Natural phenomena - 188 entries found
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Crump prevention by forcing water into unmined coal
Zapobieganie tąpaniom przez wtłaczanie wody do calizny węglowej [in Polish]
Examples of crump prevention by forcing water into holes in unmined coal are presented. An attempt was made to determine the extent of crack propagation and establish a criterion of destruction of coal bed structure by forcing water. Destruction of coal bed cohesion limits crump hazard. A model is presented for selecting hydraulic parameters of liquid spreading in the coal bed during water injection. Observations are presented that can be used in practice to limit crump and tremor hazard.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.133, p.93-106. 8 ref.
Yano E., Higashi H., Nishii S., Koizumi A., Yokoyama Y.
Respiratory function of loggers exposed to the volcanic ash of Mt. Sakurajima
Sakurajima kazankai kōkai chiku shinrin sagyōsha no kokyū kinō [in Japanese]
Respiratory function of loggers who work in areas under the volcanic plume from Mt. Sakurajima was examined in relation to the concentrations of resuspended ash. 192 forest workers (including 78 women) were divided into 3 groups depending on the distance of their work area from the volcano. The maximum 20-min average concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) to which the groups were exposed were 4.58, 1.52 and 0.08mg/m3, respectively. In spite of the large differences in SPM, all the mean values of respiratory function for workers in each group were within normal limits and no significant difference among the groups was observed. The results persisted after controls for sex, age, height and smoking habits. The loggers are the people most heavily exposed to the volcanic ash, and the results suggest that effects of volcanic ash on human respiratory function are minimal.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, May 1987, Vol.34, No.5, p.251-254. Illus. 12 ref.
Singh M.P., Ghosh S.
Bhopal gas tragedy: Model simulation of the dispersion scenario
The physicochemical properties of methyl isocyanate (MIC) and its biological activity, as well as the probable cause of the accident, are discussed. The role of meteorology and topography with regard to the dispersion process is also documented. To obtain an estimate of the possible concentration levels of MIC in the atmosphere, an analytic dispersion model has been formulated. The model output gives an estimate of the ground level concentration and the approximate time of arrival of the plume front in the various affected localities. Dry deposition and the aqueous phase conversion of MIC with the humid atmosphere were also featured in the model. The model results seem to be fairly well correlated with the scantily available mortality distribution records. The effects of the gas on animals, plants and humans are described.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Dec. 1987, Vol.17, No.1, p.1-22. Illus. 17 ref.
Pesticide hazards in the tropics
The problems with pesticide use in the tropics are different because of lack of guidance, hot environment and minimal clothing, aggravated ecological problems, need for formulation without proper controls, use and misuse in rural and urban areas. Poisoning and fatalities are noted; the information necessary for a monitoring system is given.
East African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 15 Apr. 1987, p.4-7. Illus. 13 ref.
Directive on avalanche hazards to accommodation and construction sites [Norway]
Forskrift - Snřskredfare ved oppholds- og anleggssteder [in Norwegian]
This Directive was originally issued in June 1974 (see CIS 75-226), with a modified introduction in 1983 and paragraph 9 added in Nov. 1995 (agricultural activities excluded). Contents: When planning construction sites potentially exposed to avalanches, an expert should be consulted about the precautions necessary. An expert should also be consulted if, after work has been started, the avalanche danger is found to be different from the initial evaluation, and in the event of accidents due to avalanches. The rules also deal with the organization of a rescue team and the provision of adequate rescue and first aid equipment. If 2 or more employers are engaged on a construction site, they should collaborate in the observance of these safety requirements.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, 1995. 3p.
Thermophysiological properties of work and protective clothing
Termofysiologiska egenskaper hos arbets- och skyddskläder [in Swedish]
The evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of different types of work and protective clothing were determined from measurements made on human subjects and on a thermal manikin. Similar and comparable insulation values were obtained with the 2 methods. The insulation of clothing is influenced by body posture, movements, wind and moisture. During motion, insulation is reduced by 18-35% compared to when a person is seated. Protective suits generally have a high evaporative resistance, which increases heat stress. Some new waterproof fabrics have low evaporative resistance, which increases the wearer's performance ability and thermal comfort in bad weather conditions. New climate indices which account for the thermal properties of clothing, improve the possibilities to predict the thermal impact on humans of different climatic conditions. They also provide a guideline for the establishment of specifications for clothing for different climates and for the selection of adequate clothing for any given set of ambient conditions.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 62p. Illus. 79 ref.
