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CIS 03-385
Health and Safety Executive
Memorandum of guidance on the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 - Guidance on Regulations
This guidance publication contains the text of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (see also CIS 89-1439), together with extensive explicatory text and commentary. All aspects of work with electricity are covered, with a special section devoted to the use of electricity in mines. A list of relevant British Standards is included in the appendix. Updates and replaces CIS 90-1339, essentially with references to more recent legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. iv, 52p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 03-381
Health and Safety Executive
Electricity at work - Safe working practices
This booklet gives guidance on the essential elements that need to be considered when devising safe working practices for people who carry out work on or near electrical equipment in circumstances in which danger may arise. Assessment procedures are described for deciding whether to work dead or live and for actions in relation to both dead and live working. Typical electrical hazards are described along with the need for careful design and selection of electrical equipment. An example of a permit-to-work is included. Reference is made throughout to provisions of the British Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (see CIS 89-1439). This booklet updates and replaces CIS 93-1341, essentially through the inclusion of several more recent literature references.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2002. iv, 23p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: GBP 4.95.

CIS 03-366 Donaldson T.
Electrostatic hazards
The discharge of static electricity is a cause of many industrial accidents, particularly in the chemical and process industries where solvents or other flammable or explosive materials are often present in large quantities. This special issue on electrostatic hazards presents several brief case studies and short communications on topics including: safety of air-driven lamps used in hazardous areas; electrostatic hazards of pouring powdered chemicals into vessels; case of a flash fire during filling of an flexible intermediate bulk container; case of a fire at a gas processing plant; loss of a radioactive static eliminator device in a plastics processing plant.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, June 2002, No.165, p.3-17. Illus.

CIS 03-46 Royal Decree 614/2001, of 8 June 2001 - Minimum measures for the protection of the health and safety of workers against electric hazards [Spain]
Real Decreto 614/2001, de 8 de junio 2001 - Disposiciones mínimas para la protección de la salud y seguridad de los trabajadores frente al riesgo eléctrico [in Spanish]
The purpose of this Royal Decree (effective September 2001) is to update the provisions applicable to work that presents electrical hazards for compliance with Law No.31/1995 of 8 November 1995 on the prevention of occupational accidents (CIS 95-1921) and European directives. Topics covered: responsibilities of employers; work methods and procedures; training and information of workers; consultation and participation of workers. In appendices: definitions; work with power cut off; live work; operations, measurements, trials and checks; work in the vicinity of live elements; work in premises presenting a fire or explosion hazard, or a risk of static electricity build-up.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 18p. Also in: Boletín Oficial del Estado, No.148, 21 June 2001.\WebPublisher\Archivos\seguridad.PDF [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1415
Health and Safety Executive
Safety in electrical testing at work - General guidance
Injury can occur if live parts are exposed and can be touched, or when metalwork which is meant to be earthed becomes live at a dangerous voltage. The likelihood of touching live parts is increased during electrical testing and faultfinding. This booklet provides guidance on safe electrical testing and is aimed at all persons responsible for workplaces where electrical testing is carried out, as well as at persons doing the actual testing. Contents: types of tests covered; risks of injury; carrying out a risk assessment; managing electrical testing workplaces; setting-up safe test areas; protecting the persons doing the testing; test equipment; safe systems of work; training; qualifications of testers; legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 15p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 02-890 Batra P.E., Ioannides M.G.
Assessment of electrical accidents in power industry
This article is an assessment of the electrocutions that occurred between 1992 and 1996 to workers in the electrical utility sector in Greece. Data concerning the occupational characteristics of the injured person, the time (day of the week, time of the day) at which the accident occurred and the consequences are presented and discussed. A method for calculating the accident frequency rate per 1,000 workers, with emphasis on fatal accidents, is proposed. Also, an information system for accidents is proposed that would be capable of calculating the frequency and severity rates per workplace, per group, and per occupational category of the workers. It would also classify workers according to the occupational risks they face.
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Spring 2002, Vol.12, No.2, p.151-169. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 01-1646 Electrical safety - Safety and health for electrical trades - Student manual
Young and new workers are at a high risk of occupational injury compared to more experienced workers. It is estimated that 200,000 young workers under the age of 18 suffer work-related injuries in the United States each year. This manual is part of the safety and health curriculum for secondary and post-secondary electrical trades courses. The manual is designed to engage the learner in recognizing, evaluating and controlling hazards associated with electrical work. Contents: dangers of electricity; dangers of electrical shock; overview of the safety model; recognizing hazards; evaluating hazards; controlling hazards; safe work environment; safe work practices.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 2002. vi, 77p. Illus. Index.


