Natural phenomena - 188 entries found
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Musson R.M.W., et al.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
UK Continental Shelf seismic hazard
This report describes a study to assess the seismic hazard on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. A unified catalogue of earthquakes in the study area was prepared, along with a seismic source zoning map and seismic hazard contour maps. Secondary hazards caused by earthquakes, such as slope failure and loss of soil strength, were also reviewed. The hazard maps show a wide range of seismic hazard in offshore waters; areas with above average seismic hazard are identified. The report includes an abbreviated version of the earthquake catalogue and seismic activity maps.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. vii, 101p. Illus. 95 ref. Price: GBP 35.00.
Topics: bites; drowning; heat exhaustion; outdoor work; poisonous plants; solar radiation; summer; training material; USA; videotape.
Tel-A-Train, 309 North Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1996. Videotape (length 10min). Price: USD 295.00.
Gas - The Gas Safety (Rights of Entry) Regulations 1996 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (entry into force: 1 Nov. 1997) confer right of entry upon "public gas transporters" and "relevant authorities" to enter premises for the purpose of preventing gas escapes, examining and disconnecting "gas fittings" and related purposes.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1996. 6p. Price: GBP 1.55.
The global effects of volcanic eruptions on human health and agriculture: A review
Effects of volcanic hazards are reviewed by first considering the direct human health effects of each of the physical phenomena produced by volcanoes and then by considering their broader secondary consequences. Hazards include: production of tephra (rock fragments, dust and ash), volcanic gas, volcanic blasts and atmospheric shock waves, lahars or mudflows, pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, lava flows, floods and earthquakes. Agricultural workers are especially vulnerable to the effects of eruptions, in particular exposure to airborne and deposited volcanic ash and dust.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.2, p.31-43. 46 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Analysis of NESS wind data
This report describes the analysis of wind speeds around the United Kingdom based on data from the North European Storm Study (NESS). A contour map of 50-year return period values of hourly-mean wind speeds was produced for comparison with indicative values published in the HSE's guidance document, Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design, Construction and Certification. The methodology of the analysis is described along with validation of the results and the consequences for wave height assessment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. vi, 81p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Wilks J., Walker S., Wood M., Nicol J., Oldenburg B.
Working in paradise: Health services provided for staff at island tourist resorts
Report on a study of 1123 staff visits to health clinics at three tropical island resorts off the coast of Queensland (Australia) during the period Jan.-June 1994. Medical conditions (mostly respiratory, digestive, skin and nervous system complaints) accounted for 81% of the visits, with injuries (mostly lacerations, sprains and animal bites and stings) accounting for the other 19%. Administration of first aid and medication, with or without telephone consultation of a medical practitioner on the mainland, was sufficient treatment in most cases: only seven patients had to be evacuated to the mainland for medical reasons. The unique needs of staff in remote locations and the critical role of the resident nurse are stressed. The ICD-9-CM coding system was used uniformly for the analysis of the injuries and medical conditions.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1996, Vol.12, No.1, p.41-48. Illus. 20 ref.
Gilli G., et al.
Chemical and microbiological contamination in a confined environment: Evaluation of occupational exposure under conditions of fluctuating physical parameters, seasonal conditions and external flows
Contaminazione chimica e microbiologica in ambiente confinato: misure dell'esposizione professionale al variare di parametri fisici, condizioni stagionali e flussi dall'estero [in Italian]
The purpose of this research was to discover to what extent different environmental parameters affected the effects of exposure of office workers to various chemical and microbiological agents. The chemicals investigated included aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyls. The microbiological agents included bacteria and fungi. The environmental parameters considered included parts of the daily, weekly and annual work cycle, the presence of tobacco smoke and microclimate. Overall, changing environmental parameters had little effect on exposure, though the need for improved ventilation in winter months is shown by the results of the study and in areas subject to the passing through of many people there was a marked fluctuation in the concentration of certain chemical substances and microorganisms.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sept. 1995, Vol.7, No.3, p.77-104. Illus.
