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Animal hazards - 245 entries found

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CIS 96-1089 Ellis B.A., Mills J.N., Childs J.E.
Rodent-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses of importance to agricultural workers
The aetiology, epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and prevention of rodent-borne haemorrhagic fever viruses are discussed. The family Arenaviridae includes Lassa virus, which causes Lassa fever in West Africa, and four South American viruses, Junín, Machupo, Guanarito and Sabiá. At least three members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae, cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. Sin Nombre virus is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome that has resulted in about 100 cases since its discovery in southwestern USA in 1993. Agricultural workers are particularly at risk because of the increased likelihood of exposure to rodents in rural environments.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.4, p.7-44. 178 ref.

CIS 96-830 Tong D.
Warts in aquarium industry workers
Case studies of two marine aquarium shop workers with common warts on the hands are described. Both workers handled aquarium gravel and sharp-edged coral skeletons, and the hands were frequently wet with cuts and abrasions. Possible causes of the warts in these workers and workers in other industries are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.348-349. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 96-1077 Janko M., Gould D.C., Vance L., Stengel C.C., Flack J.
Dust mite allergens in the office environment
Levels of dust mite allergens were measured in 14 offices in response to numerous health complaints. Methods for sampling deposited dust and for the determination of the Der p I allergen and guanine are described. Nine of the offices were identified as having a dust mite population. Case studies of three offices with high levels of dust mites are presented. In all cases, the infestation was localized to a few specific work areas, office chairs being the primary location. Remedial measures include steam cleaning of all fabric-covered furnishings.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1133-1140. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 96-364 Douglas J.D.M., McSharry C., Blaikie L., Morrow T., Miles S., Franklin D.
Occupational asthma caused by automated salmon processing
A survey of all 291 employees at a newly-opened salmon processing plant in the United Kingdom revealed 24 (8.2%) with occupational asthma. The employees worked near machines which generated respirable aerosols containing salmon-serum proteins. Following reallocation to a low-exposure worksite and improvement of factory ventilation, 11 subjects showed improvement in pulmonary function and continued in employment; the remaining 13 regained normal respiratory function after leaving the plant. Early action avoided the long-term reduction in pulmonary functions often associated with occupational asthma.
Lancet, 16 Sep. 1995, Vol.346, No.8977, p.737-740. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 95-2272 Nielsen B.H., Breum N.O.
Exposure to air contaminants in chicken catching
The job of a chicken catcher in the modern poultry industry is to catch the chickens (raised in chicken houses housing up to 50,000 birds) by hand and place them in cages for transportation by truck to a processing plant. Two methods are used for loading birds into cages: the drawer method (DM) (loading birds into cages mounted in a rack standing on the floor) and the truck method (TM) (loading birds into cages on a trailer truck parked inside the chicken house). According to this Danish study, DM catchers are exposed to higher concentrations of hazardous substances (endotoxins, viable bacteria, viable fungi) than TM catchers, except for ammonia. Full-shift dust exposure exceeded the Danish occupational exposure limit of 3mg/m3 by at least a factor of 2 (the concentration of respirable dust ranged from 18% to 28% of the total dust concentration). Bacterial endotoxin concentrations in total dust were also 4-8 times higher than the 10ng/m3 limit recommended for poultry processing workers in the US. Exposure to microorganisms was also very high. In light of the high levels of exposure to airborne contaminants, the development of preventive measures is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.804-808. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-946 Carvalheiro M.F., Peterson Y., Rubenowitz E., Rylander R.
Bronchial reactivity and work-related symptoms in farmers
Work-related respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity were studied in 76 never-smoking farmers and in a control group not exposed to organic dusts. The farmers were divided into those working with vegetables or grain crops, with animals but not swine, and with swine. The extent of symptoms was evaluated with a specific organic dust questionnaire. Bronchial reactivity was assessed with the methacholine challenge test. An increased incidence of organic dust toxic syndrome, mucous membrane irritation (MMI) and chronic bronchitis (CB) was found among farmers working with swine or other animals. Pulmonary function baseline values were normal. Bronchial reactivity was increased and related to subjective symptoms of MMI and CB. There was also a relation between fatigue at work and bronchial reactivity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 96-1082 Cullinan P., Lowson D., Nieuwenhuijsen M.J., Gordon S., Tee R.D., Venables K.M., McDonald J.C., Newman Taylor A.J.
Work related symptoms, sensitisation, and estimated exposure in workers not previously exposed to laboratory rats
A major longitudinal study was undertaken to examine the relation between sensitization, allergy symptoms and exposure to aeroallergens in two groups of workers at high risk of developing occupational asthma. The findings of the initial cross-sectional phase of a cohort study of employees exposed to laboratory rats are presented. Symptoms assessed by self-completed questionnaire and sensitization measured by the response to skin prick tests were related to intensity of exposure both to total dust and to rat urinary aeroallergen. Among 238 workers, without previous occupational exposure to rats, work-related symptoms, which started after first employment at the site were related to exposure intensity (expressed either in terms of dust or of aeroallergen) at the time of onset of symptoms. These relations were stronger in atopic subjects but were unrelated to smoking. Positive skin tests to rat urinary extract were also more frequent with increased exposure, a relation found in both atopic subjects and in smokers. There was a strong association between work-related symptoms and specific sensitization.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.51, No.9, p.589-592. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-2273 Liss G.M., Wong L., Kittle D.C., Simor A., Naus M., Martiquet P., Misener C.R.
Occupational exposure to Mycobacterium bovis infection in deer and elk in Ontario
In late 1991, two herds of deer and elk were depopulated at a slaughtering plant in Ontario, Canada, followed by processing of infected animals at a rendering plant. A questionnaire plus tuberculin skin-test survey was conducted of 104 exposed slaughtering and rendering plant workers, and government veterinarians and inspectors. Overall, 17 cases were skin-test positive; one of 51 initially skin-test negative subjects tested a second time three months later became positive, consistent with the risk associated with occupational exposure during the depopulation of tuberculous elk previously observed in Alberta, Canada. The likely route of transmission is through aerosols. Possible reasons for the low conversion rate include the use of respiratory protection, absence of a tanning plant, an enclosed rendering plant process, and late skin testing which may have underestimated the number of conversions. Recommendations for prevention are summarized.
Canadian Journal of Public Health - Revue canadienne de santé publique, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.85, No.5, p.326-329. 19 ref.