CIS 03-398 Seixas N.S., Ren K., Neitzel R., Camp J., Yost M.
Noise exposure among construction electricians
Data-logging noise dosimetry was used to assess the exposure levels of electricians working for a major electrical subcontractor in Washington State at five sites using four types of construction methods. Subjects documented their activities and work environment information throughout their work shift during the four-months of the study. Over 24% of the TWA samples exceeded 85dBA; 5.2% exceeded the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 90dBA. When using the NIOSH exposure metric, 67.8% of the samples exceeded 85dBA and 27% exceeded 90dBA. The results showed that presumably quiet occupations such as electricians are at risk of exposure to potentially harmful noise exposures, and that other workers' activities and the general environment contribute substantially to that risk. These results indicate that noise control strategies will have to address the construction work environment as an integrated system.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.62, No.5, p.615-621. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1776 Marconi A., Cavariani F., Carai A., Cacchioli G., Papandrea F., Cacchioli E.
Assessment of exposure to ceramic fibres during insulation operations in a thermoelectric power plant
Valutazione dell'esposizione a fibre ceramiche durante la coibentazione degli impianti di una centrale termoelettrica in costruzione [in Italian]
Personal and workplace sampling was performed during maintenance work on electrical equipment in a large thermal generating plant involving the handling of insulating blankets. In personal samples, levels of exposure to ceramic fibres of up to 1000 fibres/L were measured. Average concentration levels from area samples were consistently lower. Because of the carcinogenic potential of ceramic fibres, it is recommended that adequate working practices and control measures be introduced, including the adoption of pre-coated and pre-shaped fibrous materials whenever possible, isolation of the working area, use of local air extraction ventilation, use of garments for personal protection and respirators, use of wetting or binding liquids prior to removal and fast elimination of debris from the working area.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.263-271. 25 ref.

CIS 02-763 Fostervold K.I., Buckmann E., Lie I.
VDU-screen filters: Remedy or the ubiquitous Hawthorne effect?
Health hazards attributed in office work to exposure to electrical fields surrounding CRT displays units were investigated without confirming the assumed protection given by screen filters. The results appear to be explained by other facts influencing employees e.g. subject reactivity, known also as the Hawthorne effect (improvement is due to psychological factors related to the subject's awareness that he/she is participating in an experiment).
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.107-118. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 02-700 van Wijngaarden E., Savitz D.A., Kleckner R.C., Kavet R., Loomis D.
Mortality patterns by occupation in a cohort of electrical utility workers
Mortality patterns were examined in a United States cohort of 138,905 male electric utility workers from five companies. Regression techniques were used to analyse total mortality, and mortalities from cardiovascular disease and cancer in relation to duration of employment in each of the 19 occupational categories of electrical utility operations. Relative to workers who were never involved in utility operations (e.g., administrative workers), mortality rate ratios among operations workers were higher for total mortality, mortality from cardiovascular disease, and total cancer mortality. Lung cancer risk was consistently elevated, whereas increased mortality for other cancers was less consistent. The results of this study indicate excess mortality risks among electric utility workers, which could be related to both occupational and non-occupational risk factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.667-673. 39 ref.