Di Giovanni D., Lo Piparo G.B., Mazzetti C.
Methods to evaluate the probability of atmospheric lightning strikes
Metodi di valutazione della probabilitŕ di fulminazione atmosferica [in Italian]
This article describes different models to calculate the frequency with which lightning is likely to strike a given structure. The effectiveness of protection systems is also considered. Through the analysis of the different models their reliability is confirmed as far as possible through a comparison with experimentally obtained results. Due to the complex nature of the phenomenon of lightning and also the interaction processes between lightning and the structures, these problems can be dealt with only in terms of probability.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-June 1995, Vol.7, No.1-2, p.95-121. Illus. 32 ref.
Characterization of gas mixing in an exhaust stack
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.788-793. Illus. 4 ref. ###
Handbook of material weathering
Contents of this manual: photophysics - energy absorption, dissipation and conversion; photochemistry; environmental conditions; climatic conditions; artificial weathering equipment; measurements in assessment of weathering conditions; sample preparation for weathering studies; natural weathering conditions; typical weathering cycles; artificial weathering versus natural exposure; important variables of weathering; colour fading in textile materials; methods of weathered specimen evaluation; data on specific polymers; effect of polymer morphology on photodegradation kinetics; effect of additives on weathering; weathering of compounded products; stabilization and stabilizers; biodegradation.
ChemTec Publishing, 38 Earswick Drive, Toronto-Scarborough, Ontario M1E 1C6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1995. x, 564p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 175.00.
Rew P.J., Gallagher P., Deaves D.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Dispersion of subsea releases - Review of prediction methodologies
This report presents a review of methods used for the modelling of subsea gas releases and assesses the implications of using the modelling within a risk assessment. While simple empirical approximations tend to be used in risk assessment, computer modelling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used in a research context. Lack of full-scale data has meant that the models have not been validated for high release rates common for blowouts or the rupture of subsea pipelines. In general, the assumptions commonly used in modelling the effects of subsea gas releases lead to conservative estimates of risk.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 59p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Hazardous substances on spillage
This report concerns the incorporation of source term effects into atmospheric dispersion modelling. These effects are directly related to the release characteristics and include: initial momentum of the release and how it is dissipated; for liquid releases, how the spreading and evaporation of the pool affects the generation of vapour and subsequent dilution in the atmosphere; for two-phase releases, the initial flash expansion process. These effects are described and the interfacing between source terms and dispersion modelling is discussed. Currently available computer codes are also described.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, Warwickshire, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 60p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Cold weather worker's safety guide
Safety guide useful for the training of workers for outdoor work in cold weather. Contents: elements of on-the-job safety; safety inspections, accident investigation and reporting, first aid; cold weather safety - hazards due to cold, measurement of cold (including wind chill factors), dressing warmly, maintenance of cold-weather clothing, working safely on snow and ice, ice safety on frozen bodies of water, vital signs of cold injury (including prevention and treatment of frostbite, hypothermia, trench foot, white finger and carpal tunnel syndrome); cold-weather work in remote areas; general safety in outdoor work (electric safety, ladders, chain saws, compact loaders, snow throwers, shovelling and digging, manual material handling, truck start up, infectious waste); safety guidelines for the work environment; personal protective equipment; OSH legislation in Canada.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ont. L8N 1H6, Canada, 1995. 104p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (+ GST) in Canada; USD 10.00 (elsewhere).
