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CIS 97-1680 Verkasalo P.K., et al.
Magnetic fields of high voltage power lines and risk of cancer in Finnish adults: Nationwide cohort study
In this nationwide cohort study, 383,700 Finnish adults were identified by record linkages of nationwide registers. They all lived at some time during 1970-89 within 500m of overhead power lines of 110-400kV in a 50Hz magnetic field, calculated to be greater than or equal to 0.01µT. The numbers of observed and expected cases of cancer, standardized incidence ratios, and incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex, age, calendar year, and social class were assessed. Altogether 8415 cases of cancer were observed. All incidence rate ratios for both sexes combined were non-significant and between 0.91 and 1.11. Significant excesses were observed for multiple myeloma in men and colon cancer in women. The role of extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the pathogenesis of these tumours remains uncertain and the previously suggested associations between magnetic fields and other selected tumours were not confirmed.
British Medical Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.313, No.7064, p.1047-1051. 42 ref.

CIS 97-973 Done D.
Health and Safety Executive
The selection and operation of uninterruptible power supplies
This report is aimed at purchasers and operators of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices. Information is provided on a range of UPS types and sizes, from small UPS units suitable for an office, to large industrial units. The main types of UPS and their applications are described and guidance is given on specification of user requirements, selection, acquisition, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 55p. 13 ref. Illus. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 97-450
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety and you
This leaflet outlines basic measures to help control the risks from the use of electricity at work. The main hazards are identified along with ways of assessing and reducing the risks: ensuring the electrical installation is safe; providing safe and suitable equipment; reducing the voltage; providing safety devices; carrying out preventive maintenance; and ensuring safe methods of work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1996. 8p. 18 ref.

CIS 97-262 Earley M.W., Sheehan J.V., Caloggero J.M.
National Electrical Code: Handbook 1996
This edition of the US National Electrical Code Handbook is based on the new edition of NFPA 70 (the Code itself). The purpose of the Handbook is to explain code requirements, especially changes to the code since the previous edition. It also serves as a helpful guide in applying code provisions. The complete text of the code can be found in the Handbook, together with explanations and commentary (code intent and interpretation, historical perspective, application of requirements, illustrations and tables). Contents: definitions and requirements for electrical installations; wiring and protection; wiring methods and materials; equipment for general use; special occupancies (buildings); special equipment; special conditions; communications systems.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, USA, 7th ed., 1996. xiv, 1016p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 77.50 (CD-ROM version: USD 175.00).

CIS 96-2086 Occupational safety and health standards system, Part 1
Sistema standartov bezopasnosti truda, čast' 1 [in Russian]
Reissue of 13 State Standards of the former USSR that have been reconfirmed by the authorities of the Russian Federation: GOST 12.0.001-82 (main principles); 12.0.002-82 (terms and definitions); 12.0.003-74 (dangerous and harmful industrial factors - classification); 12.0.004-90 (organization of safety and health training - general rules); 12.0.005-84 (metrological support of occupational safety and health - main principles); 12.1.001-89 (ultrasound - general safety requirements); 12.1.002-84 (power-frequency electrical fields - permissible levels of field strength and workplace monitoring); 12.1.003-83 (noise - general safety requirements); 12.1.004-91 (fire safety - general requirements); 12.1.005-88 (general hygienic requirements for workplace air), which includes the official list of occupational exposure limits (PDKs); 12.1.006-84 (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - permissible levels in the workplace and monitoring methods); 12.1.007-76 (toxic substances - classification and general safety requirements); 12.1.010-76 (biological safety - general requirements). Tables from GOST 12.0.004-91 that show potentially hazardous materials which can and cannot be stored together are annexed.
IPK Izdatel'stvo Standartov, Kolodeznyj per. 14, 107076 Moskva, Russian Federation, 1996. 269p. + 3 inserts.

CIS 96-2061 Safety in electrical installations
Seguridad en instalaciones eléctricas [in Spanish]
Safety booklet aimed at workers. It covers safe working practices during the installation and repair of electrical equipment and connections.
Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Departamento Difusión, Av. de la República No.134, 4o piso, Col. Tabacalera, México D.F., C.P.06030, Mexico, [no date]. 19p. Illus.