Türk H.C., Klinker L.
The influence of meteorological environmental factors on accident frequency
Zum Einfluss der meteorologischen Umweltfaktoren auf die Unfallhäufigkeit [in German]
A total of 6,223 occupational accidents were investigated for possible meteorological influences; they were divided into accidents in closed rooms and accidents in the open air. The number of occupational accidents in the open air rises considerably in winter when temperatures are low, particularly on frosty days, and in summer when temperatures are high (over 20°C). In winter the number of accidents in closed rooms shows a clear increase when temperatures exceed the standard temperature. This may be caused by overheating on such warm days. Occupational accidents occurring in closed rooms and in the open air follow a cycle with two components.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Dec. 1986, Vol.32, No.12, p.704-707. Illus. 11 ref.
Industrial city in the desert
Account of a health protection programme for workers living in a newly created industrial city in Saudi Arabia. The planning of the health services for more than 50,000 workers (representing 55 nationalities) started on the basis of a study identifying the major health hazards involved in the industrial activities (petroleum refining, manufacture of petrochemical products, fertilisers and steel); these were fire and explosion hazards, heat stress, noise and chemical substances. The health services which are free of charge to the workers are briefly described.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Summer 1986, Vol.36, No.2, p.45-50. 5 ref.
Working abroad - A systematic guide for the occupational physician
Le travail ŕ l'étranger - Guide méthodologique pour le médecin du travail [in French]
The aim of this guide is to help the occupational physician who has to establish the fitness of French employees for working abroad, and to help the physician in the role of advisor to the enterprise and to the employee before and after the work assignment abroad. Information is given on how to establish the medical and administrative situation of the employee, on living and working conditions and health risks in the destination country (particularly if it is in the tropics), and on the appropriate organisations to contact for this information.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, May 1986. 64p.
Health effects of diesel exhaust: A case study in risk assessment
In this lecture, given at the 1985 ACGIH meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, the various aspects of risk assessment methodology are reviewed and evaluated in the case of diesel engine exhaust fumes. Aspects covered: hazard identification; role of epidemiological, in vitro and animal studies; exposure-dose response assessments; exposure assessment; risk characterisation. The total number of lung cancers expected per year in the USA, from exposure to diesel exhaust are estimated at about 200. In comparison, the expected annual total number of lung cancers from smoking is 100,000.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1986, Vol.47, No.1, p.1-13. Illus. 58 ref.
Hanzl J., Rössner P., Klemetová H.
Cytogenetic analysis of workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde
Cytogenetická analýza u pracovníků profesionálně exponovaných [in Czech]
In a wood processing plant 25 workers, exposed to formaldehyde when handling urea-formaldehyde binders, were subjected to repeated cytogenic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes. Formaldehyde concentrations in the workplace air ranged from 0.1 to 0.9mg/m3 and never exceeded the MAC. In the summer season of 1982 and 1983, the frequencies of aberrant cells were 1.48 and 1.95%, respectively (in controls 1.57%); in winter (1983 and 1984), they were 3.17 and 2.13%. These results indicate a greater genetic risk for workers in the winter months.
Československá hygiena, Sep. 1985, Vol.30, No.7/8, p.403-410. 25 ref.
Labour protection in the construction industry in the Far North
Ohrana truda v stroitel'stve na Severe [in Russian]
Main topics of this manual: labour legislation and special features of labour protection of workers engaged in construction in the Far North of the USSR; occupational health and housing construction workers; safety at building sites, (welding, structural steel work, insulation work, etc.), electrical safety, fire protection.
Izdatel'stvo Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja, 23 a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 206p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: Rbl.0.95.
Garas'ko E.V., Brodilo L.I., Zaripova E.P.