Health and Safety Executive
A review of the manufacture, uses, incidents and hazard models for hydrogen fluoride
The nature and scale of the manufacture and use of hydrogen fluoride (HF) within the European Union are reviewed and incidents involving HF worldwide are identified. Techniques for modelling the release, thermodynamics, dispersion and mitigation of accidental HF releases are summarized. The report shows that there are major hazards associated with the manufacture, storage, transport and use of HF in industry. There are currently considerable uncertainties in modelling the dispersion of HF in high humidity conditions typical of North West Europe which may have important implications for land-use planning and future decision making concerning HF installations.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 157p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 35.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Wind loading on temporary structures
Proceedings of a conference on wind loading on temporary structures held in Harpur Hill, Buxton, United Kingdom, 26 May 1994. Papers cover: potential for reducing accidents by cladding scaffolds; history of wind damage in the UK; current UK and German practice in cladding scaffolds; commercial advantages of cladding scaffolds; revised code of practice for wind loads (BS 6399: Part 2); structural design of fabric structures to resist wind loading; studies of wind loading on lightweight structures; model experiments on covered scaffolding in a wind tunnel; research on effects of wind loading on clad scaffold structures; design of flexible clad temporary structures.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iii, 156p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Tóth J., Lakatos J.
A thermodynamic model for coal gas outbursts
A thermodynamic model for coal-methane outbursts is described based on laboratory modelling of results of gas/coal outbursts and sorption properties of gas/coal systems. The basic idea of the model is that a potential barrier exists between two equilibria in coal/gas systems; when this barrier is crossed, a considerable amount of energy is released. Development of protection processes requires exact and continuous measuring of the potential barrier and determination of its distribution. An instrument for such measurement is under development.
Mining Engineer, June 1994, Vol.153, No.393, p.359-361. Illus. 4 ref.
Protection of structures against lightning. Part 1: General principles. Section 1: Guide A - Selection of protection levels for lightning protection systems
Protection des structures contre la foudre. Partie 1: Principes généraux. Section 1: Guide A: Choix des niveaux de protection pour les installations de protection contre la foudre [in French]
This international standard concerns the protection of structures against lightning. The fist part specifies the general principles: selection of protection levels for lightning protection systems. Contents: general; classification of structures; lightning parameters; selection of protection levels for Lightning Protection Systems (LPS). Figures and annex.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Aug. 1993. 43p. Illus.
Kukkonen J., Savolainen A.L., Valkama I., Juntto S., Vesala T.
Long-range transport of ammonia released in a major chemical accident at Ionava, Lithuania
An estimate is made of the atmospheric dispersion of ammonia released in a major chemical accident in Lithuania in 1989. Emphasis is placed on possible long-range effects. The computations were made using trajectory and dispersion models based on gradient-transfer diffusion theory and using actual meteorological data. The computer concentrations were compared with available observations obtained from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme stations. Results indicate that most of the ammonia escaped the monitoring stations in Finland.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.1-16. Illus. 22 ref.
Henneberger P.K., Ferris B.G., Sheehe P.R.
Accidental gassing incidents and the pulmonary function of pulp mill workers
A previous investigation of workers in pulping operations identified decrements in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). A subset of those data (230 workers) were reanalyzed to consider accidental exposure to high levels of irritant gases, such as chlorine (CL2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2). Gassing events were more common among pulp mill workers (34%) than workers in other parts of the company (9%). Average changes of -291.9mL in FEV1 (p<0.05) and -5.00% in FEV1/FVC (p<0.05) were associated with gassing. Also, in each of the regression models for the three measures of pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC), there was a three-way interaction of cumulative smoking, cumulative pulp mill exposure, and gassing. The greatest decreases in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC associated with gassing were evident in the dual smoking/pulp mill exposure categories of none/high and high/none. Changes in pulmonary function persisted after cessation of exposure.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.63-67. 12 ref.
Tochihara Y., Ohnaka T., Nagai Y., Muramatsu T.
Survey of physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer
Kaki ni okeru asubesuto bōgo fuku chakuyō sagyō no rōdō futan ni kansuru chōsa kenkyū [in Japanese]
Asbestos abatement projects in schools are planned during summer vacation. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing. Physiological strains in 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatement work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. The workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoe covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6°C and 28.8°C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was the result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces with vinyl sheets, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working periods were 46 and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were 217-605g/h. These values were greater than estimated values for similar work done wearing light clothing. Heart rates did not exceed 150 beats/min where the temperature was 25°C-27°C, but where the temperature was 28°C-29°C one worker's heart rate increased to 170 beats/min. During this work (136 minutes), rectal temperature increased 2.3°C; body weight loss was 1,300g. There is a high risk of suffering from heat illness in asbestos abatement work during the summer.