CIS 95-749 Patussi V., Mazzucato S., Lorusso A., Collareta A., Chermaz E., Buttazzi P., Fiorito A.
Storage mites and their role in the onset of asthma and oculorhinitis among cattle farmers in North-East Italy
Epidemiological study of 149 cattle farmers and 148 controls. A significantly larger degree of sensitization to storage mites was found among the cattle farmers than among the controls, well correlated with the mite species identified in the barns in which the farmers worked. However, there was also frequent co-sensitization to the mite Dermatophagoides, a mite normally found in mattresses (and not in barns).
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.85, No.5, p.402-411. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 94-2110 Jepsen M.
Pests and pestilence: The unrecognised hazards of pests
Problems associated with pest infestations are discussed in terms of bites and stings, allergic reactions, infections, distress and physical dangers. Control measures include: prevention of access through external doors or walls; installation of bird deterrent systems and electric fly killers; maintenance of high standards of cleanliness around the exterior of buildings; regular inspection by pest control contractors.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Sep. 1994, Vol.12, No.9, p.32-34. Illus.

CIS 94-2111 Zejda J.E., Barber E., Dosman J.A., Olenchock S.A., McDuffie H.H., Rhodes C., Hurst T.
Respiratory health status in swine producers relates to endotoxin exposure in the presence of low dust levels
The respiratory health status of 54 male swine producers was assessed through questionnaires and spirographic measurements. The producers were between 25 and 48 years old and had worked an average 10.7 years in the industry, with an average of 4.7 h/day in the swine barns. Atmospheric contaminants were measured including carbon dioxide, ammonia, total dust, respirable dust, and airborne endotoxin. Endotoxin related to forced vital capacity and endotoxin times h/day was related to forced vital capacity and to forced respiratory volume in 1 second. Respiratory symptoms and lung function did not relate to categories of low, medium and high exposure to respirable dust. However, categories of endotoxin exposure related to respiratory symptoms. Thus, respiratory health status relates to endotoxin level but not to dust level at low dust levels. Control measures should aim to reduce the levels of endotoxins as well as those of dust.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.49-56. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 95-2234 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances. Part 2: Particular requirements for electrical heating appliances for breeding and rearing animals
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues. Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les appareils de chauffage électrique destinés à la reproduction et à l'élevage des animaux [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., June 1993. 33p. ###

CIS 94-1604 Zejda J.E., Hurst T.S., Rhodes C.S., Barber E.M., McDuffie H.H., Dosman J.A.
Respiratory health of swine producers - Focus on young workers
The report compares the respiratory health of 249 swine producers, 251 grain farmers, and 263 non-farming control subjects. Swine producers had significantly more symptoms of chronic bronchitis (15.3%) than did grain farmers (7.2%) or non-farming men (5.7%). After controlling for age, height, and smoking, the functional indices of airflow were slightly but significantly lower in swine producers than in grain farmers. In comparison with non-farming subjects, some of the functional indices were significantly lower in swine producers. Respiratory symptoms were associated with the number of hours of work per day. This indirect index of exposure was also inversely associated with FVC (p<0.01) and FEV1 (p=0.06), after adjustment for age, height, smoking, and dust mask usage. A relative excess of respiratory symptoms and lower lung function variables were found in swine producers aged 26 to 35 years.
Chest, Mar. 1993, Vol.103, No.3, p.702-709. 28 ref.

