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Animal hazards - 245 entries found

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  • Animal hazards

2003

CIS 04-465 Niścigorska J., Skotarczak B., Wodecka B.
Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers - Assessed with an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA), PCR, and correlated with the clinical state of the patients
Borreliosis or Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the introduction of one of a class of spirochetes (the most common being Borrelia burgdorferi) into the blood stream. It is spread through the bite of the common European tick Ixodes ricinus. The most frequent occurrence is found among forestry workers and inhabitants of wooded areas. Diagnosis is based on immunoserologic tests. This study involved 52 forestry workers in Poland who responded to a questionnaire and were subjected to medical examinations. 61% were found to be seropositive. Possible correlations between the results of serological and polymerase chain reaction tests with the clinical state of the patients were investigated. Despite finding IgM antibodies in 10 persons tested, which would indicate recent infection, no DNA of B. burgdorferi was detected in their blood. Also, no DNA of this bacteria was present in 8 persons with IgM and IgG antibodies. The clinical data suggested past symptomatic infection, or even more often, asymptomatic infection with B. burgdorferi
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.15-19. 41 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/10015.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1427 Rautiala S., Kangas J., Louhelainen K., Reiman M.
Farmers' exposure to airborne microorganisms in composting swine confinement buildings
Exposure to airborne microorganisms was studied in 12 composting swine confinement buildings and in seven buildings with traditional slatted-floor pit systems. Airborne cultivable mesophilic, xerophilic, and thermotolerant fungi, mesophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinobacteria were determined using a six-stage impactor. Total concentrations of microorganisms were determined with filter sampling and direct counts using a microscope. In swine confinement buildings where the composting system was functioning properly, the concentrations of microorganisms were 10-1000 times higher than in traditional swine buildings. High concentrations were found of thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinobacteria (up to 105CFU/m3), considered to be the main causative agents of farmer's lung, in the composting swine confinement buildings that were studied. Therefore, personal protection is strongly recommended in composting swineries, especially during the turning of the compost bed.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.673-677. 25 ref.

2002

CIS 03-430 Frenette Y.
Contamination of ventilation systems by pigeons: An unrecognized hazard
La contamination des systèmes de ventilation par des pigeons: un risque méconnu [in French]
The presence of pigeons can lead to the contamination of ventilation systems and it favours the growth of microorganisms that can affect the health of persons inside the buildings. Indeed, the contamination of ventilation systems by pigeon droppings is an unrecognized hazard that needs to be addressed. This article describes the symptoms of various diseases caused by pigeons, as well as the measures that need to be taken when pigeons establish a nesting colony near a ventilation system (disinfection, removal of the droppings, decontamination of the premises, installation of physical obstacles).
Travail et santé, Dec. 2002, Vol.18, No.4, p.22-26. Illus. 11 réf.

CIS 03-443
Health and Safety Executive
Control of laboratory animal allergy
Aimed at employers, managers, employees and safety and health professionals, this guidance note describes possible health risks that could result from exposure to laboratory animal allergens. It includes advice to employers and managers of animal facilities on the precautions needed to prevent or control exposure as required by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH, see CIS 00-620). It also addresses duties under Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSW, see CIS 00-403), including the need to co-operate and coordinate where different employers share a workplace. Contents: description of laboratory animal allergy; management of health and safety in animal facilities; assessment of hazards to health; prevention and control of exposure (ventilation, systems of work, personal protective equipment); maintenance, examination and testing of control measures; information and training of employees.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2002. 8p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 03-308 Beaudet N., Brodkin C.A., Stover B., Daroowalla F., Flack J., Doherty D.
Crab allergen exposures aboard five crab-processing vessels
A cross-sectional survey of five crab-processing vessels was conducted in order to evaluate crab allergen concentrations and respiratory symptom prevalence among workers. Crab allergen concentrations were quantified during specific work activities with 25 personal air samples collected on PTFE filters and analysed by a competitive IgE immunoassay technique. Questionnaires were used to assess respiratory symptoms suggestive of bronchitis or asthma in 82 workers. Aerosolized crab allergen concentrations ranged from 79ng/m3 to 21,093ng/m3. A significant percentage of workers reported respiratory symptoms during the crab-processing season: cough (28%), phlegm (11%), and wheeze and other asthma-like symptoms (4%). Despite variations in crab allergen levels, respiratory symptom prevalence was similar across all job categories.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.605-609. 11 ref.

