Electricity - 651 entries found
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Plugs and sockets
Steckvorrichtungen [in German]
This safety guide indicates: plugs and sockets for different environments; their protection; characteristics of shock-proof plugs; plugs and sockets recommended or prescribed for industry, construction sites, agriculture and low-voltage work; plugs and sockets not permitted for use.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 15p. Illus.
Safe practice in the installation and startup of electrical equipment - A handbook for installers of electrical equipment
Tehnika bezopasnosti pri ėlektromontažnyh i nalodočnyh rabotah - Spravočnik ėlektromontažnika [in Russian]
Contents: organisational and technical safety measures; installation of electrical equipment; welding; rigging; operation of load-lifting equipment; work with instrumentation; work at height; work in workshops; organisation of work in functioning electrical installations and near overhead power lines and power cables; start-up operations; first aid in case of accident.
Ėnergoatomizdat, šljužovaja nab. 10, M-114, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1987. 237p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: SUR 0.95.
International Electrotechnical Commission
A.C. insulation-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 38 kV
Appareillage sous enveloppe isolante pour courant alternatif de tension assignée supérieure à 1kV et inférieure ou égale à 38kV [in French]
Clauses cover: scope; normal and special service conditions; definitions; rating; design and construction; type tests; routine tests; selection of switchgear and controlgear for service; information to be given with enquiries, tenders and orders; rules for transport, storage, erection and maintenance. Appendixes cover: internal faults and tests for arcing; humidity tests; rated insulation level for Series II equipment; dielectric tests after erection on site. The standard refers to IEC 694, "Common Clauses for High-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Standards".
Bureau central de la Commission électrotechnique internationale, 3 rue de Varembé, Case postale 131, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1987. 93p. Illus.
Low voltage high-performance circuit breakers
Niederspannungs-Hochleistungs-Sicherungen [in German]
This safety guide indicates the accident hazards and the appropriate safety measures to be taken when fuse circuit-breakers are replaced in heavy current installations: use of disconnectors, partitions, shrouding of live elements, personal protective equipment.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 11p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Electrical installations and equipment - VBG 4, annex to enforcement rules [Federal Republic of Germany]
Elektrische Anlagen und Betriebsmittel - VBG 4 - Anhang zu den Durchführungsanweisungen vom April 1986 [in German]
List of all applicable standards on electrical installations and equipment.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 34p.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Individual screen set for protection against industrial-frequency electric fields. General technical requirements and monitoring methods [USSR]
Komplekt individual'nyj ėkranirujuščij dlja zaščity ot ėlektričeskih polej promyšlennoj častoty. Obščie tehničeskie trebovanija i metody kontrolja [in Russian]
This standard (effective from 1 Jan. 1988 to 1 Jan. 1993) applies to special clothing, footwear and protectors for the hands and face for persons exposed to mains-frequency electric fields in substations and near overhead distribution lines. Contents: classification; general requirements; monitoring the condition and performance of the equipment. Certain terms used in this standard are defined by reference to other standards.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, GSP, USSR, 1987. 10p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.03.
Electrostatic ignition of volatile liquid vapour
A fire ignited when powder was added to a suspension of silica in a volatile silicone. The accident and measures taken to prevent further fires are described.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Dec. 1987, No.078, p.9-10. Illus.
Static electricity hazards in industry
This overview explains static electricity and presents accident prevention methods. Covered are: fundamental concepts; practical consequences of electrostatic charging (nuisance, ignition hazards); methods of charge transfer (single spark or train of sparks, corona, brush and propagating brush discharges); precautions to reduce risk (earthing, other measures, dust explosions); conclusions.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Dec. 1987, No.078, p.1-8.
Kuusisto P., Lidén G., Rousk B., Holmquist S.