CIS 94-1761 Cristofolini A., Bassetti D., Schallenberg G.
Zoonoses transmitted by ticks (tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis): Preliminary results
Le zoonosi trasmesse da zecche nei lavoratori forestali (tick-borne encephalitis e Lyme Borreliosis): Risultati preliminari [in Italian]
To investigate the diffusion of infections transmitted by ticks (Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis) in forest workers, a serological investigation was carried out in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy) on the sera of 465 subjects at potential risk (foresters, hunters, woodcutters, gamekeepers). Antibodies for TBE virus were found in five subjects working in the same area, and antibodies for Borrelia burgdorferi were found in 15 subjects. All three clinical cases of TBE identified reported that they had been bitten by ticks in the same geographical area. The presence of specific antibodies for TBE virus was tested on the sera of animals grazing in several areas: four positive cases were observed in the same area as the human cases reported above.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1993, Vol.84, No.5, p.394-402. 35 ref.

CIS 94-1411 Thompson P.J., Cousins D.V., Gow B.L., Collins D.M., Williamson B.H., Dagnia H.T.
Seals, seal trainers, and mycobacterial infection
In 1986, three seals died in an Australian marine park; postmortem tissue culture suggested infection with Mycobacterium bovis. In 1988, a seal trainer employed at the park until 1985 developed pulmonary tuberculosis caused by M. bovis while working in a zoo 3,000km away. Culture characteristics, biochemical behaviour, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and restriction endonuclease analysis suggested that the strains of M. bovis infecting the seals and trainer were identical but unique and differed from reference strains and local cattle strains of M. bovis. The infection in both the seals and trainer had a destructive but indolent course. This is the first time that M. bovis has been observed in seals and the first time that tuberculosis infection has been documented to be transmitted from seals to humans. Those working with seals and other marine animals should be monitored for infection.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1993, Vol.147, No.1, p.164-167. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 94-580 Gordon R.L., Rhodes S.
Injuries to workers in a swine confinement facility
Animal confinement facilities are used to increase efficiency by capitalizing from economies of scale. Investigations of the major health effects of these facilities usually focus on the respiratory symptoms of their workers. The study hypothesized that injury may also be a significant health issue for workers. The incidence and patterns of injury during a three-year period in a large, midwestern swine confinement facility was studied. A high incidence of injury (up to 65 injuries per 100 employee work-years) was found, with bruises, strains and sprains and needle stick injuries being most prominent.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1993, Vol.35, No.5, p.518-521. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 94-716 Vignon M., Dupas D., Géraut C.
Streptococcus suis meningitis: A severe noncompensated occupational disease
Méningite à Streptococcus suis: une maladie professionnelle grave non indemnisable [in French]
French version of article published in English in the Journal of Occupational Medicine and abstracted under CIS 93-2072. Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2, a rare disease first recognized in 1968 (108 cases worldwide in 1989), is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs and often results in very severe disabilities (definitive deafness and ataxia in 50% of cases). The case of an employee in a rendering plant whose initial symptom was deafness is reported. A detailed analysis of medical and veterinary literature is provided concerning the epidemiology of the disease, the clinical forms in man, bacteriological diagnosis and the role of the pig as a healthy carrier. It is recommended that this occupational disease be officially recognized for compensation in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.487-494. 40 ref.

CIS 94-373 Blanchin N., Abadia G., Leprince A.
Risk of infection associated with the management and handling of experimental animals in animal facilities
Risques infectieux liés à la maintenance et à la manipulation des animaux de laboratoire pour le personnel travaillant dans les animaleries [in French]
Contents of this information sheet on the risk of infection associated with the handling of laboratory animals: 1. main infectious agents of animal origin which are pathogenetic in men (table on the use of vertebrate animals in 1990); 2. real risks in relation to the animals handled and their sources (table of bacterial, viral, parasitic, ectoparasitic and fungal diseases, with information on: name of the aetiological agent, degree of pathogenicity in man, animal vectors, mode of contamination diagnosis and treatment); 3. guidelines for the prevention of infectious risks in laboratory animal facilities (vaccinations, safety precautions in case of a bite or any other contaminating incident, training and information of employees).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.3-23. 61 ref.