CIS 02-1932 Goodno L.E., Stave G.M.
Primary and secondary allergies to laboratory animals
Although laboratory animal allergy (LAA) is a significant occupational hazard among workers exposed to laboratory animals, few studies have evaluated long-term risks to workers. In this study, surveillance data from a ten-year LAA prevention programme were analysed to estimate incidence rates of primary and secondary LAA and to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention programme in reducing the development of primary LAA. The ten-year incidence rates of primary and secondary LAA were 1.34 and 11 cases per 100 person-years, respectively. The annual incidence of primary LAA was reduced from 3.6% to 0% in the first five years and did not rise above 1.2% over the remaining years, whereas the incidence of secondary LAA was greater than 8% in most years. These findings suggest that programmes effective at preventing primary LAA may need to be evaluated for their effectiveness at protecting against further risk.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1143-1152. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 02-1937 Schärer L., Hafner J., Wüthrich B., Bucher C.
Occupational protein contact dermatitis from shrimps - A new presentation of the crustacean-mite syndrome
A 45-year-old Chinese cook, with no family or personal history of atopy, had had hand eczema of variable intensity since he had started working in Switzerland 10 years ago. The patient reported acute itching, burning and erythematous swelling about 20min after contact with shrimps. This was followed approximately 2 days later by the appearance of erythema and small vesicles, changing to the typical features of hand eczema after a few days with erythematous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions restricted to the palms. Additionally, when eating shrimps he felt itching of the fingertips. He denied any respiratory symptoms. The skin lesions fully cleared during holidays. Sensitization of the immediate type to crustaceans and house dust mite was demonstrated by skin tests as well as with specific IgE determination. Delayed- type sensitization to shrimps was demonstrable by patch testing. A biopsy taken from the positive patch test site showed an acute eczematous reaction. In CAP FEIA inhibition studies, complete cross-reactivity between D. pteronyssinus and shrimps was demonstrated.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.3, p.181-182. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 02-1665 Ortega H.G., Kreiss K., Schill D.P., Weissman D.N.
Fatal asthma from powdering shark cartilage and review of fatal occupational asthma literature
Work-related asthma is the most common occupational respiratory disease in developed countries. This article reports a case of fatal occupational asthma due to exposure to shark cartilage dust. A 38-year-old male operator worked for eight years in a facility which primarily granulated and powdered various plastics. Sixteen months prior to his death, the plant also began grinding shark cartilage. After ten months of exposure, he reported chest symptoms at work in association with exposure to shark cartilage dust and a physician diagnosed asthma. Six months later, he complained of shortness of breath at work and died from autopsy-confirmed asthma. The latency from onset of exposure to symptoms, and from the appearance of symptoms to death was shorter than for ten occupational asthma fatalities reported in literature. Recognition of occupational causes and triggers of asthma and removal of affected individuals from these exposures can prevent progression to irreversible or fatal asthma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.50-54. 31 ref.

CIS 02-1225 Meijer E., Grobbee D.E., Heederik D.
Detection of workers sensitised to high molecular weight allergens: A diagnostic study in laboratory animal workers
To develop a diagnostic rule to predict sensitization to high molecular weight allergens in laboratory animal workers, data from 551 laboratory animal workers over a period of 3 years was used. Serum samples were analysed for specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against common and laboratory animal allergens. Questionnaire items, exposure determinants, IgE serology, skin prick tests (SPTs) and lung function tests were analysed in a multiple logistic regression model. It was found that work-related asthmatic symptoms, allergic symptoms, sex, occupational exposure to rats and a positive SPT to common allergens showed the best performance in identifying workers at high or at low risk of being sensitized. The method can easily be applied in occupational medical practice.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.59, No.3, p.189-195. Illus. 22 ref.