Effectiveness of vitamin supplements and ultraviolet irradiation on women operating sewing machines
Ėffektivnost' dopolnitel'noj vitaminizacii i ul'trafioletovogo oblučenija rabotnic švejnogo ceha [in Russian]
An erythaema dose of ultraviolet light (5.5 milliequivalent radium/m2) was administered to 95 women during the fall, winter and early spring (8h/day). Vitamin supplements were provided for 4 months (1 Dec.-31 Mar.). The vitamin dose was adjusted to take account of each subject's job. Clinical examination and tests showed that vitamin supplementation improved the overall state of health of the workers, decreased the fragility of capillaries in their skins and increased the light sensitivity of their visual analysers. The activity of their immune systems was also increased. However, hypovitaminosis was only reduced, not eliminated. It is recommended that vitamin supplementation be administered throughout the winter and spring (Dec.-May).
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1985, No.8, p.83-84. 8 ref.
Vasiljanskij N.P., Skljarov L.A., Kočerga V.N.
Protecting buildings against the entry of methane
Zaščita zdanij ot proniknovenija v nih metana [in Russian]
Measurements conducted during the construction of an industrial building on the site of a former peat bog showed that dangerous amounts of methane were being liberated by the ground. Protective measures proposed for preventing methane build-up in and around the building include: laying a gas-impermeable floor over a layer of gravel; putting openings in the floor that communicate with an exhaust system that discharges above the roof; ensuring that the ventilation system renews the air in the building at least once every hour; surround the building with gravel beds or ventilation channels and collecting pipes; monitor the methane and carbon monoxide levels in the collectors around the building before permitting people to enter and begin work.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1985, No.10, p.50-51.
Wang D. et al.
Studies on the optimum temperature of air conditioning in workplaces during the transition season
The subjective optimum temperature of air-conditioned hot workplaces during the transition season (April - May) in the Anshan area was found to be 21.8-23°C. Its lower and upper limits were 20.5°C and 24°C, respectively. The physiological optimum temperature was found to be 23-24°C. Its lower limit was 22°C and its upper limit was 26°C. Physiological optimum temperature might be taken as a scientific basis for establishing microclimate hygienic standards for air-conditioned hot workplaces during the transition season.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.3, p.136-138.
Konishi K., Komuro A., Itoh H., Kokubu K., Ninomiya Y., Murakami S., Mohri T., Tamura M.
Clinical and epidemiological study of 17 cases of farmer's lung disease
Clinical characteristics of 17 patients with farmer's lung disease were investigated. All patients were engaged in dairy farming and the average history of dairy labour was 12.6 years. The onset of symptoms was concentrated in winter when they fed stored hay to their cattle. Eleven patients had antibodies against Micropolyspora faeni and 8 had antibodies against Thermoactinomyces vulgaris (5 patients tested were positive for both organisms). Epidemiological studies concerning farmer's lung disease were investigated in the dairy farming population in the northern part of Iwate prefecture. The prevalence of antibodies to farmer's lung antigens was 3.5% and the most prevalent antibody type was against Micropolyspora faeni. Precipitin-positive farmers had greater numbers of cattle than did precipitin-negative farmers.
Japanese Journal of Thoracic Diseases, June 1985, Vol.23, No.6, p.679-690. Illus. 33 ref.
Wigaeus Hjelm E., Frisk C.
Physical strain on Vietnamese forest workers
The physical work capacity and the physical workload during forest work was studied in 10 Vietnamese who worked with the supply of wood to the pulp and paper mill in Bai Bang, a Swedish aid project. The workers' physical work capacity was relatively high. The forest work was very demanding due to physically heavy work, heat stress and loss of body fluid through sweating. The total workload could be reduced without decreased productivity by using more frequent but shorter resting periods and increased water intake. Supplying rubber boots and raincoats could also make it possible to increase the productivity by making it possible to do some work even on rainy days, constituting quite a number of days per year.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 13p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Swe.cr.25.00.
Dokter T., Brunink J.P., Eggelte H., Kramer Th.
Chlorine container experiment
Investigation of the effects of destroying a 1000kg chlorine cylinder lost at sea and residing at a depth of 25m. Experiments showed that the container could be destroyed safely by an explosive charge provided that a circular area around the source with a radius of about 10km be cleared of ships.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1985, Vol.12, No.1, p.11-26. Illus. 4 ref.