CIS 02-1881 Cantarella G., Carrescia V., Tommasini R.
On earth current in building structures in the event of earth fault in TT systems
Sul potenziale verso terra assunto dalle strutture edili in caso di guasto a terra nei sistemi TT [in Italian]
This study looks at how electric currents behave in buildings, in particular highlighting the potential dangers due to indirect contact in the event of an earth fault. A number of factors, such as environmental conditions, ground resistivity, type of buildings, shape and size of dispersing electrodes buried in the ground are listed and have to be taken into consideration to prevent electrical accidents.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.35-78. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1416 Turmo Sierra E.
Protection against static discharges
Protección frente a cargas electrostáticas [in Spanish]
This information note covers the topic of static electricity, its hazards and the appropriate preventive measures. Contents: description of static electricity (formation, accumulation, dissipation and discharge); hazards due to static electricity (fire, explosion, discharge, electric shock); preventive measures (earthing, increasing the conductivity of materials or of ambient air, reducing the oxygen concentration or the speed at which the materials are conveyed, installing systems for protecting persons from static discharges, various means of reducing charges caused by contact).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 8p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-393 Platania G., Amicucci G.L., Di Lollo L., Minervini C., Ranieri D., Scarana M., Di Bartolomeo R., Fedeli W.A.
The influence of the ageing of low-voltage power lines on the conservation of their electrical and mechanical properties
Influenza dell'invecchiamento nella conservazione delle caratteristiche elettriche e meccaniche dei cavi impiegati in bassa tensione [in Italian]
Power lines are subject to ageing and physical stress due to heat, and to chemical and mechanical agents. The outer casing gradually loses its elasticity and becomes frail leaving the conductors exposed and raising the risk of insulation loss and direct contact, the latter being a particular safety risk. This study undertook an investigation into some of the causes of such deteriorations. Only a cable laid in a way to be mechanically protected may continue to meet electric insulation requirements for many years. If the same cable is used in equipment having moving parts it will be subjected to casing losses, expecially if no measures are adopted to allow sufficient heat dissipation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2000, Vol.12, No.4, p.3-25. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 01-1647 Electricity lines in the vicinity of silos
Lignes électriques à proximité des silos [in French]
The purpose of this information leaflet is to minimize hazards from overhead electric lines when delivering fodder to farms. It describes a case where corrective action (moving the overhead line) was taken following an accident, and provides guidance for selecting the site for the silo and for the organization of its operation.
CRAM des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue de Président E. Hériot, BP 93405, 44034 Nantes, France, no date. 4p. Illus.

CIS 01-1520 Edeler J.
Anticorrosion work on pylons - Protection against falls
Korrosionsschutzarbeiten auf Gittermasten - Schutz gegen Absturz [in German]
Pylons for electrical power lines are exposed to inclement weather conditions and have therefore to be periodically protected against corrosion. Workers have to be protected from falls from heights by appropriate arresting devices. This article describes how to safely perform anticorrosion work on different types of pylons. The anchoring system and rope arrangements are described, as well as their correct use.
BAU-BG Aktuell, 2000, No.2, p.16-18. Illus.

CIS 01-522 Inflammable matter - Hints helping to avoid fires caused by electrical equipment
Zündstoff - Tipps zur Vermeidung von Elektrobränden [in German]
Overload in cables and outlets, insulation damaged by mechanical impacts or chemical agents such as fat, aggressive liquids and gases, inadequate fuses, loose contacts, dirt and corrosion, and lamps with excessive wattage may all lead to costly fires. Experience suggests to perform periodical checks, avoid inappropriate connectors and have repairs done by specialists.
Zeitschrift für Hotels, Gaststätten und Schausteller, Mar. 2000, No.1, p.4-5. Illus.