CIS 96-2280 Miller A.B., To T., Agnew D.A., Wall C., Green L.M.
Leukemia following occupational exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields among Ontario electric utility workers
Report on a nested case-control study of 1,484 cancer cases and 2,179 matched controls from a cohort of 31,543 Ontario Hydro (electrical utility for the province of Ontario, Canada) male employees. Associations of cancer risk with electric field exposure were evaluated and compared with previously reported findings for magnetic fields. Pensioners and active workers were followed for 18 years and 15 years, respectively. Exposures to electric and magnetic fields and to potential occupational confounders (such as ionizing radiation and known carcinogens) were estimated through job exposure matrices. Odds ratios were elevated for haematopoietic malignancies (all leukaemias) with cumulative electric field exposure. For cumulative magnetic field exposure, there were similar elevations. Evaluation of the combined effect of electric and magnetic fields for leukaemia showed significant elevations of risk for high exposure to both, with a dose-response relation for increasing exposure to electric fields and an inconsistent effect for magnetic fields. There was some evidence of a nonsignificant association for brain cancer and benign brain tumours with magnetic fields. For lung cancer, the odds ratio for high exposure to electric and magnetic fields was 1.84 (95% CI 0.69-4.94).
American Journal of Epidemiology, July 1996, Vol.144, No.2, p.150-160. 33 ref.

CIS 96-537 Electrical risks
Riesgos eléctricos [in Spanish]
General regulations for the prevention of accidents when using electric power. Description of protected installations and safety systems and components, with examples from laboratories.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, ediciones y Publicaciones, C/ Torrelaguna, 73-28027 Madrid, Spain. PAL videotape (19min). Price: ESP 3000 + VAT. ###

CIS 96-974 Catalogue of European standards, 1996
Catalogue of European standards in the domain of electrical and electronic technology.
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electronique (CENELEC), Rue de Stassart 35, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1996. 347p.

CIS 96-677 Kelsh M.A., Sahl J.D.
Sex differences in work-related injury rates among electric utility workers
Injury trends were examined by type, severity and how they occurred among a cohort of 9,582 female and 26,898 male electric utility workers employed during 1980-1992. Unadjusted injury rates were higher throughout the period for male workers. However, after adjustment for occupation, job experience and age, elevated rate ratios indicate that female workers have higher injury rates. The rate ratios were slightly higher for more severe injuries. Differences between male and female workers in training, physical capacity, task assignments, as well as other factors, could explain the observed injury trends.
American Journal of Epidemiology, May 1996, Vol.143, No.10, p.1050-1058. Illus. 27 ref.


CIS 01-1215 Ruppe I., Hentschel K., Eggert S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Rail-based transport systems - Part 1: Exposure to static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields in the magnetic suspension Transrapid 07 train
Schienengebundene Transportsysteme - Teil 1: Exposition durch statische und niederfrequente elektrische und magnetische Felder an der Magnetschwebebahn Transrapid 07 [in German]
Topics: electric fields; exposure evaluation; field strength measurement; Germany; long-term exposure; magnetic fields; rail transport; statistical evaluation.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 104p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 99-1652 Pérez Gabarda L.
Electric current: Effects of passage through the human body
Corriente eléctrica: efectos al atravesar el orgamismo humano [in Spanish]
Topics: alternating current; biological effects; data sheet; direct current; electric burns; electrical accidents; electrical resistance of body; electricity; fibrillation; skin resistance; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 8p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 98-1445 Kheifets L.I., Afifi A.A., Buffler P.A., Zhang Z.W.
Occupational electric and magnetic field exposure and brain cancer - A meta-analysis
Topics: brain cancer; electric fields; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; literature survey; magnetic fields.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1995, Vol.37, No.12, p.1327-1341. Illus. 66 ref.

CIS 98-895 Oftedal G., Vistnes A.I., Rygge K.
Skin symptoms after the reduction of electric fields from visual display units
Topics: CRT display terminals; dermatological effects; electric fields; epidemiologic study; length of exposure; magnetic fields; microclimate; Norway; screens; social aspects.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1995, Vol.21, No.5, p.335-344. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 97-1676 Méndez Bernal B.
Static electricity: Loading and unloading of road tankers (II)
Electricidad estática: carga y descarga de camiones cisterna (II) [in Spanish]
This information note presents measures to prevent static electricity hazards in the loading and unloading of tank trucks. Flow velocity, antistatic additives and earthing are discussed. See NTP 374-1995 (CIS 97-1675) for additional information.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 6p. 4 ref.