CIS 93-1901 Zejda J.E., Hurst T.S., Barber E.M., Rhodes C., Dosman J.A.
Respiratory health status in swine producers using respiratory protective devices
A cross-sectional survey on respiratory health in swine producers showed that 30% of 301 men examined usually used a dust mask when working inside a barn. They did not differ significantly from non-users of dust masks in respect of respiratory symptoms and lung function. This analysis was undertaken to determine whether the respiratory health of dust mask users was associated with reasons for their having started to use individual respiratory protection. The subjects were recontacted in order to identify those who started using a mask deliberately to prevent symptoms (42 men) and those who started using protection because of pre-existing respiratory symptoms (44 men). Not unexpectedly, between-group comparisons of respiratory symptoms and lung function suggest that swine producers who wear dust masks for preventive purposes have better respiratory health than those who wear dust masks because of symptoms or those who do not use individual respiratory protection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the full impact of respiratory protection in these workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.743-750. 14 ref.

CIS 93-1937 Sessink P.J.M., De Roos J.H.C., Pierik F.H., Anzion R.B.M., Bos R.P.
Occupational exposure of animal caretakers to cyclophosphamide
The study examined environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide (CP) in an animal laboratory where mice were injected with this compound. Also studied was the contamination of gloves, sleeve protectors, and masks for personal protection. Analysis of air-circulation system filters revealed amounts of CP corresponding to <0.1-1.0µg/day. Wipe samples taken from different objects and surfaces were also analysed. The presence of CP was not only observed in the room where the mice were housed and treated but also in adjacent rooms (<0.02-44ng/cm2). The gloves used during CP injection were always contaminated (2-199µg/pair), although no penetration was established. The sleeve protectors were incidentally contaminated (<0.3-10µg) and no CP was found on the masks (<0.2µg). Eighty-seven urine samples from four animal caretakers were analysed for unmetabolised CP. CP was detected (0.7µg) in one sample. The results of this study show that animal caretakers are exposed to CP in their work.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.47-52. 15 ref.


CIS 93-2072 Dupas D., Vignon M., Géraut C.
Streptococcus suis meningitis - A severe noncompensated occupational disease
Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2, a rare disease first recognised in 1968 (108 cases worldwide in 1989), is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs and often results in very severe disabilities (definitive deafness and ataxia in 50% of cases). The case of an employee in a rendering plant whose initial symptom was deafness is reported. A detailed analysis of medical and veterinary literature is provided concerning the epidemiology of the disease, the clinical forms in man, bacteriological diagnosis and the role of the pig as a healthy carrier. It is recommended that this occupational disease be officially recognised for compensation in France.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.34, No.11, p.1102-1105. 28 ref.

CIS 93-1607 Bos P.M.J., Zwart A., Reuzel P.G.J., Bragt P.C.
Evaluation of the sensory irritation test for the assessment of occupational health risk
A sensory irritation test has been developed based on trigeminal nerve stimulation in the nasal mucosa of rodents which results in reduced respiratory frequency. The RD50, the concentration inducing a 50% decrease in the respiratory rate, was proposed for the assessment of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Intra- and inter-species differences were inconsistent. Other effects (pulmonary irritation, toxicity) may interfere with trigeminal nerve stimulation. The effects of mixed and repeated exposures (the occurrence of "sensitisation" and "(cross-)tolerance") are evaluated. Severe toxicity was observed in animals exposed below the RD50 for some compounds. A quantitative evaluation with respect to human data was not possible. The suitability of the test for OEL assessment is doubted. The best purpose will be as an upper range-finding study for subacute or chronic toxicity experiments.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.423-450. 84 ref.