2001

CIS 03-929 Pelle-Duporte D., Gendre J.C.
Outbreaks of ornithosis in a poultry processing plant
Epidémies d'ornithose dans un abattoir de volailles [in French]
Psittacosis or ornithosis, also known as avian chlamidiosis, is an infectious zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci bacteria, of which birds are the usual vectors. In humans, it causes pneumopathy and other flu-like symptoms. The two outbreaks described in this article occurred in a poultry processing plant in the west of France. Thanks to their knowledge of the work environment, occupational physicians were able in both cases to establish a diagnosis and to coordinate the inquiry among workers and their physicians, thereby enabling a prompt and efficient treatment of the affected workers. These two outbreaks are not isolated cases, other instances having occurred in the poultry industry.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2001, No.85, p.49-57. 22 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/epidemies_ornithose_dans_abattoir_volailles.html [in French]

CIS 03-111
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Prevention of accidents caused by venomous animals
Prevenção de acidentes com animais peçonhentos [in Portuguese]
Aimed at workers exposed to risks of accidents from venomous animals, this booklet lists the various dangerous species in Brazil, gives practical advice on the prevention of accidents and explains the measures that need to be taken in the event of an accident. Contents: accidents caused by snakes; accidents causes by spiders, scorpions or tarantulas; accidents caused by bees, wasps or ants; personal protective equipment; addresses of Brazilian poison centres and national coordination programme for the control of accidents due to venomous animals.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 46p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: BRL 10.00.

CIS 02-1931 Belisario A., Cipolla C., Nucci C., Auletti G., Nobile M., Raffi G.B.
Four-year follow-up of a group of workers with allergic sensitization employed in breeding of insects for biological pest control
Follow-up di 4 anni in un gruppo di lavoratori con sensibilizzazione allergica addetti alla produzione di insetti per la lotta biologica [in Italian]
As a follow-up to preventive measures (semi-closed cycles, gloves, masks, overalls and sunglasses) implemented after previous reports of sensitization, workers employed in insect breeding were monitored through allergy and respiratory function tests. A decrease in skin sensitization for insects and a decrease in allergic conditions (rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma) were found. The application of preventive measures is vindicated.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.125-129. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1277 Richez J.P.
Safety and hygiene in chicken preparation
Sécurité et hygiène pour la préparation des poulets [in French]
This article describes the efforts undertaken to reduce mechanical hazards in a chicken plant producing over 200,000 chickens per week. On one hand, to satisfy hygiene requirements, it is necessary to have easy access to all surfaces in contact with chickens so as to be able to clean them with high-pressure water jets. On the other hand, operators should be kept away from moving elements so as to avoid risks of crushing or cuts. After analysing the risks of each job, access to all areas where it was not strictly necessary was restricted with railings, and vertically-lifting gates were installed to control the access to dangerous areas. The article also refers to French regulations, in particular sections R.233-16 and R.233-83 (for the latter see CIS 81-346) of the Labour Code concerning restricting the access to dangerous machinery and the design of machinery used in the food industry for avoiding risks of infection, disease and contagion, respectively.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2001, No.604, p.34-36. Illus.

CIS 02-957 Knox K., Moore J.S.
Predictive validity of the strain index in turkey processing
The Strain Index is a job analysis method for determining if workers are exposed to the risk of developing distal upper extremity disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the Strain Index in a turkey processing plant. Investigators analysed the right and left sides of workers in 28 jobs using the Strain Index and classified them as "hazardous" or "safe" based on the Strain Index score. Subsequently, OSHA 200 reporting data were used to ascertain the occurrence of distal upper extremity disorders retrospectively. If at least one such disorder had occurred on the right or left side during the previous 3 years, that side was classified as "positive." If no such disorder was reported during the previous 3 years, that side was classified as "negative." Evidence of association between the hazard classifications and the morbidity classifications for the 56 sides and the 28 jobs were evaluated. The validity of the Strain Index was confirmed by the observations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.451-462. Illus. 17 ref.