Influence of charged wood particles on the sampling of aerosols using filter cassettes
Uppladdat trädamms inverkan på provtagning med filtermetoden [in Swedish]
In this study, wood particles were generated by grinding pine rods. The concentration range was 5-20mg/m3 at relative humidities of 15 to 55%. The influence of particle charge on sampling with plastic filter cassettes was examined using charged cassettes. The overall charge of the generated aerosols was zero. The charge on the individual particles was proportonal to their surface area. Particle charge decreased with increasing humidity. Charge only had a slight effect on filter cassette sampling (about 5%). Relative humidity had no impact on sampling efficiency. The study showed that the use of cascade impactors for detecting the particle size distribution of a charged aerosol leads to large overestimation (almost doubling) of the aerosol's mass median diameter and geometric standard deviation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 39p. Illus. 11 ref.
Protection of workers against electric current [France]
Protection des travailleurs contre les courants électriques [France] [in French]
Consolidation of French laws and regulations on the protection of workers against electrical hazards.
Direction des Journaux officiels, 26 rue Desaix, 75727 Paris Cedex 15, France, 9th ed., 1987. 272p. Illus. Price: FRF 70.00.
Lacosta Berna J.M.
Electrical cables and fire
Los cables eléctricos y el fuego/Los cables eléctricos y el fuego [in Spanish]
General study of the importance of maintenance and inspection of electrical cables in order to prevent fires. Contents: different types of cables and insulating materials (flame retardants and materials that reduce the propagation of fires), Spanish legislation, recommendations on fire fighting where electrical equipment is involved (protection against toxic gases, use of extinguishants).
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1987, Vol.7, No.26, p.3-11. Illus. 10 ref.
This audiovisual presentation concentrates on the everyday encounters that electricians and maintenance workers have with electric current below 600 volts. Case histories are given and safety attitudes are discussed. Some subjects discussed: circuits, fuses, grounding, lockout and insulation.
Tel-A-Train Inc., 309 N. Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1987. Videotape (NTSC, PAL) or 16mm film. Length: 28min. Price: USD 410.00 (videotape), USD 450.00 (film). Rental: USD 110.00 (videotape), USD 150.00 (film).
Electrical equipment and installations - Work by non-specialised personnel
Installations et équipements électriques - Travaux et interventions des entreprises non spécialisées [in French]
Recommendations adopted in France by the National Technical Committees of the construction industry (on 9 July 1980) and of the non-metallic mineral products industry (on 29 Nov. 1985). Rules to follow when specialists are called in and when work is carried out by non specialised personnel. Requirements for personal and collective protection and for electric tools. Action to be taken in case of an electrical accident. The recommendations are based largely on publication UTE C 18-535, extracts of which are appended.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1987, No.3, p.235-237. Illus.
Kolosjuk V.P., Ihno V.A., Koptikov V.P.
Increasing the fire safety of coal mine electrical systems
Uveličenie požarobezopasnosti sistem ėlektrosnabženija ugol'nyh šaht [in Russian]
Description of a method for testing samples of cable by simulating an arcing fault in a test chamber. The insulation of a cable should not catch fire in the time it takes for a circuit breaker to detect the fault and de-energise the cable. A nomogram is given for determining if a cable of a particular length and diameter will be safe at various fault currents.
Ugol', Jan. 1987, No.1, p.44-46. Illus.
Tolson P., Beet L.
The use of antistatic footwear in the resin manufacturing industry
The results of tests that were carried out in the resin manufacturing industry in order to assess the suitability for use in that industry of a number of different types of anti-static footwear are described. The tests included measurement of floor resistance, variation of sole resistance with wear and assessment of some of the other factors associated with the footwear that were considered relevant to safety.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Apr. 1987, Vol.8, No.4, p.251-260. Illus. 5 ref.
Mougeot B., Fauconnet M.
Rebuilding of friction clutch mechanical presses. Examples of electrical circuit diagrams
Rénovation des presses mécaniques à embrayage à friction - Exemples de schémas électriques [in French]
The safety of press operators depends to a large extent on how well the circuits which control most of the guards and protective devices are designed and built. For users and retailers wishing to rebuild old presses (which are not covered by Decree No.81-938 of 13 Oct. 1981 applicable in France), this document proposes circuit diagrams which take safety into account and provide for the main uses of friction clutch mechanical presses with at least one function involving manual workpiece feed and withdrawal.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1629-127-87, p.229-256. Illus.