CIS 00-933 Ministerial Standard concerning basic occupational health and safety measures applicable to electrical equipment and installations (Electrical hazards) [Nicaragua]
Norma Ministerial sobre las disposiciones básicas de higiene y seguridad del trabajo aplicables a los equipos e instalaciones eléctricas (Riesgos eléctricos) [Nicaragua] [in Spanish]
This Regulation establishes basic safety standards for electrical equipment and installations, to be applied in conjunction with the Nicaraguan Electrical Installations Code (CIEN). Contents: definitions; obligations of employers; obligations of workers; obligations of contractors and subcontractors; personal protective equipment; training of workers; safety of work tools and equipment; access to electrical installations; work with low and high voltage; work in locales with particular hazards.
La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Nicaragua), 19 June 2000, Vol.104, No.115, p.3174-3177.


CIS 01-1712 Adekoya N., Myers J.R.
Fatal harmful substances or environmental exposures in agriculture, 1992 to 1996
Data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries surveillance system from 1992 through 1996 were analysed to allow a better understanding of exposures to harmful substances or environments that resulted in agricultural work fatalities. There were 357 fatalities as a result of these exposures in the agriculture production and agriculture services sectors, representing 10% of all work-related deaths that occurred in these industry sectors during this period. Contact with electric current represented 52.9% of these fatalities. Agricultural services reported 87 electrocutions, 50 of which occurred among tree trimmers. The events most likely to result in fatalities were contact with overhead power lines (26.3%) and drowning (17.1 %). The overall fatality rate was 2.1 deaths per 100,000 workers. The development of appropriate hazard-awareness training for workers may help prevent future deaths in these industry sectors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.699-705. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 00-1310 Preventing worker deaths from uncontrolled release of electrical, mechanical and other types of hazardous energy
This booklet describes the precautions that need to be taken in order to prevent deaths from contact with energy sources such as electricity, mechanical motion, pressurized air, and hot or cold temperatures occurring during the installation, maintenance, service and repair of machines, equipment, processes and systems. It contains current U.S. regulations including the requirement for energy control procedures, worker training, periodic inspections and the de-energizing, locking and tagging of machines before performing maintenance or repair tasks. Several cases of fatalities caused by worker contact with uncontrolled hazardous energy sources are described, along with the lessons to be drawn from these occurrences.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1999. 12p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 00-369
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety in arc welding
This guidance note deals with the installation, use and maintenance of hand-held electric welding equipment. It identifies risks that can arise when using this equipment equipment (electrical shocks, burns, fires) and advises on safety precautions to minimize these risks. Different methods of earthing are described.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 2000, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 1999. iv, 20p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: GBP 5.25.

CIS 00-215 Calvo Sáez J.A.
Medium-voltage transformation centres - Protection against indirect electrical contact
Centros de transformación de media tensión - Protección contra contactos eléctricos indirectos [in Spanish]
Topics: contact voltage protection; earthing to neutral; earthing; electric current; electric power distribution; electrical safety; electricity; fault current protection; fault voltage; mathematical analysis; step voltage.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1999, No.147, p.44-54. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 00-74
Health and Safety Executive
The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. An open learning course
Replaces CIS 90-1868. Topics: comment on law; earthing; electric burns; electric shock; electrical accidents; electrical equipment; electrical insulation; electrical overload protection; electrical safety; electricity; legislation; training course; training manuals; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, reprint, 1999. 204p. Illus. Price: GBP 14.00.