Seasonal formaldehyde concentrations in an office building
The objective of this investigation was to determine if there was a seasonal effect on formaldehyde emissions from wooden panelling and shelving in a one-story office building. The formaldehyde concentrations for warm weather were about twice as great as those in cold weather. The simultaneous use of impinger and passive dosimeter sampling showed the latter to be more effective for this type of work.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1985, Vol.46, No.2, p.65-68. Illus. 7 ref.
Seminar on coal mining safety
Presentations from the Seminar on Coal Mining Safety held 20-23 Nov. 1984 in Beijing, People's Republic of China, under the sponsorship of the Ministry of the Coal Industry, the Ministry of Labour and Personnel and the ILO. Each paper is printed in English and in Chinese. Topics: prevention of and protection against outbursts of coal and gas; monitoring of the underground environment; air cooling; safety training; fire prevention and extinction.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, no date. 103 + 292p. Illus.
Sköldström B., Holmér I.
Thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of different garments for forestry work
Värmeisolation och ångmotstånd hos olika typer av skogsarbetskläder [in Swedish]
Report of a test of two standard outfits with and without raincoats and two new prototype garments made of a new material, Gore-Tex. This new material is not permeable to liquid water, but it allows water vapour to pass through. Insulation was about the same for all suit combinations, but the vapour resistance was twice as large for standard garments with raincoat than for the other outfits. The Gore-Tex material had almost the same low water-vapour resistance as the standard suit, and can therefore be used over a wider temperature range than suits with raincoats.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 15p. Illus. 7 ref.
Effect of an artificial mountain climate on the development of pneumoconiosis and the adrenal catecholamine content in white rats
Vlijanie iskustvennogo gornogo klimata na razvitie pnevmokonioza i soderžanie kateholaminov v nadpočečnikah belyh krys [in Russian]
During the development of pneumoconiosis produced by the intratracheal administration of coal-mine dust to rats, the adrenal catecholamine levels of the animals undergo phased changes. Exposure to a combination of factors of the mountain climate (mild hyperbaric hypoxia, negative ionisation of the air, ultraviolet radiation) slows the process of fibrosis, stimulates elimination of dust from the lungs and normalises sympathetic adrenal function. This suggests that removal of affected workers to a mountain climate would be an effective method of prevention and treatment of pneumoconiosis.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1984, No.4, p.22-26. Illus. 26 ref.
Venkitaraman A.R., John T.J.
The epidemiology of varicella in staff and students of a hospital in the tropics
A 5-year epidemiological survey of the incidence of varicella (chickenpox) among staff and students (2874 persons in all) of a hospital in India revealed an annual rate of 0.72 cases per 100. The incidence was highest among 17-24 year old student nurses (3.22 cases per 100 per year). Most cases occurred during the cooler and more humid parts of the year. Complement-fixing antibodies to varicella-zoster virus were found in only 44 of 102 serum samples taken from student nurses, showing a much lower level of immunity to varicella than in the USA. A programme of preventive immunisation among hospital workers is recommended.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1984, Vol.13, No.4, p.502-505. Illus. 13 ref.
Earth-moving machinery - Falling-object protective structures - Laboratory tests and performance requirements
Engins de terrassement - Structures de protection contre les chutes d'objets - Essais de laboratoire et critčres de performance [in French]
This international standard is intended to provide operators with overhead protection from falling trees, rocks and other objects (dropped from a height corresponding to an energy of 11 600J = 8500ft.lb). After definition of the field of application and the terms used, the standard specifies the facilities and conditions of laboratory tests for measurement of structural characteristics as well as the requirements for the mechanical resistance of the structure. Provisions for labelling and reporting of the test results are appended.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 15 Apr. 1984. 8p. Illus. Price: SF.24.00.
Gertner A., Israeli R., Cassuto Y.
Water and electrolyte balance in workers exposed to a hot environment during their workshift
The study was conducted on 45 naturally heat-acclimatised workers having free access to water and performing light to moderate work in a warm environment at the metalworking shops of 2 plants located in the south of Israel. The average WBGT at the work area ranged from 24 to 29°C. Results of all the physiological tests performed on the workers indicated that the water and electrolyte balance can be maintained in workers who can choose their own work regimen.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1984, Vol.27, No.2, p.125-134. 32 ref.