Present-day problems relating to the effects of electromagnetic fields on man
Aktuelle Probleme der Einwirkung elektromagnetischer Felder auf den Menschen [in German]
Proceedings of a conference (5 March 1987, Zürich, Switzerland). Subjects discussed: biological effects of electric and magnetic fields; effects of high-frequency fields; comparison of exposure limits in Switzerland and other countries; magnetic nuclear resonance (MNR) used in medical diagnosis; energy transfer to human tissue during MNR examinations; interference with cardiac pace-makers produced by electromagnetic fields encountered at work.
Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer Verein, Zentrale Dienste, Postfach, 8034 Zürich, Switzerland, 1987. 109p. Illus. 52 ref.
Effects of current passing through the human body - Part 2: Special aspects
Effets du courant passant par le corps humain - Deuxième partie: Aspects particuliers [in French]
Description of effects of a) sinusoidal alternating current within the frequency ranges of 100 up to 1000Hz, 1000 up to 10.000Hz, and above 10.000Hz; b) special waveforms of current (with d.c. components, with phase control, with multicycle control); c) unidirectional single impulse currents of short duration. Scope, definitions, threshold of perception, threshold of let-go, threshold of ventricular fibrillation, threshold of pain.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1987. 44p. Illus. 15 ref.
First aid and treatment of accidents due to electric current
Beiträge zur Ersten Hilfe und Behandlung von Unfällen durch elektrischen Strom [in German]
Collected papers of an international conference held 11-13 Sep. 1986 in Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany. Topics: general electropathology of the heart and the nervous system; determinants of cardiac fibrillation; thermal effects in living tissue; damage and regeneration of nerves; extrapolation animal-man; dealing with electric burns; follow-up of an earlier conference on shock safety criteria; International Electrotechnical Commission Publication 479 on circuit breakers; internationally comparable statistics on electrical accidents; electrical accidents at Electricité de France; exposure to and effects of 50-60Hz electric and magnetic fields; exposure limits for electromagnetic fields at frequencies of 0-3000GHz; safety of pacemaker wearers; research in the USA and Japan.
Forschungsstelle für Elektropathologie, Reutebachgasse 11, 7800 Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986. 601p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
Regulations on the technical exploitation of electrical units of power plants and occupational safety regulations on the exploitation of electrical units of power plants [USSR]
Pravila tehničeskoj ėkspluatacii ėlektroustanovok potrebitelej i pravila tehniki bezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii ėlektroustanovok potrebitelej [in Russian]
Contents of Part 1 (technical aspects): scope of regulations; tasks and qualifications of personnel; operation and repair of electrical systems; documentation; specific types of equipment (overhead power lines, transformers, motors, etc.); annexes (criteria for testing, protection of units above and below 1000V). Contents of Part 2 (safety): scope; organisational and technical safety measures; working safely with specific types of equipment; temporary transfer of personnel to facilities where they do not normally work; annexes (Ministry of Health Order concerning medical examinations, procedures for accident investigation, classification of personnel groups by risk, log books and forms, first aid, protective equipment).
Ėnergoatomizdat, šluzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 4th edition. 424p. Illus. Appendices. Price: SUR 1.60.
Ministerstvo Ėnergetiki i Ėlektrifikacii SSSR
Safety regulations concerning the operation of electrical equipment [USSR]
Pravila tehniki bezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii ėlektroustanovok [in Russian]
Contents: abbreviations and terms used in safety regulations; general requirements; requirements covering personnel, organisational and technical measures; generators; electric motors; switchgear; transformers; buried and overhead power transmission lines; testing and measurement, insulator washing and cleaning under tension; distribution and controls; work with machine applications, load-lifting machines, ladders and electric meters. Appendices: groups of personnel subject to mandatory medical examinations; jobs prohibited to young workers; a work authorisation form; recordkeeping procedures; examples of proper grounding.