CIS 00-109 Robinson C.F., Petersen M., Palu S.
Mortality patterns among electrical workers employed in the U.S. construction industry, 1982-1987
Mortality patterns of a cohort of 31,068 U.S. electrical workers who primarily worked in the construction industry were evaluated between 1982 and 1987. Comparison to the U.S. population by using the NIOSH life table showed significantly elevated proportionate mortality (PMR) for many causes. Excess mortality for leukaemia and brain tumors is similar to reports of electrical workers with occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields in the electric utility or manufacturing industry. Excess deaths due to melanoma skin cancer are consistent with findings of other polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed workers. A significantly elevated PMR was observed for the diseases caused by asbestos (lung cancer, asbestosis, and malignant mesothelioma), and from fatal injuries, particularly electrocutions. The findings of statistically significant excess deaths for prostate cancer, musculoskeletal disease, suicide, and disorders of the blood-forming organs were unexpected.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.36, No.6, p.630-637. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 99-2026 Engelmann E., Herzberg C.
New insulating protective clothing
Neue schirmende Schutzkleidung [in German]
A new protective multilayer coverall is described which protects workers exposed to strong 50Hz electric fields produced by overhead electric lines with voltages up to 800kV. It consists of an outer layer of nonflammable, tear-resistant fabric and an inner layer of moisture-absorbing soft cotton. Metallised polyamide fabric with the protective effect of a Faraday cage is sandwiched in between the two layers. The coverall protects the entire body from head to toe. A protective helmet with transparent, gold-coated face shield is used instead of the hood for work on or near power lines with voltages above 420kV. Topics: electric fields; high voltage; insulating clothing; live work; materials for personal protection; metallic-scrim fabrics; overhead electric lines; protective clothing; work near electric lines.
1999, EMC-Kompendium, p.294-295. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 99-1651 Spotlight on going live with the "HV Hot glove" teams
Topics: aerial baskets; conductors; electric power distribution; electrical insulation; hazard evaluation; high voltage; legislation; live work; overhead electric lines; protective gloves; United Kingdom.
Safety Review, Mar. 1999, No.65, insert p.i-iv. Illus. 2 ref.


CIS 01-1516
International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
Protection of workers from power frequency electric and magnetic fields - A practical guide
Arabic translation of the ILO publication analysed under CIS 94-704. It comprises a review of data on the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields on biological systems pertinent to the evaluation of health risks for workers. It provides information on the possible effects of exposure to 50/60Hz electric and magnetic fields on human health and gives guidance on the assessment of risks from occupational exposure. Areas in which uncertainties exist and further research is needed are also indicated. Biological effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields and national exposure standards are presented in appendices.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1998. 189p. Illus. 112 ref.

CIS 01-733
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety and you
Diogelwch trydanol a chi [in Welsh]
Translation into Welsh of the document originally abstracted as CIS 97-450. This leaflet outlines basic measures to help control the risks from the use of electricity at work. The main hazards are identified along with ways of assessing and reducing the risks: ensuring the electrical installation is safe; providing safe and suitable equipment; reducing the voltage; providing safety devices; carrying out preventive maintenance; and ensuring safe methods of work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 8p. 18 ref.

CIS 00-1235 Ordinance No.1047 of 1998 respecting safety at work in high-tension plants [Norway]
Forskrift om sikkerhet ved arbeid i og drift av høyspenningsanlegg [in Norwegian]
Topics: electrical safety; electricity; high voltage; law; live work equipment; Norway; plant safety organization; power generation and distribution; work on electrical equipment.
Norsk Lovtidend, 9 Dec. 1998, Part I, Vol.20, No.1047, p.1631-1640.

CIS 00-623 Ordinance No.1048 of 1998 respecting safety at work in low-voltage installations [Norway]
Forskrift n°1048 om sikkerhet ved arbeid i og drift av lavspenningsanlegg [in Norwegian]
Topics: electrical equipment; electrical safety; electricity; law; live work; Norway; work on electrical equipment.
Norsk Lovtidend, 9 Dec. 1998, Part I, Vol.20, No.1048, p.1640-1644.

CIS 00-218
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300GHz)
Topics: animal experiments; antifertility effects; biological effects; carcinogenic effects; determination of exposure limits; electric fields; electromagnetic fields; glossary; health hazards; human experiments; limitation of exposure; magnetic fields; radiofrequency radiation; synergism.
Health Physics, Apr. 1998, Vol.74, No.4, p.494-522. Illus. 208 ref.