CIS 97-1675 Méndez Bernal B.
Static electricity: Loading and unloading of road tankers (I)
Electricidad estática: carga y descarga de camiones cisterna (I) [in Spanish]
This information note presents basic concepts on the physics of static electricity generation in the loading and unloading of tank trucks. Flammable substances and electrostatic discharge hazards are also discussed. See NTP 375-1995 (CIS 97-1676) for additional information.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 5p. 4 ref.

CIS 97-974 National electrical code 1996
This edition of the code was adopted by the National Fire Protection Association in May 1995. Contents: general definitions and requirements for electrical installations; wiring and protection; wiring methods and materials; equipment for general use; special locations (hazardous locations, commercial garages and service stations, bulk storage plants, health care facilities, places of assembly and entertainment, agricultural buildings); special equipment; special conditions; communication systems; tables and examples.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1995. 1069p. Illus. Index.

CIS 96-1633 OSHA's Electrical Safety and Lockout/Tagout Standards: Proven written programs for compliance
Pre-written programme that can be adapted for the development of a safety management programme within the enterprise in order to comply with the OSHA standard. Complete text of the OSHA Standards and Guidelines is included.
Government Institutes, 4 Research Place, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, 1995. Computer diskette (text in WordPerfect) + manual (182p.). Price: USD 59.00. ###

CIS 96-1468 Hitchcock R.T., Patterson R.M.
Radio-frequency and ELF electromagnetic energies - A handbook for health professionals
Contents of this manual: general concepts of electromagnetic radiation; interaction of radiation with matter; biological effects of radiofrequency fields (animal studies, epidemiology, morbidity and mortality, ocular effects, nervous system and cardiovascular effects, effects on reproduction, development and growth, cancer, skin diseases, accident and incident reports, cutaneous perception of microwaves and radiofrequency burns); exposure standards and guidelines; generation and sources of radiation; instrumentation; evaluation and measurement of radiofrequency hazards; control measures; extremely low frequency (ELF) fields (sources and exposures, health effects, measurement, exposure guidelines); radiation control programme.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1995. ix, 542p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 59.00.

CIS 96-582 25 years ISSA Electricity Section
25 ans Comité AISS Electricité [in French]
25 años del Comité de Electricidad de la AISS [in Spanish]
Main contents of this brochure issued on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the ISSA Electricity Section: the work of the Electricity Section of the ISSA (1970-1995); results of the Section's work (accident statistics; focal accident points; hazard limits of electricity; thermal hazards; cardiological problems due to electrical accidents; long-term consequences of electrical accidents; first aid; current-operated earth leakage circuit breakers; biological effects of electromagnetic fields; laser beams; ionizing radiation; basic and advanced training; occupational safety films; training programme in Kenya; international standardization.
International Social Security Association (ISSA), International Section for the Prevention of Occupational Risks due to Electricity, Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 50968 Köln, Germany, 1995. 47p. Illus. ###

CIS 96-322
Health and Safety Executive
Oil-filled electrical distribution and other switchgear
This document provides information on the potential electrical risks in the use of high-voltage and low-voltage oil-filled electrical distribution and other switchgear manufactured before 1970. Potential problems include: lack of knowledge of the equipment, overstressed switchgear, non-implementation of recommended safety modifications, use of dependent manually-operated switchgear, poor maintenance, and use of operating handles which are not the anti-reflex type. Guidance on the identification of such switchgear is provided along with precautions to reduce the risks.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1995. 18p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 95-2224 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing electrocutions of crane operators and crew members working near overhead power lines
This NIOSH Alert describes five incidents in which crane operators were electrocuted following contact of the crane with overhead power lines. Current regulations for the prevention of such incidents are outlined (de-energizing power lines, use of insulated barriers, maintaining a minimum clearance between power lines and the crane). Recommendations for employers include: compliance with current regulations; notification of power line owners; evaluation of jobsites; use of work methods not requiring cranes; worker training.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, May 1995. 10p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-1847
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety on construction sites
Contents of this guidance booklet: legal requirements; planning the work; safety of electrical installations (generator, earthing the site supply, the temporary site distribution system, moveable plant, portable equipment, use of mains voltage equipment, residual current devices, maintenance of the electrical installation and electrical equipment); suggested inspection and test frequencies for electrical equipment; precautions during demolition, building alteration and refurbishment and handover and commissioning work; treatment of electric shock victims.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iii, 43p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: GBP 8.75.

