fire fighters was conducted during three fire seasons from 1986 to 1989. Results show that wildland fire fighters may at times be exposed to concentrations of carbon monoxide, total or respirable particulates, or silica at levels near or higher than recommended occupational exposure limits, although group means were generally well below the limits. Time-weighted average formaldehyde levels indicate a potential for formaldehyde-induced eye or respiratory irritation under these conditions. Certain characteristics of the work such as high altitude, temperature, and breathing rate; extended work shifts; and additional off-shift exposures suggest that adjustment of 8-hour exposure limits may be necessary to provide adequate protection. Further exposure monitoring is needed, particularly to identify job tasks and fire conditions that contribute to higher exposures. Recommendations are made for exposure reduction, medical surveillance, training, and additional research.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1992, Vol.53, No.1, p.69-76. 19 ref.

CIS 92-1615 Babrauskas V., Levin B.C., Gann R.G., Paabo M., Harris R.H., Peacock R.D., Yusa S.
Toxic potency measurements for fire hazards analysis
This report is the principal product of a long-term research programme to provide a technically sound methodology for obtaining and using smoke toxicity data for hazard analysis. It establishes an improved bench-scale toxic potency measurement which represents the important combustion conditions of real fires, along with a design and analysis framework which will allow the toxic potency data to be used in a rational, consistent, appropriate and adequate way. The method focuses on post-flashover fires, although it is also applicable to pre-flashover fires.
Fire Technology, May 1992, Vol.28, No.2, p.163-167.

CIS 92-1677 Szönyi S., Cambon A.
A new multipurpose AFFF/MP extinguishing foam with a rheological Newtonian behaviour
A new multipurpose aqueous film forming foam has extinguishing properties perfectly adapted to both hydrocarbon fires and polar liquid fires, without the need of a thickening polysaccharide. The key ingredient is a perfluorinated polyamino acid. Extinguishing foams produced from this new compound provide satisfactory solutions in many cases of difficult or otherwise-impossible extinction. The mechanisms of destruction of various foams are described along with their resistance to such destruction and their extinguishing action.
Fire Technology, May 1992, Vol.28, No.2, p.123-133. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 92-612
Health and Safety Executive
Storage of packaged dangerous substances
This guidance note replaces Guidance Note CS 17, published in 1986 (see CIS 88-590). It gives advice on: organisational arrangements (store management, personnel training); identification and assessment of hazards and checking of new consignments; prevention (fire hazards, segregation of dangerous substances, ignition sources, location of new warehouses, building construction); operational controls (correct use of storage areas, stacking heights, mechanical handling and transport, containment of spills, help for the emergency services); mitigation of risk (detection and control of fires). Appendices include hazard labelling and characteristic hazards and legal requirements.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 17p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

1991

CIS 97-258 Cote A.E.
Fire Protection Handbook™
This is a thoroughly revised and updated edition of one of the major reference sources on fire prevention and protection. Six major strategies of fire prevention are emphasized: prevention of ignition; design to slow early fire propagation; detection and alarm; suppression; fire confinement; evacuation of occupants. The main sections of the manual are: basics of fire and fire science (including statistics on the extent of annual damage in the US, with analysis); fire prevention; materials, products and environments; detection and alarm; suppression systems; confinement of fires; evacuation of occupants; systems approaches to property classes; organization for fire protection; information and analysis for fire protection. In appendices: tables and charts; SI units and conversion tables; organizations in the US concerned with fire protection; career opportunities; complete list of official NFPA documents.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, USA, 17th ed., 1991. xvi, [2122]p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 115.00.
97-0258.pdf [in English]

CIS 95-888
Centre national de Prévention et de Protection (CNPP)
Evacuation
L'évacuation [in French]
These videotapes are aimed at all workers in an enterprise, including those just hired. Tape 1 ("The evacuation", also available as a slide set) concentrates on the need to participate in evacuation exercises (definition and circumstances, hazards, obstacles, evacuation plans, exercises). Tape 2 ("The goofs") explores those aspects of human behaviour that might interfere with the proper execution of an evacuation. Short comedy routines are used to illustrate studies on individual or collective behaviour in the case of emergencies.
La Médiathčque du Risque, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1991. VHS videotapes (length: 11min + 9min). Price: FRF 3500.00 (plus tax). Can also be purchased separetely. ###

CIS 95-709 Herrera Embid J.
Hospitals: Fire protection
Hospitales: protección contra incendios [in Spanish]
This information note contains a check list for fire prevention in hospitals. It covers: the urban environment; construction materials and elements, including doors and exits; hazardous areas; extinguishing systems; fire alarms; emergency lighting; emergency elevators; emergency plans.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 6p. 7 ref.

CIS 94-1110 Directive on safety conditions for the prevention of and protection against fires in workplaces [Mexico]
Instructivo No.2 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad para la prevención y protección contra incendio en los centros de trabajo [in Spanish]
Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It concerns basic fire protection measures to be taken in workplaces, including: general provisions; isolation provisions for areas, locales and buildings presenting a high risk of fires; characteristics and specifications of normal and emergency exits, and emergency passageways, corridors, ramps, doors and ladders; firefighting equipment. In annex: glossary of terms used. Directive No.2 of 1983 is repealed.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 13p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 12 Dec. 1991.

CIS 93-1497 Fire safety
Contents of this training booklet; basic information on fires (the fire triangle, classification); fire hazards (flames, heat, gases, smoke, oxygen deficiency); fire prevention; fire protection (extinguishing and firefighting equipment); personal protection (equipment, escapeways, barricades). In appendices: glossary of terms; flammable gases and liquids (classification, properties).
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1991. 41p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 93-1571 Beaumont J.J., Chu G.S.T., Jones J.R., Schenker M.B., Singleton J.A., Piantanida L.G., Reiterman M.
An epidemiologic study of cancer and other causes of mortality in San Francisco firefighters
To test the hypothesis that firefighter exposures may increase cancer risk, mortality rates were calculated for 3,066 San Francisco Fire Department firefighters employed between 1940 and 1970. Vital status was ascertained through 1982, and observed and expected rates, rate ratios (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using United States death rates for comparison. The total number deceased (1,186) was less than expected and there were fewer cancer deaths than expected. However, there were significant excess numbers of deaths from oesophageal cancer (12 observed, 6 expected), cirrhosis and other liver diseases (59 observed, 26 expected), and accidental falls (21 observed, 11 expected). There were 24 line-of-duty deaths, which were primarily due to vehicular injury, falls, and asphyxiation. Heart disease and respiratory disease deaths occurred significantly less often than expected. It was concluded that the increased risks of death from oesophageal cancer and cirrhosis and other liver diseases may have been due to firefighter exposures, alcohol consumption, or interaction between alcohol and exposures. Because this was an older cohort and firefighter exposures have changed due to the increasing use of synthetic materials, it is recommended that the effects of modern-day exposures be further studied.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.3, p.357-372. Illus. 61 ref.

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