CIS 99-2027 Worker deaths by electrocution: A summary of NIOSH surveillance and investigative findings
Surveillance data and investigative reports of fatal incidents involving workers who contacted energized electrical conductors or equipment are summarized. Data were derived from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system maintained by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the USA, and are based on death certificates of workers 16 years or older who died from a traumatic injury in the workplace. Part I of this monograph provides: an overview of electrical hazards, including the effects of electrical energy on the human body; a comprehensive summary of the epidemiology of occupational electrocutions based on NTOF and the NIOSH Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) programme data which identifies common risk factors for fatal injury due to contact with electrical energy; and recommendations for elements of an effective electrical safety program for the prevention of workplace electrocutions. Part II includes a summary abstract for all 224 FACE electrocution investigative reports prepared by NIOSH for further information and reference. Topics: accident descriptions; electrical accidents; electrical safety; electricity; epidemiological aspects; fatalities; frequency rates; health hazards; occupations; report; risk factors; safe working methods; statistics; USA.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, May 1998. vii, 43p. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 99-1471 Bowman J.D., Kelsh M.A., Kaune W.T.
Manual for measuring occupational electric and magnetic field exposures
Topics: description of technique; electric fields; exposure evaluation; magnetic fields; measurement and investigation; measurement of physical agents; training manuals; training material; USA.
Publications Dissemination, EID, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Oct. 1998. viii, 137p. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 99-1129 Understanding electricity better
Mieux connaître l'électricité [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met elekriciteit [in Dutch]
Topics: Belgium; electric tools; electrical accidents; electrical safety; electricity; first aid; maintenance and repair; personal protective equipment; safety guides; static electricity; training material; work on electrical equipment.
Institut pour la prévention, la protection et le bien-être au travail (PREVENT), rue Gachard 88 - Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1998. 20p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 99-417 Electricians
Instaladores eléctricos [in Spanish]
Topics: check lists; electrical safety; hazard evaluation; legislation; risk factors; safety analysis; safety guides; small enterprises; Spain; training material; work on electrical equipment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 41p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 99-627 Williamson A., Feyer A.M.
The causes of electrical fatalities at work
Data from the Australian Work-Related Fatalities Study were analysed to examine accidents where the direct cause of death was contact with electricity (electrocution) and accidents which occurred in occupations with high exposure to electricity (electrical and related trades) but where the cause of death was not necessarily electrocution. Accident patterns for these two groups were compared to those for all fatalities. Behaviour was most likely to be involved in electricity-related deaths and to be a prime cause. Compared to fatal accidents in general, in electricity-related fatalities omission errors were more common than commission errors, and electricity-related fatalities had different patterns of contributing factors. Electrocutions were more likely to have involved poor upkeep of equipment and task errors at an earlier time compared to electrical trade fatalities and fatalities in general. Results may be used to identify the most effective targets for prevention. Topics: analysis of accident causes; causes of accidents; electric shock; electrical accidents; electrical industry; electricity; faulty construction; human behaviour; human failure; risk factors; survey; unsafe acts.
Journal of Safety Research, Fall 1998, Vol.29, No.3, p.187-196. Illus. 14 ref.


CIS 02-892
Health and Safety Executive
Avoidance of danger from overhead electric power lines
This guidance note is a revision of the 1991 edition (see CIS 92-278). The dangers of work where there may be contact with overhead electric lines and legal obligations of those responsible for such work are outlined. The precautions to be taken at construction sites where there is or is not work or passage of plant under the lines are set out, with plans and drawings of the arrangements of barriers and access points. Precautions to be taken during blasting operations are also outlined.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd. ed., 1997, reprinted 2001. 8p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 5.00

CIS 02-103 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart K - Electrical safety - Unit 1
Contents of this training programme: introduction on electricity and electrical circuits; hazards of electricity (shock, burns, fire, explosions); safe work with electricity (temporary wiring, insulation, grounding, circuit breakers and fuses, ground fault protection, ground fault circuit interrupter); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements for controlling electrical hazards in construction; extension cords.
Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (52p. Illus.); 33 presentation viewgraphs.