CIS 95-1493
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical test equipment for use by electricians
This document gives guidance to electrically competent people involved in electrical testing, diagnosis and repair. Contents: statutory requirements; hazards and accident causes (electric burns and shock caused by unsuitable or inadequately insulated equipment); design safety requirements for test probes and leads, sockets and terminals and voltage detection instruments; safe systems of work (precautions before and during testing, examination of equipment). Replaces previous edition (CIS 93-296).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Feb. 1995. 4p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.50.


CIS 98-886 Transformer grounding
Mise à la terre d'un transformateur [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; earthing; electricity; transformers.
Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 1994. 2p. Illus.

CIS 97-786 Maillard D., Girard J.F.
Electromagnetic fields and power lines - Present status and health aspects
Champs électromagnétiques et lignes électriques - Etat de la question et aspects sanitaires [in French]
Main subjects treated in this safety guide on electromagnetic fields: definitions; electric current; electric and magnetic fields; ionizing radiation; biological effects.
Ministère de la Santé publique et de l'Assurance maladie, 8 avenue de Ségur, 75350 Paris 07 SP, France, 1994. 28p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 97-76 Painting - Prevention of electrical hazards
Travaux de peinture - Prévention des risques électriques [in French]
Training brochure on the prevention of electrical hazards in the construction industry (in particular, those affecting painters), covering the following topics: relevant legislation in effect in France; preparatory work on construction sites; personal protection; measures concerning equipment and tools; definitions; safety measures applying to all kinds of painting work; lock-out procedures; work on pylons. In annexes: safety plans; model forms for certificates; safety signs and posters.
Organisme Professionnel de Prévention du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (OPPBTP), 204, rond-point du Pont-de-Sèvres, Tour Amboise, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt, France, 1994. 56p. Illus. Price: FRF 77.00 (members), FRF 96.00 (non-members).

CIS 96-536 About electrical safety at work
Training booklet on electrical safety, including the prevention of fires due to electrical faults. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 95-2222 Rossignol M., Pineault M.
Classification of fatal occupational electrocutions
The study describes fatal occupational electrocutions that occurred in Quebec, Canada between 1981 and 1988 and proposes a classification suitable for setting up a prevention agenda. Of 63 fatalities, an investigation report was available in 57 cases (90.5%). They all occurred among males, 70.2% of whom were under the age of 35; 49.1% were performing a task related to the construction sector. A principal factor analysis allowed classification of 90.2% of the fatalities in two categories: victims assigned to electrical tasks indoors and those assigned to non-electrical tasks outdoors. Victims in the first group (56.5% of the cases) were electrocuted by direct contact with current at voltages <10kV and those in the second by contact with current at voltages >10kV. The identification of the two patterns of electrocution provided an additional argument for shifting prevention strategies from worker education to reducing electrical hazards at their source.
Canadian Journal of Public Health - Revue canadienne de santé publique, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.85, No.5, p.322-325. 19 ref.