CIS 93-830 Larsson K., Eklund A., Malmberg P., Belin L.
Alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid but not in lung function and bronchial responsiveness in swine confinement workers
The study investigated whether randomly selected non-smoking swine confinement workers (N=20) had signs of airways inflammation and alterations of lung function and bronchial responsiveness. Immunological response was estimated by skin prick tests and measurement of serum antibodies. The workers had normal lung function and the bronchial reactivity was not different from a reference group of urban non-smoking subjects. Results showed that the workers had signs of airway inflammatory reaction and activation of the immune system without alteration in lung function and bronchial reactivity.
Chest, Mar. 1992, Vol.101, No.3, p.767-774. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 93-331 Ziemann B., Corn M., Ansari A.A., Eggleston P.
The effectiveness of the Duo-Flo BioClean unit for controlling airborne antigen levels
The Duo-Flo BioClean unit was evaluated as a control unit for airborne rat antigen levels. The unit was evaluated in negative and positive pressure operating modes. In the negative mode, air is drawn into the unit, passes over the animal cages, and is then exhausted into the room through the filters. In the positive mode, air passes through the filters, traverses the animals, and then is discharged into the room. Airborne antigen concentrations (in ng/m3) and associated particle size distributions were measured during the two operating modes and prior to operation (background). Airborne antigen concentrations during the positive pressure operating mode were higher than during the negative pressure mode or background. The unit is usually operated in the positive mode to protect experimental animals. The study indicates that negative pressure operation would reduce the dispersion of dust-containing antigen, the exposure of room occupants to airborne antigen, and the risk to many workers of contracting allergy to animals.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.138-145. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 92-1941
Health and Safety Commission, Education Services Advisory Committee
Health and safety in animal facilities
This booklet describes the hazards encountered by laboratory animal workers and provides recommendations on safe working methods. Contents: the statutory framework (health and safety legislation, other legislation, European Directives); specific hazards (biological, chemical and physical hazards, fire hazards, waste disposal, security and welfare). Appendices include a summary of the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 (RIDDOR) and a list of typical routine electrical checks for portable apparatus.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 30p. 71 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 92-1718 Galanou I., Pécoud A.
Allergy to laboratory animals: Test interpretation versus diagnosis
Allergie aux animaux de laboratoire: considérations diagnostiques [in French]
Allergy to laboratory animals occurs in 10-30% of subjects professionally exposed to rats, mice or rabbits. Results of diagnostic tests (skin tests, specific IgE in serum) performed with different allergens (epithelium, urine, serum) were analysed. Skin tests using commercial extracts were not consistently positive, in vitro tests tended to give more frequent positive results than did traditional RAST, and in general, it was sufficient for the identification of IgE to use animal epithelium (urine and serum are less useful). The Pharmacia CAP system gave positive results more frequently than traditional RAST. The positive results found in healthy subjects reinforce the need for a careful case history in interpreting allergological diagnostic tests.
Médecine et hygiène, 2 Sep. 1992, Vol.50, No.1944, p.2121-2122, 2125-2126.

CIS 92-1716 Vinzents P., Nielsen B.H.
Variations in exposures to dust and endotoxin in Danish piggeries
Two surveys studied day-to-day variations in exposures to dust and endotoxin and those caused by different tasks and the content of fat in the feed. The exposure to "total" particulate matter (TMP) was just below (in one study) and at the same level as (in the second study) the Danish occupational exposure limit of 5.0 mg/m3 for organic dust. No variation with task distance from the animals was found, but the results indicated decreased exposure when fat was added to the feed. The endotoxin exposure level was lower than previously reported. High correlations were found between TPM, respirable dust, and endotoxin.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.237-241. 21 ref.


CIS 93-676 Crook B., Robertson J.F., Glass S.A.T., Botheroyd E.M., Lacey J., Topping M.D.
Airborne dust, ammonia, microorganisms, and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm workers
The study investigated the environmental conditions on pig farms and the respiratory health of pig farmers and their immunological response to airborne contaminants. Airborne concentrations of dust and ammonia were measured in 20 pig houses. Twenty-nine farm workers completed a questionnaire and underwent lung function tests; 24 provided blood samples for the measurement of specific IhE and IgG antibody to extracts of pig squames and urine, feed components, and bacterial isolates. Work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by 23 workers. The presence of specific IgE in some workers with wheeze suggested the possibility of them having an allergic response. This highlights the need to limit exposure to airborne dusts associated with pig farming, and this in some cases may be achieved by changing work practices such as the methods of feed delivery or ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1991, Vol.52, No.7, p.271-279. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 92-1922 Iversen M.
Bronchial symptoms during work in a group of 124 Danish pig farmers
Bronchiale Symptome während der Arbeit in einer Gruppe von 124 dänischen Schweinezüchtern [in German]
A questionnaire survey of 124 randomly selected Danish pig farmers (average age 43, average exposure 12yrs) revelead that 48 suffered from work-related respiratory symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath and asthma. In this group 33% were smokers whereas in the group of 76 farmers without respiratory symptoms 12% were smokers. Symptoms were found to develop in 75% within the first hour of work. In 50% they persisted up to 1h after work. The average exposure time to the appearance of first symptoms was 7 years. The percentages of non-smoking and smoking farmers with respiratory symptoms rose within the last six years prior to the study by 200 and 300%.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Nov. 1991, Vol.41, No.11, p.419-423. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 92-1886 Goodman G., Wilson R.
Predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals in humans from rodent bioassay data
It is argued that it is always more useful to know a chemical's carcinogenic potency (with confidence limits) than to be able to say only qualitatively that it has been found to be a carcinogen. Extrapolation of high-dose bioassay results to low doses does not take into consideration the possibility of a threshold dose, below which the carcinogenic potency is much lower or even zero. Threshold dose-response phenomena may be far more relevant to the aetiology of cancer in the rodent bioassays than was earlier realised; if so, there is an even greater need for establishing dose-dependent potency estimates. The paper emphasises interspecies comparison of high-dose potencies. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of carcinogenicities between mice and rats and between rodents and humans is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a good qualitative (yes/no) correlation for both the rat/mouse and the rodent/human comparison. The upper limits on potencies in humans are consistent with rodent potencies for those chemicals for which human exposure data are available.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug. 1991, Vol.94, p.195-218. Illus. 163 ref.