CIS 00-1733 Matthes R., Bernhardt J.H., Repacholi M.H.
Biological effects of static and ELF electric and magnetic fields
Proceedings of the International Seminar on biological effects of static and electric and magnetic fields and related health risks held in Bologna, Italy, 4-5 June 1997. Papers presented are grouped according to following themes: general principles; biophysical mechanisms and models; in vitro studies (in vitro effects on signal transduction and effects on carcinogenesis; environmental-level electromagnetic fields and breast cancer in human cells); in vivo studies (biological and health effects of ELF fields; effects on melatonin); human studies; research.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, c/o. R. Matthes, Bundemamt für Strahlenschutz, Institut für Strahlenhygiene, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany, 1997. xii, 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1437
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Joint document on the protection of workers and of the population in general against exposure to electric and magnetic fields and to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 0-300GHz
Documento congiunto sulla problematica della protezione dei lavoratori e della popolazione dalle esposizioni a campi elettrici e magnetici e a campi elettromagnetici a frequenze comprese tra 0 Hz e 300 GHz [in Italian]
Summary document published as a supplement to issue No.4/97 of the Fogli d'informazione ISPESL on the possible hazards of exposure to electromagnetic radiation and the fields generated by them, and on ways of preventing them.
Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro (ISPESL), via Urbana 167, 00184 Roma, Italy, 1997. 32p.

CIS 00-1119 Pérez Gabarda L.
Particular aspects of the effects of electric currents (I)
Aspectos particulares de los efectos de la corriente eléctrica (I) [in Spanish]
Topics: alternating current; asphyxia; capacitors; current frequency; data sheet; electric current; electricity; fibrillation; measurement of electrical quantities; pain sensitivity threshold; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 6p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 99-1650 Calvo Sáez D.J.A.
Protection against indirect electrical contact in medium- and low-voltage transformation centres - Simplified calculation of earthing connections (II)
Protección contra contactos eléctricos indirectos en centros de transformación MT/BT - Cálculo simplificado de tomas de tierra (II) [in Spanish]
For Part 1, see CIS 99-1648. Topics: contact voltage protection; design of electric circuits; earth resistance; earthing; electric current; electric power distribution; electrical safety; electricity; fault current protection; mathematical analysis.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1997, No.139, p.46-59. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 99-1324 Deadman J.E., Church G., Bradley C., Armstrong B.G., Thériault G.
Task-based estimation of past exposures to 60-hertz magnetic and electric fields at an electrical utility
Past exposures of electric utility workers to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and electric fields were estimated based on current intensities and durations of exposures for tasks or work locations in 14 job categories. Past task or location intensities were extrapolated from the present, and past task or location durations were estimated for long-term workers. Time-weighted average (TWA) exposures for past periods were reconstructed for jobs from the intensity and duration estimates. Magnetic fields were estimated to have increased the most over time for substation and distribution-line jobs. Magnetic field exposures for jobs in the generation and transmission of electricity were estimated to have increased very little. For electric fields in substations, the estimated increase over time was less than for magnetic fields. Reconstruction of TWA exposures allowed changes in the intensity and the duration of exposures to be considered separately. Topics: electric fields; electric power generation; electromagnetic radiation; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; long-term exposure; magnetic fields; power generation and distribution; substations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.6, p.440-449. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 98-1446 Kheifets L.I., Afifi A.A., Buffler P.A., Zhang Z.W., Matkin C.C.
Occupational electric and magnetic field exposure and leukemia - A meta-analysis
Topics: electric fields; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; leukaemia; literature survey; magnetic fields.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.39, No.11, p.1074-1091. Illus. 82 ref.