Ėnergoatomizdat, šlusovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 145p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.40.
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety in departments of electrical engineering
This guidance note advises on the precautions which should be taken to minimise the dangers of electric shock and burns in laboratories of departments of electrical engineering in universities, polytechnics and other educational establishments in the United Kingdom. It applies to any activity, including experiments and measurements, which might bring people into contact with or close to live equipment, connections, terminals, links and measuring instruments.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Jan. 1986. 2p. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical test equipment for use by electricians
This guidance note advises on the selection of suitable test probes, leads, lamps, voltage indicating devices and other measuring equipment and their use by electricians when working on or investigating power circuits. It describes the risks associated with work on or near live conductors, the causes of electrical accidents and the safety requirements for this type of test equipment.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Mar.1986. 4p. Illus.
Magyar Szabványügyi Hivatal
Permissible limits of high-frequency electromagnetic fields [Hungary]
A nagyfrekvenciás elektromágneses tér megengedett határértékei [in Hungarian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987) contains the maximum permissible limits on high-frequency (30kHz-300GHz) electromagnetic fields. Limits are given in terms of field strength and induced voltage as functions of length of exposure in the workplace or in the vicinity of radiation sources.
Szabványbolt, Budapest, Pf. 162. 1431, Hungary, 1986. 4p. Price: For.16.00.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Fire safety. Electrostatic spark safety. General requirements [USSR]
Požarnaja bezopasnost'. Ėlektrostatičeskaja iskrobezopasnost'. Obščie trebovanija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987) is intended to prevent fires and explosions caused by electrostatic sparks in industrial processes and equipment in all sectors of the USSR economy. The standard is not applicable to explosives. It is fully equivalent to CMEA standard ST SEV 5037-85. It requires that all processes and equipment maintain conditions that prevent the build-up of static electricity, and that tests be made to determine the tendency of processes and equipment to acquire an electrostatic charge; the ability of the environment of a process or machine to be ignited by a spark must also be determined. Quantities to be measured are specified, and 3 classes of spark safety are defined.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
Arc protection of electrical installations - Interpretation of regulations in force
Lichtbogenschutz für elektrotechnische Anlagen - Erläuterung geltender Vorschriften [in German]
Synopsis of regulations and recommendations concerning the prevention of arcing in case of electrical faults, and limitation of the effects of arcs that occur. Technical standard TGL 200-0606/05 is the fundamental document in the German Democratic Republic. Other relevant national and international normative documents are reviewed.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsschutz, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Strasse 1, 8020 Dresden, German Democratic Republic, 1986. 32p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: M.5.50.
Gewehr P.M., Binseng W.
Prevention of electrical risks in the medical-hospital environment
Prevenção de ríscos elétricos no ambiente médico-hospitalar [in Portuguese]
Safety tests and preventive methods recommended to Brazilian hospitals and other medical establishments in order to avoid electrical accidents.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1986, Vol.14, No.54, p.22-30. Illus. 23 ref.
Safe use of electricity - 1986: Code of practice
This Code of Practice covers electrical safeguards, electrical hazards, electrical accidents, injuries and treatment, and treatment priorities. The New Zealand Electrical Wiring Regulations (1976) are given in the Appendix.
Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington 1, New Zealand, 1986. Rev. ed. 17p. Illus. Gratis.
Electrical switching practices
The more common types of electrical disconnecting switches that use air as the insulating medium are discussed. Covered are: general precautions; loads and currents; switch sticks; selector disconnects; circuit breaker disconnects; interrupter switches; closing disconnects under load conditions; airbreak switches; protection against airbreak flashover; motor-controlled disconnects and airbreaks; personal protective equipment.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 5p. Illus. 5 ref.
Live line tools
Covered are: general considerations; storage; use of tools; training; supervision; maintenance.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 4p. ILlus. 3 ref.