Annals of Physiological Anthropology, 1 Jan. 1993, Vol.12, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Occupational safety and health on waste disposal sites - Hazards and pollution by gas emissions
Arbeitsschutz an Deponien - Gefährdungen und Belastungen durch Deponiegas [in German]
Anaerobic decomposition of the organic components in waste produces a gas which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and methane. It also contains traces of harmful substances such as dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, benzene and vinyl chloride. A design of outgassing facilities which prevents explosions and health hazards is outlined.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1993, Vol.105, No.9, p.614-616, 618-619. Illus. 4 ref.
Surviving the elements - Outdoor workers' safety
The hazards associated with work in Australia's extreme climatic conditions are examined along with an outline of the legal responsibilities of employers and safety precautions. Government guidelines have established a clear recognition of the hazards of solar radiation and the risk of skin cancer and the precautions necessary. While no specific regulations exist with regard to climatic heat, an employer's basic obligations are usually encapsulated under relevant state occupational safety and health legislation. Policies adopted for both hot and cold conditions should be based on common sense and education of personnel along with proper protective equipment.
Australian Safety News, Dec. 1993, Vol.64, No.11, p.28-39. Illus. 14 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
The prevention of inrushes in mines
This approved Code of Practice gives practical guidance with respect to two sets of Regulations: the Mines (Precautions against Inrushes) Regulations 1979 (the legal framework; risk assessment; duties of the owner, manager and surveyor; procedures and schemes of work to prevent inrushes); and Parts II and VI of the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993 (general duties of the owner of the mine; appointment and duties of surveyors; working plans, ventilation plans and geological map; facilities and information to be given to the surveyor; plans relating to abandoned mines or discontinued seams and vein-systems; faulty plans).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. vi, 32p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Release of chemicals from International Biosynthetics Ltd.
Report of the investigation by the British Health and Safety Executive into the chemical emission from International Biosynthetics Ltd. on 7 Dec. 1991. During a process involving a reaction between phosgene and dimethylaniline, an unexpected chemical reaction led to over-pressurisation of the reactor and consequent failure of an inlet connection in a condenser. Some 3.5 tonnes of chemicals were emitted and the vapour cloud was blown 4km, affecting about 60 people. A prosecution was made under the Health and Safety at Work Act and recommendations were made for a number of improvements in the company's arrangements, including emergency organisation.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 15p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.
Takala E.P., Viikari-Juntura E., Moneta G.B., Saarenmaa K., Kaivanto K.
Seasonal variation in neck and shoulder symptoms
A postal survey was conducted among 351 female bank tellers doing light sedentary work (age 20-50 years) in September 1988, with follow-up surveys conducted in following December, March, and May, to study the course of neck and shoulder symptoms and the predictors for theses symptoms. The outcome was the frequency of the symptoms during the previous three months. In the analysis, univariate explorations and random-effects logistic binomial regression for distinguishable responses were used. A change in the frequency of neck and shoulder symptoms was seen in 40.5% of the subjects during the follow-up period from autumn to spring. The frequency of the symptoms decreased from autumn and winter towards spring. The stability of the symptoms was positively associated with age. Seasonal variation in symptoms should be considered when preventive programmes against neck and shoulder disorders are planned and evaluated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1992, Vol.18, No.4, p.257-261. Illus. 28 ref.
Jones M.E., Leddra M.J., Goldsmith A.S., Edwards D.
Health and Safety Executive
The geomechanical characteristics of reservoirs and reservoir rocks
This report discusses the mechanical behaviour of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks from theoretical, experimental and practical standpoints. The in situ stress and deformation states existing in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the details of how these can be altered during hydrocarbon production are discussed. Data on rock reservoir deformations is necessary in assessing the probability of a deformation problem occurring, estimating its cost and the impact of any safety and environmental implications. A knowledge of the geomechanics of the reservoir rock may influence the design of the hydrocarbon production strategy.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 202p. Illus. 100 ref. Price: GBP 40.00.