Iron, copper and manganese metabolism in workers performing heavy physical work
Obmen železa, medi i marganca v organizme rabočih pri tjaželom fizičeskom trude [in Russian]
Examinations of 19 forging-shop workers showed that plasma iron levels were maximal in autumn and winter and minimal in spring and summer. The lowest levels of iron in the blood constituents were also found in the summer. Copper and manganese levels remained constant throughout the year. Iron in both blood fractions and copper in the plasma were lower after a work shift than before; manganese remained unchanged. Measurements of dietary intake and excretion of the 3 elements showed that the workers were in negative iron and manganese balance in winter and especially in summer. This probably reflects an excessive proportion of iron and manganese-poor vegetables in the diet and can be corrected by changes in, or suplements to, the diet.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1983, No.9, p.21-24. 8 ref.
Riggs C.E., Johnson D.J., Kilgour R.D., Konopka B.J.
Metabolic effects of facial cooling in exercise
Exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 50rpm was performed in 5 subjects for 1h at 60% maximal heart rate, with and without a cold wind (10°C, 6.5m/sec). Facial cooling resulted in significantly greater fat utilisation. After 5min the respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate concentration, oxygen consumption and estimated myocardial oxygen consumption were higher with facial cooling. The metabolic changes occurring with facial cooling are related to general thermoregulatory response. The stress of exercise is greater with facial cooling (corresponding to a situation in which workers in a cold environment wear protective clothing and have their faces exposed to a cold wind).
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1983, Vol.54, No.1, p.22-26. Illus. 23 ref.
Olenchock S.A., Mull J.C., Mentnech M.S., Lewis D.M., Bernstein R.S.
Changes in humoral immunologic parameters after exposure to volcanic ash
464 loggers occupationally exposed to volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount St. Helens were studied shortly after and one year after the eruption, together with a control group of non-exposed loggers. Complement components C3 and C4 were significantly lower at both examinations in the exposed loggers. Immunoglobulin and antinuclear antibody showed no difference. There was a marked decrease in serum IgG and an increase in IgA levels in the exposed loggers after one year of exposure. Exposure to volcanic ash may affect humoral immunologic parameters. Some of the changes may be related to the presence of free silica.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1983, Vol. 11, No.3, p.395-404. 16 ref.
Dixon S.W., Graepel G.J., Looney W.C.
Seasonal effects on concentrations of monomethylformamide in urine samples
Eleven workers participated in a special dimethylformamide metabolite (monomethylformamide (MMF)) urine monitoring study. Variables considered included MMF concentration and mass, urine specific gravity and volume, and ambient temperature.Statistical analysis revealed a 13% reduction in urine volume under hot weather conditions as a result of increased MMF concentrations. A subjective correction for this change in urine volume is suggested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1983, Vol.44, No.4, p.273-275. 9 ref.
Shiwaku K., Hirai K., Torii M., Tsuboi T.
Skin injuries caused by pesticides among farmers in a citrus fruit area
About 70% of farmers in a citrus fruit-growing area in the Ehime prefecture (Japan) had experienced contact dermatitis due to pesticides. Dithianone, maneb and manzeb were the pesticides which frequently caused skin lesions. The incidence rate of skin injuries caused by spraying pesticides was 0% in males and 3.8% in females in May, 8.2% in males and 13.0% in females in June, and increased to 26.0% in males and 50% in females in July.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, May 1983, Vol.32, No.1, p.22-28. 11 ref.
The report on the designation of coke oven emissions in Ontario
This report includes all the scientific, medical, epidemiological and information and as well as representations made by the concerned industries which were used as a basis for the preparation of an Ontario regulation on coke oven emissions.
Occupational Health and Safety Division, Ministry of Labour, 400 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, Feb. 1982. 290p. 28 ref. Illus. Appendices.
Temporary bracing for masonry walls
Illustrated guidebook on the techniques used for the safe bracing of masonry walls. Aspects covered: factors related to wind effects (location, shelter, elevation, weather information), bracing methods (compression braces, double-acting brace, tension bracing), soil conditions, general precautions, responsibilities.
Construction Safety Association of Ontario, 74 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C 2A5, 1982. 14p. Illus.
(Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda)
Deposited manuscripts (Labour protection)
Deponirovannye rukopisi (Ohrana truda) [in Russian]
The 2nd edition of an annual guide to manuscript studies on various aspects of occupational safety and health. The 11 cited papers cover: personal protective equipment and protective clothing, work under Central Asian conditions, the cotton industry, safety propaganda, work organisation and turnover in relation to safety and health.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda, Vsesojuznyj Central'nyj Sovet Professional'nyh Sojuzov, Obolenskij per. 10, 119021 Moskva, USSR, 1982. 9p. Price: Rbl.0.10.
Koščeev V.S., Makarov V.I., Bavro G.V.
Possibility of maintaining the temperature and work capacity of the extremities
O vozmožnosti podderžanija temperatury i rabotosposobnosti konečnostej [in Russian]
A water-heated suit that did not reach the wrists was capable of maintaining the skin temperature of the wrists and the dexterity of the hands at ambient temperatures of -25 and -45°C when water of 42-43°C was circulated through the suit; the hands and wrists were protected only by thin gloves. The system tested is far more effective than insulating clothing in enabling a worker to perform fine tasks in arctic environments.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1982, No.2, p.24-26. 6 ref.
Shiomi S., Miyashita K., Kasamatsu T., Iwata H., Ichimiya G.
A basic study on the change of the hand skin temperature by a thermograph to general cooling under seasonal conditions
The hands of 9 healthy subjects, age range 23-31 years, and of 3 vibrating tool operators with Raynaud's phenomenon, aged 44, 54 and 64 years, were exposed to air at 13-15°C for 60min in 4 seasons. Skin temperature prior to exposure was higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. During exposure to cold in summer and autumn the hand temperatures decreased more than in winter and spring. The difference in skin temperature changes between the control subjects and the vibrating tool operators indicated that measurements of skin temperature in winter and spring were the best means of evaluating the peripheral circulatory function.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 30 June 1982, Vol.37, No.2, p.542-548. Illus. 13 ref.
Tufto P.Ĺ., Willeke K.
Dependence of particulate sampling efficiency on inlet orientation and flow velocities
This dependence was studied with a thin-walled inlet tube at wind velocities of 250-1,000cm/s and angles for the inlet orientation relative to wind direction of 0-90°. Differences in sampling efficiency were found for particles >10µm in diameter when the aerosol was sampled 15° upward vs. 15° downward from the horizontal. For angles of 30-90° sampling efficiency was approximately a function of the Stokes number, with velocity ratio as a parameter. About half or more of the particle deposition in the inlet occurred within the first cm of the 20cm-long inlet tube.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1982, Vol.43, No.6, p.436-443. Illus. 36 ref.
Castranova V., Bowman L., Shreve J.M., Jones G.S., Miles P.R.
Volcanic ash: toxicity to isolated lung cells
The toxicity of ash from the Mount St. Helens eruption, of 18 May 1980, was estimated by monitoring the effects of in-vitro and in-vivo exposure on various physiological parameters of lung cells. The ash had little effect on oxygen consumption of rabbit type II pneumocytes, oxygen consumption or superoxide release of resting rat alveolar macrophages, or membrane integrity of rat alveolar macrophages. No significant lipid peroxidation in lung microsomes was found. The ash did inhibit superoxide anion release from zymosan-stimulated macrophages and may adversely affect the ability of these to protect the lung from infection. The findings are significant for workers exposed to ash during reclamation or logging of affected areas.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.9, No.2, p.317-325. Illus. 24 ref.
Janko M., Carlson P., Ellis K.
Analytical methods applied to Portland, Oregon, volcanic ash analysis
In order to evaluate the possible exposure to free silica of crews cleaning up volcanic ash deposited by the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, the free silica content of the respirable dust portion of the ash was determined. Ash samples were pre-treated with phosphoric acid to remove silicate interferences and were analysed by x-ray diffraction for crystalline silicas. The residue after acid treatment was examined using optical methods, and the total crystalline free silica content was determined by the Talvitie colorimetric method. The colorimetric method was applied to occupational exposure samples of Portland-area maintenance personnel. Respirable dust exposure after 2 of the eruptions was in the range 0.02-0.48 and 0.03-0.36mg/m3, and the total crystalline silica content of the respirable dust fractions was 4.58-6.64%. Clean-up crews wore approved respirators. The combination of low-level exposure and respiratory protection reduced the possibility of silica-induced health problems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1982, Vol.43, No.2, p.128-132. Illus. 15 ref.