Accidents due to work near overhead electric lines
Les accidents dus aux travaux à proximité des lignes électriques aériennes [in French]
Analysis of fatal accidents in terms of line voltage, month of year, age of victim and task being performed. The figures are only for the construction industry, and cover the period 1980-1984.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1986, No.1, p.33-35. Illus.
Work on overhead electric lines. Protection of installers against falls from concrete pylons
Travaux sur lignes électriques aériennes. La protection des monteurs contre les chutes depuis les poteaux en béton [in French]
There is a high risk of falls during work on overhead electric lines. After reviewing the serious and fatal accidents that occurred in France in 1973-1982 and describing the way lines are installed and repaired on concrete pylons, this article presents the French regulations currently in force and the safety equipment presently available (safety belts conforming to standard NF C18-435; anchors; harnesses).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1986, No.1, p.12-16. Illus.
Flodin U., Fredriksson M., Axelson O., Persson B., Hardell L.
Background radiation, electrical work, and some other exposures associated with acute myeloid leukemia in a case-referent study
Case-referent study involving 59 cases and 354 referents. Information on exposure was collected through mailed questionnaires. The possible effect of background radiation was evaluated by means of a gamma radiation index (based on time spent in concrete buildings both at home and at work). In the 20-54-year-old age group there was an association between leukaemia morbidity and index of background radiation. X-ray treatment and electrical work were also associated with increased rate ratios. With regard to other exposures, only styrene appeared as a risk factor.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1986, Vol.41, No.2, p.77-84. 41 ref.
Gregory R.A., Scholes G.H.
The development of protective devices for electrical installations
Electrical accidents fall into 2 main categories: accidents where death or injury is caused by the passage of current through the body, and accidents where death or injury is the result of a fire which originates from an electrical fault. The UK Department of Trade and Industry statistics show that there are 4 times as many deaths due to fires started electrically as there are from electrocution. The use of adequate protective devices to prevent major fires is discussed .
Fire Prevention, June 1986, No.190, p.24-26. Illus. 1 ref.
Calvo Sáez J.A.
Preventing the electrical accident - Work in high voltage facilities
Prevención del accidente eléctrico - Trabajos en instalaciones de alta tensión [in Spanish]
Contents: Survey of electric risks and effects of electric shock; safety standards when working with high-tension (>1000V AC, >1500V DC) electrical installations; safety standards in special types of work.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1986, No.95, p.38-47. Illus. 11 ref.
Safety of information technology equipment including electrical business equipment
Sécurité des matériels de traitement de l'information y compris les matériels du bureau électriques [in French]
This international standard specifies requirements intended to ensure safety for the operator and layman, including service personnel. It aims at the prevention of injury or damage due to the following hazards: electric shock, energy hazards, fire, mechanical and heat hazards, radiation hazards, chemical hazards. Definitions and general requirements are followed by fundamental design requirements, requirements for wiring and supply, physical requirements, and thermal and electrical requirements.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1986. 245p. Illus. Price: SF.275.00.
Törnqvist S., Norell S., Ahlbom A., Knave B.
Cancer in the electric power industry
A cohort study of 3358 power linesmen and 6703 power station operators in Sweden showed no significant excess risk of leukaemia or brain cancer. There was a tendency towards an excess risk of cancer of the urinary organs in both groups.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1986, Vol.43, No.3, p.212-213. 17 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Segurança Social; Direcção-Geral de Higiene e Segurança do Trabalho
Safety legislation concerning electrical equipment aboard sea-going vessels [Portugal]
Regulamento de segurança das instalações eléctricas das embarcações [in Portuguese]
Compendium of Portuguese laws, decrees and regulations concerning electrical safety in sea-going vessels.
Serviço de Informação Científica e Técnica, Praça de Londres, 2-1°, Lisboa, Portugal, 1985. 209p.