CIS 92-1959 Goodman G., Wilson R.
Quantitative prediction of human cancer risk from rodent carcinogenic potencies - A closer look at the epidemiological evidence for some chemicals not definitively carcinogenic in humans
The existence of rodent carcinogens for which no evidence of human carcinogenicity has been claimed by at least one epidemiological study has been used as proof of the poor predictivity of rodent bioassays. This study performed quantitative comparisons of the rodent and human carcinogenic potencies for these same chemicals. Starting with the rodent TD50 at the most sensitive site, a predicted human incidence was derived for the degree of exposure and the duration of follow-up corresponding to the most comprehensive epidemiological study available, and then the predicted incidence was compared with the observed incidence. If a chemical produced no statistically significant cancer increase at any site in the exposed population, consistency with rodent results is inferred if the minimum rodent TD50 is sufficiently high that no attributable cases would have been expected under the actual conditions of human exposure and follow-up. For 18 of the 22 chemicals examined, the human evidence is consistent with the predictions based on the rodent bioassay results.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Oct. 1991, Vol.14, No.2, p.118-146. Illus. 58 ref.

CIS 92-1958 Clayson D.B., Clegg D.J.
Classification of carcinogens - Polemics, pedantics, or progress?
Rodent carcinogens may, for physiological or other reasons, induce cancer by a variety of mechanisms which vary in their ability to affect humans. While the current approach of some regulatory agencies to carcinogen risk assessment and regulation may possibly be justified with most genotoxic carcinogens, this is not true with all non-genotoxic carcinogens. Mechanisms attributable to high dose toxicity occasioned by misuse of the maximum tolerated dose concept, imbalancing of homeostasis, unphysiological conditions, and induced cellular proliferation are reviewed. The greatest present need for meaningful regulation of carcinogens is to obtain public acceptance of the fact that some carcinogens are species specific and probably will not exert their effects in humans.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Oct. 1991, Vol.14, No.2, p.147-166. 121 ref.

CIS 92-1028 Seuri M.
Risk of appendicectomy in occupations entailing contact with pigs
A questionnaire survey among pig farmers, abattoir workers, and farmers not exposed to pigs was conducted to determine the prevalence of appendicitis in these occupations. The author concludes the biological basis of an increased risk of appendicitis in occupations entailing close contact with pigs might be explained by Yersinia bacteria whose presence is common in pigs.
British Medical Journal, 10 Aug.1991, Vol.303, No.6798, p.345-346. 5 ref.

CIS 92-668 Hassen L.B.
Reptile and arthropod envenomations
Farmers are subject to poisonous bites and stings from reptiles and arthropods (insects, spiders and crustaceans). In addition to basic information on these animals, the paper offers practical guidance on the recognition of symptoms resulting from bites and stings. It also gives advice on management and treatment of the medical consequences. Reptiles covered are pit vipers, coral snakes, and gila monsters; arthropods covered are widow spiders, brown or violin spiders, bark scorpions, other scorpions, and centipedes.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.447-461. 46 ref.

CIS 91-1559 Morris P.D., Lenhart S.W., Service W.S.
Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in chicken catchers in poultry confinement units
In order to evaluate the respiratory consequences of working in poultry confinement units, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in 59 chicken catchers was carried out. The results were compared to a published reference standard of non-exposed blue-collar workers. Chicken catchers reported a high rate of acute symptoms associated with work in poultry houses. They also reported statistically significant higher rates for chronic phlegm (39.0%) and chronic wheezing (27.1%) than non-exposed blue-collar workers. Chicken catchers had significant decrements over a work shift in forced vital capacity (2.2%) and forced expiratory volume in 1sec (-3.4%). These results indicate that chicken catchers are at risk for respiratory dysfunction and emphasise the need to develop measures to minimise their exposure to respiratory toxicants in poultry confinement units.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.19, No.2, p.195-204. 24 ref.


CIS 92-880 Brown A.M
The respiratory health of Victorian broiler growers
A survey of chicken meat farmers in Victoria, Australia indicated that respiratory symptoms were common with 77% reporting some symptoms of cough, sputum or wheeze; almost 12% had chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of eye irritation was also high. After adjusting for other factors, increased prevalences of cough and/or sputum, chronic bronchitis and wheeze were found for smokers, those with a family history of atopy, and those with greater cumulative time spent inside chicken sheds. It is concluded that chicken farming is associated with respiratory symptoms suggestive of asthma and chronic bronchitis, especially in smokers and subjects with a family history of atopy.
Medical Journal of Australia, 21 May 1990, Vol.152, No.10, p.521-524. 24 ref.