CIS 95-2248 Armstrong B., Thériault G., Guénel P., Deadman J., Goldberg M., Héroux P.
Association between exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields and cancer in electric utility workers in Quebec, Canada, and France
The authors report the association between exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and cancer in electric utility workers in Quebec, Canada (follow-up, 1970-1988), and France (follow-up, 1978-1989), among whom 2,679 cases of cancer were identified. Exposures were assessed through a job-exposure matrix based on about 1,000 person-weeks of measurements from exposure meters worn by workers. Exposures were considerably higher in Quebec than in France. No association was found between PEMFs and cancers previously suspected of association with magnetic fields (leukaemia, other haematopoietic cancers, brain cancer or melanoma). However, there was a clear association between cumulative exposure to PEMFs and lung cancer, with odds ratios rising to 3.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-6.04) in the highest exposure group (84 cases). The association was not explained by smoking or other occupational exposures.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Nov. 1994, Vol.140, No.9, p.805-820. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1895 Hunting K.L., Welch L.S, Cuccherini B.A., Seiger L.A.
Musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 308 apprentice electricians to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Low back pain was common among these workers and resulted in medical care, missed work or light duty for almost 35% of participants. Hand/wrist symptoms and neck discomfort were also common. These workers continued to work with symptoms that are classifiable as cumulative trauma disorders. A history of injury was correlated with the subsequent prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.25, No.2, p.149-163. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 95-1105
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Electric and magnetic fields in the workplace
Elektrische und magnetische Felder im Beruf [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on electric and magnetic fields in the workplace, held on 4 June 1994 in Germany. Subjects covered include: protection from electric fields and magnetic fields in workplaces laid down in directives by the European Union; occurrence of electric and magnetic fields; present knowledge of the biological effects of low- and high-frequency fields gained from experimental and epidemiologic studies; methods and equipment for the measurement of power intensity and field strength; protection by radiation shielding; measurement of physiological changes due to exposure to electric and magnetic fields.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. 69p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-721 Barroetavena M.C., Ross R., Teschke K.
Electric and magnetic fields at three pulp and paper mills
Extremely low frequency (60Hz) electric and magnetic field levels were measured at three Canadian pulp and paper mills, using area point-in-time measurements. Most electric field levels were below limit of detection of 1V/m; the highest measured field was 47V/m. Measured magnetic field strengths ranged from less than the limit of detection of 0.125mG to 706mG, with a median of 1.6mG. Magnetic field levels were higher in mills that consume more electric power, but worker exposures could not be predicted according to plant power consumption. Overall, electric and magnetic field levels in the three pulp and paper mills were similar to those experienced by the general population. However, maximum magnetic field intensities in some areas were as high as those experienced by electrical workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.358-363. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 95-105 Electricity and worker safety
Electricidad y la seguridad del trabajador [in Spanish]
Videotape and user's manual on electrical safety in the workplace, with particular attention paid to workers in commercial enterprises.
Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU), 30 E. 29th Street, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1994. 1 videotape + Manual (42p., illus.). ###

CIS 95-28
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Final Rule - Stay of Enforcement and correction - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; Electrical protective equipment [USA]
On 31 Jan. 1994, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a new standard addressing the work practices to be used during the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, transmission and distribution facilities. In that document, the OSHA also revised the electrical protective equipment requirements contained in the General Industry Standards. This Notice stays the enforcement of some of the requirements contained in the electric power generation standard, corrects language in the preamble explaining the standard (particularly as it relates to the wearing of clothing for employees working on or near exposed energized parts) and corrects several errors in the standard.
Federal Register, 30 June 1994, Vol.59, No.125, p.33658-33664.

CIS 95-309 Chevalier A., de la Fayolle O., de la Forcade S., Lambrozo J., Coing F., Souques M.
Epidemiological surveillance of a group of workers exposed to very high energy electromagnetic fields in the French company Electricité de France
Surveillance épidémiologique d'un groupe professionnel d'Electricité de France: les travailleurs sous très haute tension [in French]
The certified sickness absence of 351 lines fitters working on live transmission lines running at 63kV or more was studied for the years 1989 and 1990 and compared with that of two groups: office workers not exposed to electromagnetic fields and a sample of EDF-GDF workers with comparable level of responsibility and age. The line fitters were numerous to leave their work for medical reasons but their absenteeism measured by the number of spells and the duration of absence per year was lower or equal to those of the two other groups. They seemed to have more accidents at work and fewer mental disorders. This study is the first stage of an epidemiological surveillance of occupational diseases of workers exposed to specific health hazards. It will be supplemented by a longitudinal study.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.3, p.183-188. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-2075 Donnachie P.E.
Dangers of electricity - An introduction
Hazards associated with the use of electricity are described along with how they can arise and their possible effects. Hazards include: electric shock; electric burn; arcing; fire and explosion; hazards of static electricity.
Health and Safety Data File, June 1994, p.C:1:1-C:1:4. 11 ref.