Mwaniki D.L., Guthua S.W.
Occupational exposure to glutaraldehyde in tropical climates
This letter reports cases of adverse reactions to glutaraldehyde fumes among workers in an outpatient clinic in Nairobi (Kenya). The glutaraldehyde, used for instrument decontamination and housekeeping, was left in an open vessel in locations with limited ventilation. The reactions probably corresponded to development of hypersensitivity to glutaraldehyde. There is a need for manufacturers to provide precautionary information on the volatile nature of glutaraldehyde, especially in warm climates, and the possible toxicity of its fumes.
Lancet, 12 Dec. 1992, Vol.340, No.8833, p.1476-1477. 8 ref.
Steel Construction Institute
Gas/vapour build up on offshore structures
This report is one of a series concerning blast loading on offshore structures. Information relevant to the prediction of gas or vapour build-up in offshore structures is summarised and reviewed. This includes data on the natural or forced ventilation flows in a module during normal operation and on the flow field set up by the release itself. The limited amount of information available on how these motions are likely to interact is also examined. A summary of the current state of knowledge is given along with current uncertainties.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 56p. Illus. 65 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Robinson R.W., Hamilton J.
Health and Safety Executive
A criterion for assessing wind induced crossflow vortex vibrations in wind sensitive structures
The current state of the art for assessing the sensitivity of offshore structures to wind induced vortex vibrations is reviewed. Data are presented indicating that the level of structural damping decreases for slender tubulars and appropriate damping values are proposed. Based on these assumptions, a screening method is proposed for tubulars and a methodology presented for assessing the maximum stresses and the fatigue life. This document supersedes the original report OTO 88 021.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iv, 48p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Steel Construction Institute
The prediction of single and two-phase release rates
This report is one of a series addressing general issues relevant to blast and fire engineering for offshore structures. Information relevant to the prediction of the rate of release of material from vessels or pipework on offshore structures is summarised and reviewed. The survey considers releases through holes or punctures with a diameter of up to 100mm in pipework or vessels containing pressurised gases or liquids. Particular attention is given to the nature of the likely flows and the uncertainties involved in predicting two-phase flows.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 61p. 54 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Johnson A.T., Grove C.M., Weiss R.A.
Respirator performance rating tables for nontemperate environments
Respirator performance rating tables have been constructed for hot, humid (29°C, 95% RH); hot, dry (49°C, 30% RH); and cold, dry (-32°C, 70% RH) conditions. These tables convey expected wearer performance percentages compared to unmasked workers for various mask elements and work rates. The hot, humid condition was found to be the most severe overall. Many table entries approach 100%, thus leading to difficulties in correcting mask deficiencies.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.548-555. Illus. 9 ref.
Glickman T.S., Golding D., Silverman E.D.
Acts of God and acts of man - Recent trends in natural disasters and major industrial accidents
Trends and patterns in natural disasters and major industrial accidents are examined both worldwide and in the US. Data are taken from a new database developed at Resources for the Future which covers the years 1945-1989 for the US and 1945-1986 for the world. The database development process is discussed in the appendix which includes a summary table listing all events in the database with month and year of disaster, country or region, type of disaster, and reported deaths. Results of the analysis showed that there is a need for more complete and consistent information on how and why such events occur.
Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street, N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, USA, May 1992. 65p. Illus. 45 ref.
Papazoglou I.A., Christou M., Nivolianitou Z., Aneziris O.
On the management of severe chemical accidents - DECARA: a computer code for consequence analysis in chemical installations - Case study: ammonia plant
A computer programme (DECARA) for assessment of the risk of accidental releases of hazardous substances is presented. DECARA provides an integrated risk analysis including source-term strength evaluation, estimation of the hazardous cloud dispersion and quantification of health impacts. Multiple accidents, each with a certain probability of occurrence can be handled and dispersion of heavier, as well as lighter-than-air gases, released instantaneously or continuously, can be simulated. The programme is described with reference to the probabilistic safety analysis of an ammonia storage plant. The programme is available for personal computers.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1992, Vol.31, No.2, p.135-153. Illus. 19 ref.