CIS 91-1722 Kyouyoumdjian J.A., Polizelli C., Kouyoumdjian N.C.V., Belluomini H.E., Gisondi M.
Occupational accidents caused by snakes, in the region of São José do Rio Preto, State of São Paulo, in the period Oct. 1981 - Nov. 1987 - A retrospective study
Acidentes de trabalho ocasionados por serpentes, na região de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo, no período de out. de 1981 a nov. de 1987. Estudo retrospectivo [in Portuguese]
Analysis of 208 snake bites (of which 81, 38.9%, could be characterised as occupational) in a rural area of Brazil. Almost all of the occupational cases involved farm workers. Statistical breakdown is by: age, sex and occupation of the victim; time of the accident (month and hour of the day); activity of the victim at the time of the accident; localisation of the injury; species of snake involved; type of poisoning (bothropic or crotalic); type of first-aid measure or treatment attempted; time between the snake-bite and admission to hospital; time spent in hospital. Reference is made to Brazilian legislation obliging employers to provide for the protection of limbs in workers exposed to the risk of snake bites.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 1990, Vol.18, No.71, p.62-70. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 91-1366 Disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes
This data sheet is a revision of the 1984 edition (CIS 85-1003). It outlines the planning and procedures necessary for safe handling and disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes in biomedical laboratory facilities, veterinary, clinical, research or teaching institutions, animal quarantine units, and other facilities where diseased animals are housed.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1990. 4p. 22 ref.

CIS 91-843 Halkier-Sørensen L., Heickendorff L., Dalsgaard I., Thestrup-Pedersen K.
Skin symptoms among workers in the fish processing industry are caused by high molecular weight compounds
Scratch tests were performed with fish juice containing high and low molecular weight compounds obtained by ultrafiltration and with degradation compounds known to accumulate in fish stored on ice. 75 volunteers were tested. The peptide pattern in raw fish juice and its high and low molecular weight fractions were analysed and the concentration of protein in the various fractions was determined. Fish products were analysed for bacteria and algae and the concentration of degradation compounds was measured. Mainly high molecular weight compounds (polypeptides) of fish juice were found to be responsible for the skin symptoms.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1990, Vol.24, No.2, p.94-100. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 91-488 Iversen M., Takai H.
Lung function studies in farmers during work in swine confinement units
Pulmonary function parameters were measured in 31 pig farmers before and after work. Five of these used a respirator on some days of the study. Average organic dust concentrations in the breathing zone of the farmers were 0.35-0.91mg/m3. 17 of 26 farmers had either shortness of breath or wheezing during work in swine confinement buildings; 9 of 16 were asymptomatic. Symptomatic farmers showed significant decreases in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), asymptomatic farmers in FEV1. The respirators had a slight positive effect.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1990, Vol.40, No.8, p.236-242. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 91-674 Tick bites
This data sheet is a revision of the 1978 edition (CIS 78-1406). Contents: description of the insects (rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum); disease transmitted to man (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, tularaemia); suggestions for management (insect repellents and vaccines); precautions for employees (appropriate clothing, first aid procedures).
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1990. 4p. Illus.

CIS 90-1024 Chappel R.J., Prime R.W., Cutler R.S., Jones R.T., Millar B.D., Adler B.
Antileptospiral antibodies in Australian pig farmers
Letter to the editor. Serum samples from 140 Australian pig farmers were tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans, the organism responsible for hte disease leptospirosis. 11 (8%) showed microscopic agglutination test reactions to one of the 2 serovars known to cause the disease in Australia. No high titres were obtained. The importance of swine vaccination is stressed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 15 Jan. 1990, Vol.152, No.2, p.105. 4 ref.


CIS 92-140 Siracusa A., Verga A., Bacoccoli R., Fabbri A., Felicioni D.
Asthma caused by Lucilia Caesar "green bottle" larvae - Clinical and immunological study
L'asma da Bigattini (larve della mosca carnaria) - Studio clinico e immunologico [in Italian]
Case study of asthma caused by exposure to the larvae of the "green bottle" (Lucilia Caesar), an insect widely used as fish bait. Exposure could be either occupational (on a fish bait farm or in a shop for fishermen) or non-professional (by anglers).
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.80, No.6, p.489-497. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 91-665 Beltrami V., Innocenti A., Pieroni M.G., Civai R., Nesi D., Bianco S.
Occupational asthma due to cuttle-fish bone dust
Asma professionale da inalazione di polvere di osso di seppia [in Italian]
This report describes a new case of occupational asthma in a goldsmith. A 25-year-old female suffered attacks of urticaria and asthma at each exposure to the dust of cuttle-fish bone used to polish gold jewellery. A specific occupational bronchial provocation challenge showed a dual asthmatic response with a maximum fall in FEV1 of 26% of the baseline value after 6 hours. A pick-test with crude cuttle-fish bone dust in glycerin 10% also gave a positive response.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.80, No.5, p.425-428. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-1728 Bertolini R.
Psittacosis (Ornithosis) - A summary of the occupational health concern
La psittacose (ornithose) - Résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [in French]
Psittacosis is an occupational health hazard for those whose work brings them into contact with birds. It is primarily a lung disease caused by inhalation of airborne microorganisms or by handling an infected bird. Preventive measures include proper feeding of birds, avoidance of overcrowding and adequate ventilation systems.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, June 1989. 4p. 9 ref.