2000

CIS 02-1934 Picciotto D., Provenzani A., Sorrentino S., Vitale F., Vesco G., Caracappa S., Verso M.G.
Rickettsiosis in Sicily and mass media: A not entirely groundless attention
Rickettsiosi in Sicilia e mezzi di comunicazione di massa: attenzione non del tutto immotivata [in Italian]
The prevalence of rickettsial diseases was assessed in Sicily (Italy) with special attention to possible occupational exposure, due to a high number of cases reported in the press. Epidemiological data showed that Sicily was indeed the Italian region where most cases of rickettsiosis occurred. Analysis of the clinical data showed that an occupational risk existed among small farmers, and that there was also a risk for other subjects active in rural areas, due to contact with infected dogs.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.91, No.5, p.494-500. 7 ref.

CIS 02-1933 Duchaine C., Grimard Y., Cormier Y.
Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings
Eight pigpens were visited twice during winter and once during summer to measure the concentrations of biological and chemical contaminants. For each of the premises, the cleanliness, number of ventilators, air temperature, number of animals and building size were noted. Air samples were taken to measure relative humidity, CO2, ammonia, total dust, microbiological counts and endotoxin levels. Significant decreases in bacterial levels, dust, ammonia and CO2 were observed during summer sampling when compared with winter levels. Mould counts were positively correlated with dirtiness scores, while bacterial counts were negatively correlated with this parameter. Bacteria and endotoxins were correlated with the number of animals. Ambient gases (CO2 and ammonia) correlated with each other. Bacteria were the most important contaminant in swine confinement buildings, and endotoxin levels found were also very high.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.56-63. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-1330 Radon K., Garz S., Schottky A., Koops F., Hartung J., Szadkowski D., Nowak D.
Lung function and work-related exposure in pig farmers with respiratory symptoms
To evaluate characteristics of pigsties associated with the development of respiratory morbidity among 100 pig farmers with work-related respiratory symptoms, a standardized questionnaire was used, and lung function assessed immediately before and after pigs feeding. Exposure to dust and endotoxins was determined by personal sampling. Among these farmers, baseline lung function results were shown to be negatively associated with duration of employment, number of pigs on the farm, manual feeding and ventilation. The decrease in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second over the feeding period was negatively correlated with air velocity, whereas respirable dust concentrations were shown to be significant predictors of maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF25/75) decline. In conclusion, among symptomatic pig farmers, those with higher numbers of pigs and longer duration of employment are at highest risk for developing functional impairment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.814-820. Illus. 22 ref.

1999

CIS 01-801 Calvarin C., Gauter J., Midol-Monnet C.
The pork industry in Brittany - Training and prevention
La filière porcine en Bretagne - Formation et prévention [in French]
The objectives of this study of the pig slaughtering and pork processing sector were to identify the needs in terms of occupational safety and health training, to evaluate the approaches implemented by companies operating in this sector, to be aware of the programmes proposed by existing training institutions and to develop plans for possible future action. Based on interviews with companies in the sector, training institutions and other regional organizations, it was observed that the human dimension is not sufficiently recognized, that the conditions for integrating new workers are unsatisfactory, and that problems and system malfunctioning are all too often solved superficially rather that permanently. Proposals include the preparation of a guide for new workers and further work in the field of multiple causality.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 1999. 118p.

CIS 01-261 Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection resulting from ocular exposure
Persons in contact with macaque monkeys are at risk of infection from Cercopithecine herpesvirus (B virus). These infections can be fatal, approximately 40 known cases of fatal human B virus infections being described in medical literature. This information sheet describes the case of a scientific research worker having been infected by a monkey through liquid entering her eye, with a fatal outcome. It describes preventive measures that need to be taken by persons exposed to macaque monkeys, with emphasis on eye protection.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, May 1999. 4p.