Effect of atmospheric conditions on microclimate and carbon monoxide concentrations in foundries
Vliv atmosférických podmínek na mikroklima a koncentrace kysličníku uhelnatého ve slévárně [in Czech]
Measurement of atmospheric CO concentrations and microclimatic conditions in a modern foundry showed that the mean CO concentration for the whole shift significantly exceeded the maximum allowable concentration. During the warm season, the climatic conditions deteriorate, and the CO concentrations are 4 times higher than the threshold level, increasing on average 50-100% in comparison with the transient period - depending on the atmospheric conditions. It is proposed that the natural ventilation should be supplemented by local exhaust ventilation at the pollution source, and ventilation apertures should be provided to ensure a fresh-air supply to the areas of the foundry distant from the exterior walls. The dynamics of CO concentration fluctuations justify the requirement that measurements be taken regularly for at least 5h per shift.
Pracovní lékařství, Oct. 1981. Vol.33, No.9, p.323-325.
Detection and prevention of rockburst hazards
Erkennen und Bekämpfen von Gebirgsschlaggefahren [in German]
Introductory survey of the state of the art and conditions preceding the occurrence of rockbursts. There are still a great many unresolved questions, but some methods for detection and prevention of these occurrences have been successful in practice. Among the principal methods of detection, this article describes methods of sounding rock by drilling and seismic acoustics. Three techniques for relieving tension have proved efficacious: relief drilling, relief blasting and water infusion; but confirmation of the efficacy of relieving methods is still required. Future prospects of improving these methods.
Glückauf, 5 Feb. 1981, Vol.117, No.3, p.153-158. Illus. 19 ref.
Dedenko I.I., Ustjušin B.V., Lytkin B.G.
Physiological evaluation of the health status of Norilsk mineworkers
Fiziologičeskaja ocenka sostojanija organizma gornorabočih Noril'ska [in Russian]
A study of the basal metabolism with regard to the thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and respiratory systems in mineworkers in the Extreme North of the USSR showed that heat production increased and heat loss through the skin decreased during the winter months. Hyperventilation involving hyperactivity of the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation was also observed in winter. In the summer months no such changes were observed.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1980, No.12, p.20-22. Illus. 8 ref.
Dedenko I.I., Lytkin B.G., Ustjušin B.V.
The cardio-respiratory system in ore miners working at great depth beyond the Arctic Circle
Funkcional'noje sostojanie kardiorespiratornoj sistemy u gornorabočih glubokih rudnikov Zapoljar'ja [in Russian]
Data obtained from tests to which 7 miners had been subjected: ECG and rheopulmonogram changes, energy metabolism, arterial pressure, lung capacity and respiration, analysis of alveolar air, gas exchange and energy expenditure. Changes were found in pulmonary circulation, indicating increased tension of the pulmonary vessels, hyperfunction of the right heart and probable hypervolaemia in the pulmonary circulation. Workers' respiration is increased and aggravates the load on the right heart and stress in the pulmonary circulation, which is more pronounced in winter. This excess pulmonary activity is probably caused by microclimatic and other conditions in deep mineworkings, and also reflects the workers' adaptation to the climate.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, 1980, No.8, p.26-29.
Afnas'eva R.F., Širaj G.T., Pal'janova S.G., Rodionov A.F.
Special clothing to protect miners against hyperthermia when crossing hot water courses
Specodežda dlja zaščity šahterov ot peregrevanija pri peresečenii vysokotemperaturnyh vodonosnyh gorizontov [in Russian]
Laboratory and field studies led to design of protective clothing permitting miners undertaking advance work in water-bearing strata at temperatures of 52-55°C to keep their body temperature within normal limits. The cotton trousers of the outfit are traversed by a network of PVC tubes in which externally supplied cold water is circulated, and covered by watertight overalls.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.37-41. Illus. 4 ref.
Terho E.O., Lammi S., Heinonen O.P.
Seasonal variation in the incidence of farmer's lung.
78 consecutive cases were studied statistically. There was a highly significant cyclic trend, with the greatest incidence falling in late April. The reasons for the seasonal variation appear to be the nature of the disease, climatic conditions, and cattle-raising methods.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1980, Vol.9, No.3, p.219-220. 8 ref.