Health and Safety Executive
Emergency private generation: electrical safety
The purpose of this guidance note is to advise persons who are not electrically competent to plan ahead and where appropriate to seek specialist advice before using an emergency generator, and also to advise electrically competent persons on the safety aspects which should be considered when arranging for the connection and operation of an emergency generator.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Oct. 1985. 8p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding danger from buried electricity cables
This guidance note is intended to help to minimise the possibility of inadvertently striking buried electricity cables during excavation work. It sets out a system of work based on obtaining as much information as possible about the cable network in the area of proposed excavation before excavation starts (plans about all electricity cables in the area, the use of suitable cable location devices), and then using this information to plan and ensure safe digging methods. Relevant legislation and first aid practices are appended.
HM Stationary Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Apr. 1985. 12p. Illus.
Readings in hazard control and hazardous materials
Twenty-two articles are reprinted concerning safety programmes; warning labels; legal aspects; environment (falls, entering and leaving elevated vehicles, confined spaces); mechanical hazards (cranes, machine guarding, liquefied petroleum gases, roll-over protection); chemical reactions (liquid oxygen, toxic substance control and transportation, pesticides, health hazards); electrical safety.
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068, USA, 1985. 114p. Illus. Bibl.
Brucher R., Meyer-Waarden K.
Calculation of the current density distribution in the human model given different current paths through the body
Berechnung der Stromdichteverteilung am Modell des Menschen bei unterschiedlich vorgegebenen Stromwegen im Körper [in German]
This study concerns the calculation of the densities of currents that pass through the organs of the body (especially the heart) as a function of externally applied voltage. Calculations were validated by direct comparative measurements. Three-dimensional plots of current density in body cross-sections illustrate the difference in danger between transverse and longitudinal current. The method permits estimation of risks due to electric excitation and to heating. There were discrepancies between the current calculated to be necessary to provoke ventricular fibrillation in man and the value obtained from animal studies.
Medizinisch-technischer Bericht, Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 115p. Illus. 96 ref.
Electrostatic charge - Dangers and preventive measures
Elektrostatische Aufladungen - Gefahren und Bekämpfungsmassnahmen [in German]
Principles and characteristics: mechanism of static electricity generation in various environments (solids, liquids, granular substances), types of discharge, ways of preventing the building up of hazardous levels of static electricity (earthing, relative humidity, additives, field separation, ionisation, humidification). Practical problems and solutions: coating of containers, glue production, cleaning of tankers, loading of tank cars, transfer of liquids likely to accumulate an electrostatic charge, emptying of bulk material, interference due to static electricity in microelectronics and in the optical industry.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1985. 49p. Illus. 28 ref.
Handschin E., Bücker A., Horenkamp W., Tebbe J.G., Tesch K.D.
Accidental contact protection for work in low-voltage distribution and consumer installations
Berührungsschutz für die Arbeit in Niederspannungsverteilungs- und Verbraucheranlagen [in German]
This report evaluates existing temporary and stationary protection appliances from the user's point of view considering the constraints of work near live parts. Further aspects are the technical and constructive possibilities in the state design of distribution and load devices; concerning especially low-voltage switchgears and distribution installations. The requirements from this work are presented and illustrated by some examples. They concern: instruction and training of personnel; constructive means which make the use of protection appliances practicable; design and construction of low-voltage installations.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 78p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: DM.18.00.
Accidents in high-power electric installations in Switzerland, 1982-1984
Accidents survenus en Suisse dans des installations électriques à courant fort, au cours des années 1982 à 1984 [in French]
This report reviews the 792 accidents that occurred in the period 1982-1984 and compares the statistics with the preceding period (1977-1981; 941 accidents). The data are analysed in terms of the voltage involved, the severity of the accidents, the training of the victims and the nature of the installations where the accidents occurred. Some noteworthy accidents and their causes are described and preventive measures are presented.
Bulletin SEV/VSE, 1985, Vol.76, No.23, p.1381-1389. Illus.