CIS 00-442 Norlander C., Ohlsson K., Balogh I., Rylander L., Pålsson B., Skerfving S.
Fish processing work: The impact of two sex dependent exposure profiles on musculoskeletal health
To evaluate the impact of work tasks, physical exposure and psychosocial factors on the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in men and women, in a defined industrial setting, 116 male and 206 female fish industry workers were compared with 129 men and 208 women with more varied work. Physical and psychosocial work load as well as musculoskeletal complaints were recorded by a questionnaire. A physical examination was performed and an observation method was used for work evaluation. Despite superficially similar work, there were clear sex differences in physical exposure and the psychosocial work environment. Work in the fish-processing industry was associated with a high risk of neck and upper limb disorders in women, which was probably mainly due to their extremely repetitive work tasks; their male counterparts had less repetitive work and fewer disorders. Also, a healthy worker effect on neck and upper limb disorders was found. The advantage of a physical examination compared with a questionnaire is clearly shown.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.56, No.4, p.256-264. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 00-168 Kanerva L., Pajari-Backas M.
IgE-mediated RAST-negative occupational protein contact dermatitis from taxonomically unrelated fish species
Topics: case study; cooking; eczema; fingers; fish; hand; immunoglobulins; proteins; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.295-296. 14 ref.

1998

CIS 01-257 Hollander A.
Laboratory animal allergy
Workers exposed to small experimental animals in research establishments were tested with 4 occupational allergens (rat urine, rat fur, mouse urine and mouse fur) and 5 common allergens (grass and tree pollen, cat and dog fur and house dust mites). Total IgE and specific IgE to rat and mouse urinary allergens were determined. The levels of exposure to respirable dust during specific tasks and the entire work shift were measured. A questionnaire was applied to determine the personal history of allergic symptoms, smoking habits and contact with laboratory and domestic animals. A total of 540 laboratory workers exposed to small experimental animals such as mice and rats participated in the study. A significant relationship between the level of exposure to rat urinary aeroallergens as well as atopy of laboratory workers and sensitization to rat allergens was found. A significant relationship was also observed between elevated total IgE and the occurrence of rat and mouse allergy. A higher prevalence of sensitization to rat allergens was found for male workers and smokers but this association was statistically not significant.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Nov. 1998, Vol.48, No.11, p.469-472. 9 ref.

CIS 00-1760 Brunet C.
Monkey alert
Alerte aux macaques [in French]
Topics: experimental animals; fatalities; handling of animals; primates; virus diseases; zoonoses.
Travail et santé, Sep. 1998, Vol.14, No.3, p.38-40, 42. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 99-1878 Previdi M., Marraccini P., Farioli L., Rubino F.M., Colombi A.
Occupational respiratory allergic diseases: Strategies for monitoring the work place, identification of allergens and preventive measures
Allergopatie respiratorie professionali: monitoraggio ambientale, aeroallergeni, prevenzione [in Italian]
The main studies published on the relationship between concentrations of airborne allergens and the development of symptoms are reviewed, focusing on three aeroallergens - wheat flour proteins, latex and laboratory animal allergens. The studies cannot be directly compared because of differences in methods, but they do suggest that low levels of airborne allergens may be sufficient to sensitize individuals. The evidence for a dose-response relationship between exposure and symptoms is indirect and not always clear. In occupational medicine, the presence of severe asthma or other allergic disease is suggested as a criterion for excluding workers from a particular job. Workers that are atopic but do not manifest allergic symptoms should be informed about the risk of developing occupational respiratory diseases, and periodic check-ups are strongly recommended. Standardized methods of measurement of airborne allergens for environmental control are needed to allow comparison between studies and adopt primary preventive measures. Topics: allergens; allergic respiratory disorders; experimental animals; flour; individual susceptibility; latex; literature survey; sensitization.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1998, Vol.89, No.6, p.481-498. 68 ref.

CIS 99-1013
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Working safely with simians: Management of infection risks
Specialist supplement to CIS 97-1356. Topics: biological hazards; experimental animals; infection control; infectious diseases; legislation; rabies; safety guides; United Kingdom; virus diseases; zoonoses.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 24p. 14 ref.