CIS 94-1958 Guide for safety with underground services
This guide outlines the dangers associated with work near underground services and gives advice on how to reduce these dangers. Contents: dangers of electricity cables, gas pipes, liquid petroleum services, oil pipelines, water pipes, sewers and telecommunication cables; safe systems of work; plans; cable and pipe locating devices; safe digging practices; safe systems of work for trenchless methods; new housing developments; installation of new services near existing services; demolition sites. Appendices include legislation and first aid.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, May 1994. 70p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 94-1547
Health and Safety Executive
Live rails kill
This leaflet briefly describes precautions to be taken when working near live conductor rails. The hazards of such work are described along with training requirements, safe working methods and legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 1994. 6p. 2 ref.

CIS 94-1393 Allen S.G., Blackwell R.P., Chadwick P.J., Driscoll C.M.H., Pearson A.J., Unsworth C., Whillock M.J.
National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)
Review of occupational exposure to optical radiation and electric and magnetic fields with regard to the proposed CEC physical agents directive
Part 1 of this review considers occupational exposure to optical radiation, ultra-violet radiation, lasers and infrared radiation. It is concluded that if suitable control measures are enforced, there should be very few cases where optical radiation emissions from artificial sources exceed the ceiling levels in the proposed CEC Directive; areas where overexposure may occur are highlighted. Part 2 covers occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields, static fields, extremely low frequency fields, broadcast and telecommunications, radar and navigation, heating, visual display units and other sources and identifies a number of areas where the action and hazardous activity levels proposed by CEC may be exceeded.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Jan. 1994. vi, 66p. 51 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 94-704
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
Protection of workers from power frequency electric and magnetic fields - A practical guide
This ILO publication comprises a review of data on the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields on biological systems pertinent to the evaluation of health risks for workers. It provides information on the possible effects of exposure to 50/60Hz electric and magnetic fields on human health and gives guidance on the assessment of risks from occupational exposure. Areas in which uncertainties exist and further research is needed are also indicated. Biological effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields and national exposure standards are presented in appendices. Glossary.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. x, 81p. Illus. Appendices. 113 ref. Price: CHF 20.00.


CIS 98-29 Official Standard relating to safety at workplaces where there is a risk of static electricity 1993 [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana relativa a las condiciones de seguridad en los centros de trabajo en donde la electricidad estática represente un riesgo [México] [in Spanish]
This official standard (entry into force 7 Dec. 1993) repeals Directive No.22 concerning safety requirements at places of work where there is a risk of static electricity (CIS 94-1465). Topics: electrical safety; electricity; information of personnel; law; lightning rods; Mexico; personal protective equipment; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; safety and health committees; standard; static electricity elimination; static electricity.
Secretaria del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 Mexico, D.F., Mexico, 1994. 8p. 2 ref.

CIS 95-2226 Live working - Portable equipment for earthing or earthing and short-circuiting
Travaux sous tension - Dispositifs portables de mise à la terre ou de mise à la terre et en court-circuit [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Aug. 1993. 73p. Illus. ###

CIS 95-1859 Kaune W.T., Savitz D.A., Stevens R.G., Paneth N., Shaw G.M., Croen L.A.
Electric and magnetic fields
This collection of papers provides information on the health effects of electric and magnetic fields. Individual papers concern: (1) an introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields; (2) epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and cancer; (3) biologically-based epidemiologic studies of electric power and cancer; (4) neurobehavioural effects of power-frequency electromagnetic fields; (5) a review of epidemiologic studies concerning adverse human reproductive outcomes and electromagnetic field exposures; (6) assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1993, Vol.101, Suppl.4, p.73-81, 83-91, 93-100, 101-106, 107-119, 121-133. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1846 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing injuries and deaths from metal-reinforced hydraulic hoses
This data sheet describes hazards associated with the use of metal-reinforced hydraulic hoses on aerial bucket trucks near energized power lines. Such hoses may rupture and cause fires if they contact power lines; electric current flowing through the metal reinforcement may also create an electrocution hazard. The use of nonconducting hydraulic hoses near energized power lines is recommended.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, May 1993. 5p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 95-504
Health and Safety Executive
Shock horror
Videotape on the electric hazards due to agricultural work near overhead power lines: possible contact with machinery, ladders, irrigation pipes; unsafe work systems; carelessness.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1993. Videotape. Length: 10min. Price: GBP 11.49 (hire), GBP 38.30 (sale). ###