Buhanec B.N., Gavrilenko P.F., Delgin B.M., Zlačevskij A.E.
Early detection of rock bursts
Svoevremennoe obnaruženie vnezapnogo vybrosa [in Russian]
The method, which is briefly described, relies on measurement of pressure pulses accompanying the shock wave and the use of a sensor to pick them up. Pulses caused by rockbursts and shotfiring operations were analysed and their characteristics (duration, amplitude, frequency) determined, permitting development of a transducer sensor which is not triggered by shock waves due to shotfiring in the neighbouring rock. The occurrence of suspicious pulses activates an alarm system.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.27-28. Illus.
Krasnopevcev V.M., Timonov M.A., Ševyreva N.A., Kagirov V.N., Hristenko P.P., Maksimenko R.G., D'jačenko M.F., Zubakova G.S.
Nutritional problems and metabolic indices in copper miners in the Far North
Voprosy pitanija i nekotorye pokazateli obmena veščestv u rabočih mednogo proizvodstva v uslovijah Krajnego Severa [in Russian]
Study of nutrition, health status and principal metabolic indices in 147 workers (some of whom drank fluorinated water) and controls also exposed to arctic climate. The copper miners did not show any disturbances in protein and fat metabolism; however, they suffered from vitamin deficiency, especially vitamin B1. Prolonged use of fluorinated drinking water increased resistance not only to dental caries, but also to harmful factors in the working environment.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.22-24.
Ljungkvist G., Lundkvist R.
Removal of snow to reduce chain saw exhaust gas exposure
Välformad snögrop minskar avgasproblem [in Swedish]
The CO concentration during felling of a tree (60s) by chain saw in pits (1.5 x 1.5m) dug in the snow to various depths was 112ppm CO at a depth of 0.3m (15ppm in the absence of snow). The configuration of the pit dug around the tree plays a role in evacuation of exhaust gases.
Arbetsmiljö, 5 Mar. 1980, No.3, p.49. Illus.
Model calculations on the influence of wind on the suction coefficients of dust particles for two sampling heads
Modellrechnungen über den Einfluss des Windes auf die Einsaugungskoeffizienten von Staubteilchen für zwei verschiedene Probenahmeköpfe [in German]
For sampling of total respirable dust, the sampling head must be of simple design and symmetrical about the axis of rotation in order to eliminate the influence of wind direction. Airflow models are described for vertical and horizontal elutriators. Characteristics are given for calm air and wind, and the trajectory of the particles is calculated to determine the intake characteristics of the elutriators. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows a divergence in the relation between separation coefficient and wind speed. The possible causes of this are examined.
Staub, Oct. 1979, Vol.39, No.10, p.349-356. Illus. 5 ref.
Prevention of rockbursts
Verhütung von Gebirgsschlaggefahren [in German]
A review of the conditions conducive to rockbursts in coal mines is followed by a description of the possibilities of detecting and preventing them: seismic method, test boring, relief hole boring, relief water infusion, relief shotfiring. The most effective techniques are test boring and relief hole boring.
Bergbau, Oct. 1979, Vol.30, No.10, p.593-596. Illus. 7 ref.
The effects of cold: Frostbite and hypothermia.
Literature survey. The main factors causing frostbite and hypothermia are humidity, high winds, contact with wetness (most serious) or metal, inadequate clothing, age and general health. Symptoms of overexposure and effects on the body are listed. Methods of prevention, the formula for calculating the amount of insulating clothing required at any temperature and the recommended clothing are described. Air temperature, wind velocity and metabolism are the data needed to evaluate exposure time limits and clothing needed under given conditions. The metabolic rates at different activity levels are tabulated.
Professional Safety, Feb. 1979, Vol.24, No.2, p.15-18. Illus. 14 ref.
Wianecki J., Adenot A.
Improved wind stability of prefabricated formwork
Pour une meilleure stabilisation des banches au vent. [in French]
This technical study is in 4 parts: effects of wind on formwork (drag, boundry layer, turbulence zone); limits of application to shuttering of the coefficient of drag of the French "snow and wind" rules; wind tunnel tests (likelihood of over- or underestimating the drag coefficient); calculation of wind effects (formulae).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1979, No.2, p.60-80. Illus.
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