CIS 90-664 Kibby T., Powell G., Cromer J.
Allergy to laboratory animals: A prospective and cross-sectional study
In a prospective study, 169 laboratory workers with animal exposure were surveyed by questionnaire for allergic symptoms and atopic indicators in 1985 and again 2 years later. The presence of three general allergic symptoms and three historical atopic indicators were moderately predictive of the new onset of ALA (allergy to laboratory animals). This suggests that animal handlers with allergic histories are at greater risk of developing ALA, although this is a relatively nonspecific marker. In a concurrent prevalence study, the measurement of airborne rat urinary protein was significantly associated with the presence of ALA. The measurement of airborne allergens could be helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of air handling equipment with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of ALA.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.31, No.10, p.842-846. 12 ref.

CIS 90-174 Rylander R., Donham K.J., Hjort C., Brouwer R., Heederik D.
Effects of exposure to dust in swine confinement buildings - A working group report
Pulmonary and other symptoms among workers in swine confinement buildings were evaluated by an international working group. In several studies in five different countries about 2000 workers were studied in clinical and epidemiologic investigations. Symptoms indicative of acute and chronic airway inflammation were widespread, as were systemic reactions characteristic of organic dust toxic syndrome. The base line, and across workshift, pulmonary function changes were moderate. There was no evidence that antigen-antibody reactions were important in the pathogenesis. Longitudinal studies are recommended to establish the relationship between acute and chronic symptoms and end stage disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.309-312. 22 ref.

CIS 89-826 Donham K., Haglind P., Peterson Y., Rylander R., Belin L.
Environmental and health studies of farm workers in Swedish swine confinement buildings
The relation between the health of workers and the environment in swine confinement buildings was investigated in a study of 57 workers on 30 swine farms in southern Sweden and 55 matched controls. Swine workers reported significantly higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms, more frequent colds and absence due to chest illness, and a history of pneumonia. The increased frequency of symptoms of respiratory disease was related to the number of years and length of the day spent working with swine. Symptoms were also associated with respirable dust, total dust, endotoxin in total dust, and number of microbes in the air of the work environment. In a multiple regression analysis of the relation between 16 different environmental parameters to work period shifts of 5 pulmonary function parameters, endotoxin was found to be significantly related to the FEV1 in a dose dependent way.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.46, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 29 ref.


CIS 92-321 Minisci S., Garasto G., Corradini L., Laffi F., Canestri-Trotti G., Briolini G.
Infestation by Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in agricultural workers in Ferrara province
Infestazione da Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in lavoratori agricoli della provincia di Ferrara [in Italian]
The study aimed at verifying a previously reported aetiological hypothesis concerning the periodic late summer outbreaks of acute dermatitis among agricultural workers in the province of Ferrara (Italy). Assuming, on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data, that the most likely cause of the complaint was a chigger-mite, Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw 1790), several procedures of investigation were applied in order to isolate the acarus in the environment and in skin lesions. The efficacy and the limits of the various methods are discussed. Skin samples taken as soon as possible after the appearance of the complaint were particularly useful since larvae of N. autumnalis were found in papules of 3 workers.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1988, Vol.79, No.2, p.120-126. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-1018 Southcott R.V.
Some harmful Australian insects
Survey of the toxic effects, allergic reactions and infections caused by bites of or other contact with common Australian insects, often in an occupational context (farmers, beekeepers, entomologists). The insects are: bees; wasps; ants; flies and mosquitoes; moths, butterflies and caterpillars; fleas; lice; hemiptera.
Medical Journal of Australia, 5-19 Dec. 1989, Vol.149, No.1112, p.656-662. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 90-867 Barss P., Ennis S.
Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea
Detailed case studies of 20 injuries (many serious and 1 fatal) caused by domestic and wild pigs in a tropical environment. Both surgical problems and secondary infections are discussed. Safer methods for the hunting of pigs are proposed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 5-19 Dec. 1988, Vol.149, No.1112, p.649-656. Illus. 34 ref.

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