CIS 95-314 Skyberg K., Hansteen I.L., Vistnes A.I.
Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of high-voltage laboratory cable splicers exposed to electromagnetic fields
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1993, Vol.19, No.1, p.29-34. 23 ref. ###

CIS 95-313 Korniewicz H.R.
Skin nerve stimulation caused by low frequency electric field
Radiated power from certain radio transmitters (1000kW) used in ship-to-shore communications generates strong electric fields which can cause unpleasant skin nerve stimulation in persons who touch nearby metallic objects. Such stimulation is caused by an electric current crossing the area of the skin in contact with the object. Results of a study on threshold current perception are presented. An important parameter in the characterization of nerve excitation for the range 1 to 100kHz is the charge flowing across the skin, membrane or other organs during one duty cycle. A table shows the magnitude of this charge and the effects for a range of current values.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.4, p.417-424. 15 ref.

CIS 94-2084 Matanoski G.M., Elliott E.A., Breysse P.N., Lynberg M.C.
Leukemia in telephone linemen
This case-control study examines potential associations between telephone linework and the occurrence of leukaemia with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Workers with lifetime exposure scores to extremely low frequency non-ionizing radiation above the median for the population show an excess of leukaemia 2.5 times higher than workers below the median (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-8.6). Those individuals with a long duration of employment in jobs with intermittent peak exposures may be at a higher risk of leukaemia than those with a constant exposure level. Analyses that allow for a latent period suggest that the risk is associated with exposures that occurred 10 or more years before death. Workers with peak exposure scores to extremely low frequency non-ionizing radiation above the median have odds ratios of 2.4 (95% CI 0.7-9.0) and 6.6 (95% CI 0.7-58) for latent periods of 10 and 15 years, respectively. The data suggest an increasing risk with increasing exposure (p for trend = 0.05) when cumulated scores are based on peak exposure scores. The numbers in this study are small and the differences observed may be due to chance.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Mar. 1993, Vol.137, No.6, p.609-619. 13 ref.

CIS 94-1651 Dufresne A., Krier G., Muller J.F., Perrault G.
Measurement of metallic particles extracted from the lung parenchyma of two electricians and one electrotechnician
X-ray spectroscopy and laser microprobe mass analysis were used to determine the chemical nature of particles extracted from the lung parenchyma of two electricians and one electrotechnician who had died of lung cancer. The retained particles were qualitatively representative of these workers' work history (e.g. the electrician who had worked in a mine had retained more silicates than the two others). The concentration of nickel in the lungs of these workers was higher than the concentrations measured in the lungs of 39 other workers who died of different types of cancers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1993, Vol.54, No.9, p.564-568. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 94-1726 Cartwright C.E., Breysse P.N., Booher L.
Magnetic field exposures in a petroleum refinery
Petroleum refinery workers were classified into groups based on the type of exposure sources and work conducted. Electricians were divided into three categories: high voltage electrical distribution (HVED) workers; low voltage electrical distribution (LVED) workers; and maintenance electricians (MNTE). A total of 48 individuals, 11 HVED electricians, 12 LVED electricians, 11 MNTE workers, and 14 controls were monitored for an 8-hour shift. Both the HVED and LVED groups were found to have average full-shift mean exposures slightly greater than 10 milligauss (mG). The MNTE group and the controls exhibited lower magnetic flux density exposures, with means between 2mG and 3mG. A special group of high voltage electricians were monitored during maintenance work on large current-limiting coils in the power distribution system. Individual full-shift magnetic field means ranged from 0.06 to 2.0 gauss (G), with an overall mean of 0.93G. Peak exposures ranged from 2.1 to 18G, with an average of 12.1G.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1993, Vol.8, No.6, p.587-592. Illus. 9 ref.

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