Pin N.T., Ling N.Y., Siang L.H.
Dehydration from outdoor work and urinary stones in a tropical environment
A questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary stone disease among 406 male workers in several occupations in Singapore: quarry drilling and crusher workers, quarry truck and loader drivers, postal delivery men and hospital maintenance workers. The prevalence of urinary stone disease was found to be 5 times higher in outdoor workers compared to indoor workers, and contrary to expectation, no increased risk of urolithiasis was apparent in physically inactive workers. Chronic dehydration is likely to be the most important factor for increased risk of urolithiasis in outdoor workers in the tropics, and should be easily prevented by increased water intake.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.42, No.1, p.30-32. 9 ref.
Brockhoff L., Styhr Petersen H.J., Haastrup P.
A consequence model for chlorine and ammonia based on a fatality index approach
A simple consequence model for chlorine and ammonia is proposed based on the concept of fatality indices, i.e. that a given release amount will on average result in the same number of fatalities. The model uses actual data from accidents involving the two chemicals. Consequences were estimated for three different population density classes: rural, semi-urban (industrial), and urban. Results are presented as curves showing the frequency of getting a certain number of fatalities. The curves show that the fatality index model gives results closer to actual observations than do traditional models and its use is therefore recommended for public policy-related risk assessments.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol.29, No.3, p.405-425. Illus. 10 ref.
Alexeeff G., Lewis D., Lipsett M.
Use of toxicity information in risk assessment for accidental releases of toxic gases
One of the factors involved in emergency planning to avert or manage toxic gas releases is consideration of "acceptable" levels for a once-in-a-lifetime exposure. Currently available sources of such values are discussed and it is seen that these can vary by 100-fold or more. It is considered that the lack of generally acceptable acute exposure levels or of standard procedures to calculate such levels encourages arbitrariness in emergency planning. It is concluded that development of toxicity values could be substantially improved with more experimental data on non-lethal end points and with explicity accounting for sensitive populations.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol.29, No.3, p.387-403. Illus. 40 ref.
This training manual concerns winter hazards and their prevention in coal mines. Section A deals with hazards in underground mines: fires and explosions; roof and ground control; frozen and stiff equipment controls; ice build-up in shafts and slops; frozen water pumps. Section B deals with surface mining hazards in winter: effect of bad weather and cold temperatures on soil stability; explosives and blasting hazards; equipment hazards; electrical hazards; welding hazards. Glossary.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1991. 64p. Illus. 7 ref.
Development of calibration techniques for HDRK's loose rock detection system
Current methods for loose rock detection are reviewed and calibration techniques used for the HDRK Mining Research Limited loose rock sensing and assessment device are described. Results from sample surveying are discussed which illustrate the inconsistency of loose rock interpretation by individuals using the traditional hand-held scaling bar technique. The resultant effect of inconsistent objective assessment on mine safety is also discussed.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1991. 18p. Illus. 10 ref.
Futatsuka M., Inaoka T., Ohtsuka R., Moji K., Sakurai T.
A preliminary study on the function tests of the vibration syndrome in tropical rain forest workers
In a study of working situations and health hazards among tropical rain forest workers in Papua New Guinea, peripheral circulatory and sensory tests were used to investigate vibration syndrome due to chain saw operation. Among the 61 workers tested, including 16 chain saw operators, no clear evidence was found of harmful effects related to hand-arm vibration, although there was a possibility of subclinical dysfunction of peripheral circulation and peripheral neuropathies among chain saw operators. Results suggest that the reactiveness of peripheral circulation is closely related to exposure to hand-arm vibration.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1991, Vol.20, No.1, p.95-99. 8 ref.