Electrically conductive safety shoes for the reduction of electrostatic build-up
Vezetőképes védőcipő az elektrosztatikus feltöltődés csökkentésére [in Hungarian]
Detailed description of a safety shoe developed jointly by a rubber manufacturer and a research institute. The basic material of the shoe is polyvinyl chloride. The electrical resistance of the shoe is 106Ω, enabling it to earth static electric charges, but sufficiently high to provide protection against exposure to currents at 250V.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1985, Vol.31, Nos.7-9, p.98-102. Illus.
San Vicente Moreno F.
Prevention of electrical hazards - painting near low-tension electric installations
Prevención del riesgo eléctrico - trabajos de pintura en las proximidades de instalaciones eléctricas bajo tensión [in Spanish]
Detailed information on safe working practices while engaged in painting work near electric installations. The article refers extensively to applicable regulations in effect in Spain, it provides a copy of the permits-to-work needed, and it gives the safe distances as a function of the voltage.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1985, No.93, p.8-15. Illus.
Sultanovič A.I., Hačukaev Ė.M., Polomošnov A.K.
Electrostatic factors in working with open flames on gas pipelines
Ėlektrostatičeskie faktory pri ognevyh rabotah na gazoprovodah [in Russian]
Gas pipelines are blocked off by spherical rubber plugs when cutting or welding operations are to be performed. When the plugs are withdrawn at the end of the operation, detonation frequently occurs when gas mixes with the residual air in the pipe. Laboratory experiments with a section of typical piping showed that electrostatic fields of 1kV can be produced by withdrawal of a plug. At the observed surface charge density of 0.0006C/cm2, this is sufficient to produce a discharge with an energy above the minimum ignition energy of a gas-air mixture. Electrostatic charging could be reduced to safe levels by reducing the diameter of the tube through which the plug is retrieved and by wetting the space around the plug. Because thunderstorms can strongly ionise the atmosphere and produce substantial electrostatic charges even at high relative humidity, cutting and welding work on pipelines should be avoided in stormy weather.
Gazovaja Promyšlennost, Mar. 1985, No.3, p.32-33. Illus.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Industrial frequency electric fields - Permissible field strength levels and requirements for monitoring at workplaces
Ėlektričeskie polja promyšlennoj častoty - Dopustimie urovni naprjažennosti i trebovanija k provedeniju kontrolja na rabočih mestah [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) establishes permissible field strength levels of 50Hz electric fields in relation to the duration of work for persons engaged in work on electrical equipment and exposed to electric fields, and requirements for monitoring field strengths at workplaces. Terms, definitions and calculations of permissible field strength in relation to working time in electric fields are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984, 5p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
Kačan V.N., Jakovlev V.S., Makal'skij L.M.
Danger of electrified dust aerosols
Opasnost' ėlektrozarjažennogo pylevogo aerozolja [in Russian]
The breaking up of rocks, as in mechanised coal mining, is accompanied by the formation of electrified dust aerosols. Corona discharges between electrified aerosols or between aerosol clouds and earthed bodies (metal objects, roofs, etc.) can, under certain conditions, cause an explosion of methane or airborne flammable dust. Criteria for the assessment of hazards due to electrostatic fields generated by the flow of electrified aerosols are the maximum allowable voltage (for corona discharges) and the potential of the field in the workings (for spark discharges). A calculation formula for maximum field potential is given. Initial data (total and specific charge of a dust cloud, dimensions and density of the cloud) and the estimated danger of methane or coal-dust explosion are tabulated.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, June 1985, No.6, p.37-38. Illus.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Screening devices for protection from industrial-frequency electric fields - General technical requirements, basic parameters and dimensions
Ustrojstva ėkranirujuščie dlja zaščity ot electričeskih polej promyšlennoj častoty - Obščie tehničeskie trebovanija, osnovnye parametry i razmery [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1986) applies to screening devices for protection of workers from industrial-frequency electric fields when they are engaged in work with open distribution equipment and overhead high-voltage lines operating at 330-750 kV. The standard establishes types, general technical requirements, basic parameters and sizes of the screening devices. Terms and definitions used in the standard are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 10p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
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