CIS 97-1310 Lüttgens G., Wilson N.
Electrostatic hazards
Handbook on the dangers of fire and explosion in the workplace due to static electricity. Contents: danger of fire and explosion (conditions for ignition, minimum ignition energy); origins of static electricity; electrostatic discharges as sources of ignition; principles of safety; case histories related to various types of discharges; case histories of fires where static electricity had been suspected as the causing agent but another cause was eventually identified; cases of electric shock due to static electricity.
Butterworth-Heinemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 1997. x, 166p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 30.00.


CIS 99-1649 Llorente Antón D.M.
Damages caused by thermal effects of electric currents
Daños ocasionados por los efectos térmicos de la corriente eléctrica [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on directive; comment on standard; conductors; electric burns; electricity; fire hazards; fire prevention; health hazards; thermal effects; toxic gases; work on electrical equipment.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 1996, No.138, p.52-61. Illus.

CIS 99-1648 Calvo Sáez D.J.A.
Protection against indirect electrical contact in medium- and low-voltage transformation centres - Simplified calculation of earthing connections (I)
Protección contra contactos eléctricos indirectos en centros de transformación MT/BT - Cálculo simplificado de tomas de tierra (I) [in Spanish]
For Part 2, see CIS 99-1650. Topics: contact voltage protection; design of electric circuits; earth resistance; earthing; electric current; electric power distribution; electrical safety; electricity; fault current protection; mathematical analysis.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 1996, No.138, p.18-31. Illus.

CIS 98-889 Earley M.W., Caloggero J.M., Sheehan J.V.
National electrical code handbook 1996
Topics: CD-ROM; circuit protection; communications; computerized data bases; directive; earthing; electrical equipment; electrical insulation; electrical safety; electricity; emergency current supply; entertainment services; fire protection; glossary; hazardous locations; health services; standard; USA; wiring.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1996. CD-ROM (needs Windows 3.1 or higher, or Macintosh 68040 processor or higher).

CIS 98-272 High-voltage hazards inside electrostatic imaging and burning equipment
Risque de choc électrique dû à la haute tension à l'intérieur de l'équipement d'imagerie et d'isolation électrostatique [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; duplicating; electric shock; electrical safety; electricity; high voltage; printing and duplicating; printing industry.
Industrial Health and Safety Program and Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, May 1996. 2p.

CIS 97-2028 Guénel P., et al.
Exposure to 50-Hz electric field and incidence of leukemia, brain tumors, and other cancers among French electric utility workers
The association between cancer and exposure to electric fields was investigated in a case-control study nested within a cohort of 170,000 workers employed at the French electric utility company Electricité de France (EDF) between 1978 and 1989. Exposure was assessed by personal monitoring of 850 EDF workers for a full work week. The analysis did not show any increased risk for leukaemia. For brain tumours (69 cases) there was some indication of a dose-response relation, although the risk did not increase uniformly with exposure. An unexpected association was also observed for colon cancer, but not for any other type of cancer. This study indicates that electric fields may have a specific effect on the risk of brain tumour.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1996, Vol.144, No.12, p.1107-1121. 41 ref.

CIS 97-1680 Verkasalo P.K., et al.
Magnetic fields of high voltage power lines and risk of cancer in Finnish adults: Nationwide cohort study
In this nationwide cohort study, 383,700 Finnish adults were identified by record linkages of nationwide registers. They all lived at some time during 1970-89 within 500m of overhead power lines of 110-400kV in a 50Hz magnetic field, calculated to be greater than or equal to 0.01µT. The numbers of observed and expected cases of cancer, standardized incidence ratios, and incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex, age, calendar year, and social class were assessed. Altogether 8415 cases of cancer were observed. All incidence rate ratios for both sexes combined were non-significant and between 0.91 and 1.11. Significant excesses were observed for multiple myeloma in men and colon cancer in women. The role of extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the pathogenesis of these tumours remains uncertain and the previously suggested associations between magnetic fields and other selected tumours were not confirmed.
British Medical Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.313, No.7064, p.1047-1051. 42 ref.

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