Peripheral cold acclimatisation in Antarctic scuba divers
Peripheral acclimatisation to cold in scuba divers stationed at the British Antarctic Survey's Signy Station was investigated during a year in Antarctica. Five divers and five non-diver controls underwent monthly laboratory tests of index finger immersion in cold water. Index finger pulp temperature and time of onset of cold-induced vasodilatation were measured. No significant differences were found among the variables recorded from divers and non-divers, thus there is no evidence that the Signy divers peripherally acclimatised to cold. It is suggested that these findings occur either because of the whole-body cooling which divers undergo inhibits peripheral acclimatisation or because of insufficiently frequent or severe cold exposure while diving.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.62, No.8, p.733-738. Illus. 31 ref.
Machefer J., Bidron P., Guigner P.M.
Exposure of garage mechanics and pump attendants to benzenoid hydrocarbons from motor-fuels
Exposition aux hydrocarbures benzéniques des carburants automobiles chez les mécaniciens et les pompistes [in French]
Exposure of garage mechanics and pump attendants to benzene, toluene and xylene was studied at different seasons of the year by an activated charcoal badge dosimeter and through determination of metabolites in urine. 12% of the mechanics and 14% of pump attendants were exposed to more than 3.2mg benzene per m3 air. Mechanics working in small garages and pump attendants had higher exposures than did controls, and exposure was greater during the autumn and winter than during summer.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.2, p.89-94. 11 ref.
Chester G., Adam A.V., Inkmann Koch A., Litchfield M.H., Tuinman C.P.
Field evaluation of protective equipment for pesticide operators in a tropical climate
In order to extend the practical advice and information on personal protection when using pesticides in tropical climates, a GIFAP-FAO Working Group carried out a study on protective equipment worn by pesticide workers in hot and humid conditions in Thailand. Items assessed included protective garments worn by workers mixing and loading the organophosphorus insecticide formulation Tamaron and by spraymen applying the diluted formulation for several hours per day to a cotton crop with knapsack sprayers. The mixer-loaders also wore nitrile rubber gloves and a faceshield. The protective garments were made up of two pieces, an upper garment of a double apron design and separate trousers. Garments made up of different materials were assessed for their acceptability to the workers, their comfort and durability and their protectiveness against the insecticide. As a result of the study, it is considered that cotton protective garments are appropriate for pesticide workers in these conditions if additional protection is necessary. The nitrile rubber gloves and faceshield were also found to be suitable for mixer-loaders in these circumstances. It is emphasised that the effective use of protective equipment must go hand in hand with safe handling precautions and the adoption of good personal hygiene.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.480-488. 3 ref.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Similarity solutions for two-dimensional steady gravity currents
When a heavy gas is emitted at ground level, buoyancy forces tend to make it spread sideways and upwind while at the same time the wind tries to transport it in the opposite direction. The purpose of this paper is to present some solutions to equations describing this complex interaction in two dimensions. Similarity solutions have been found for steady two-dimensional laminar flow in which dense fluid is emitted upwards from a horizontal plane into a laminar flow or into a uniform flow. The solutions also apply to a light fluid released at an upper horizontal surface and the method can be extended to certain turbulent flows.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, 1990. 42p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.
Work in hot environments - Consequences of assessment using the WBGT
Arbete i värme - Konsekvenser av bedömning med WBGT [in Swedish]
The WBGT is a heat stress index, recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 7243, see CIS 83-288), for estimating the heat load on working man. The method is suitable for assessment of heat exposure in industry. Measurements of the WBGT and calculations of the WBGT on the basis of meteorological data indicate that the method is relevant and useful for Swedish industry and that some workplaces exceed the recommended reference values. During the warm season, other, non-industrial types of work could also suffer from heat overload problems. In Sweden, hot weather conditions are most likely in July, when normally people are on vacation, so that heat-related productivity losses, calculated as a drop in work output per hour, are probably modest at this time. After determining local correlations between the WBGT at work places and external climatic conditions, factories with heat problems should devise routines for monitoring and remedying heat stress.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 22p. 36 ref.
Abeysekera J.D.A., Shahnavaz H.
Adaptation to discomfort in personal protective devices: an example with safety helmets
In this trial, identical industrial safety helmets were worn by 10 subjects in a tropical environment, repeatedly (6h a day) for a period of one month. Subjective evaluations of discomfort were carried out at intervals. The selected helmet was not ideal, considering the head sizes of the subjects and the fact that the helmet was designed for a cold climate. Results showed a good degree of adaptation to discomfort, heat, heaviness and bad fit. Since adaptation took place over a period of 30 days, it was difficult to draw any conclusions on the optimum adaptation period for each discomfort factor. It is concluded that a significant adaptation to unavoidable discomfort in protective wear is possible.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1990, Voo.33, No.2, p.137-145. Illus. 7 ref.
Guidelines for personal protection when using pesticides in hot climates
Directives pour les mesures de protection personnelle pendant l'utilisation de produits phytosanitaires sous conditions climatiques chaudes [in French]
Normas sobre las medidas de protección personal al utilizar productos fitosanitarios en climas calurosos [in Spanish]
Training brochure aimed at pesticide users in the developing world. Contents: pathways of pesticides into the body; general personal safety precautions; personal protection in hot climates; materials, design and availability of protective items.
International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Aug. 1989 (French and Spanish editions, Sep. 1990). 34p. Illus.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Pressures produced by instantaneous chlorine releases inside buildings
This report concerns the overall thermodynamics of an instantaneous release of pressurised liquid chlorine inside a building. The ranges of release sizes and of building sizes of practical interest are reviewed. Results of calculations show that over the major part of the relevant range of conditions for releases of 1-30 tonnes, a pressure change of over 0.1 atmospheres can occur, making it likely that a large proportion of the building's walls or cladding will be removed. This pressure change is a function mainly of the volume of the storage room in relation to the quantity of chlorine released and is also slightly dependent on ambient temperature.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, Mar. 1989. 22p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Locking of cranes to avoid damage by wind
Sicherung von Kranen gegen Abtreiben durch Wind [in German]
Locking devices for cranes at wind speeds of about and above 15m/s are described. They include brakes, catch hooks, eye bolts, rail pinch bars, self-locking levers, eccentric rollers and rail pinch bars which close by spring force and are opened electrohydraulically. The latter are considered the safest but most expensive locking devices.
Fördern und Heben, 1989, Vol.39, No.1, p.23-26. Illus.
Occupational safety and health in quarries
Ohrana truda na kar'erah [in Russian]
Contents of this training manual written for vocational training school students: general aspects; fundamentals of Soviet OSH legislation; OSH organisation; occupational injuries and diseases; general requirements for the protection of workers and environment at the stage of quarry design and operation; workplace climate and microclimate; noxious dust and gas control; workplace lighting; radiation protection; safety of the main processes; safety of the pressure vessels and systems, hoisting and lifting equipment and repair work; electrical safety; fire safety; flood and snow-drift control; mine rescue fundamentals.
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 197p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: SUR 0.30.
Gressel M.G., O'Brien D.M., Tenaglia R.D.
Emissions from the evaporative casting process
The emissions generated during the pouring, cooling, and shakeout of a water-pump casting made by the evaporative casting process (ECP) were compared with those from a conventional green sand process. The ECP moulds produced more soot, hydrocarbons (styrene, benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons than the green sand process. Benzene was a major hazard.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Jan. 1988, Vol.3, No.1, p.11-17. Illus. 8 ref.
Crump prevention by forcing water into unmined coal
Zapobieganie tąpaniom przez wtłaczanie wody do calizny węglowej [in Polish]
Examples of crump prevention by forcing water into holes in unmined coal are presented. An attempt was made to determine the extent of crack propagation and establish a criterion of destruction of coal bed structure by forcing water. Destruction of coal bed cohesion limits crump hazard. A model is presented for selecting hydraulic parameters of liquid spreading in the coal bed during water injection. Observations are presented that can be used in practice to limit crump and tremor hazard.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.133, p.93-106. 8 ref.
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