CIS 99-920 Vogelzang P.F.J., van der Gulden J.W.J., Folgering H., van Schayck C.P.
Longitudinal changes in lung function associated with aspects of swine-confinement exposure
A cohort of 171 pig farmers was observed for three years. Mean decline in lung function was 73mL/year for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 55mL/year for forced vital capacity (FVC). A longitudinal decline in FEV1 was associated with the use of quaternary ammonium compounds as disinfectants and also with the use of an automated dry feeding system. The impact of these characteristics in a longitudinal study provides stronger evidence for causal inference than that shown in previous cross-sectional designs. This may be useful in promoting preventive measures. Topics: cohort study; confined spaces; disinfectants; livestock rearing; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; quaternary ammonium compounds; swine; ventilatory capacity; vital capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.12, p.1048-1052. 30 ref.

CIS 99-470 Von Essen S.G., Scheppers L.A., Robbins R.A., Donham K.J.
Respiratory tract inflammation in swine confinement workers studied using induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide
In a study of 24 swine confinement workers and 14 urban normal control subjects, the swine confinement workers were significantly more likely to report wheezing, cough and sinusitis symptoms than were controls. Macrophages were significantly elevated in the induced sputum samples of the swine confinement workers compared to controls, while there was no difference in numbers of neutrophils. A small elevation in mean exhaled nitric oxide was seen in the swine confinement worker compared tocontrols. Spirometry values did not differ between the two groups. These two techniques, induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide, may be used to study airway inflammation in swine confinement workers. Topics: agriculture; nitric oxide; cross-sectional study; determination in exhaled air; livestock rearing; respiratory diseases; sinusitis; sputum cytology; swine; ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1998, Vol.36, No.6, p.557-565. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 99-656 Fisher R., Saunders W.B., Murray S.J., Stave G.M.
Prevention of laboratory animal allergy
A comprehensive programme to reduce exposure to environmental allergens was implemented in a large pharmaceutical company. The programme included education, engineering controls, administrative controls, use of personal protective equipment and medical surveillance. Results of a prospective survey of five years of data showed that the prevalence of laboratory animal allergy ranged from 12% to 22% and that the incidence was reduced to zero during the last two years of observation. Laboratory animal allergy is preventable through the implementation of a comprehensive effort to reduce exposure to allergens. Topics: allergies; experimental animals; health programmes; laboratory work; limitation of exposure; long-term study; medical supervision; pharmaceutical industry; programme evaluation; protective clothing; risk factors; safety training in industry.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1998, Vol.40, No.7, p.609-613. 24 ref.

CIS 98-1724 Sjöstedt L., Willers S., Ørbaek P., Wollmer P.
A seven-year follow-up study of lung function and methacholine responsiveness in sensitized and non-sensitized workers handling laboratory animals
Topics: allergens; allergy tests; asthma; experimental animals; laboratory work; long-term study; pulmonary function; pulmonary ventilation; respiratory function tests; rhinitis; sensitization; Sweden.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.40, No.2, p.118-124. 25 ref.

1997

CIS 01-1239 Renström A.
Allergy to laboratory animals: Risk factors for development of allergy and methods for measuring airborne rodent allergens
Between 10-50% of workers exposed to laboratory animals (mostly rats and mice) develop laboratory animal allergy (LAA) with symptoms of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma or urticaria. Many, although not necessarily those with symptoms, are sensitized (elevated total IgE levels in serum). The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for LAA, and to develop methods for the measurement of aeroallergen exposure. In a prospective study, 225 laboratory technician students were investigated. Two years after graduation, those who worked with laboratory animals (n=38) were re-examined. Nine of them (24%) developed animal work related symptoms and/or specific IgE to the animals (most had both). Significant factors for this development were intensity of exposure (number of hours/month exposed) and exposure to male rodents. Another, cross-sectional, study of 80 workers investigated the risk of developing LAA in research departments with low exposure levels. In this case, risk factors for LAA were Phadiatop positivity, elevated total IgE, allergy to fur animals and exposure to male rodents. Finally, the article describes several newly-developed and sensitive methods used for the measurement of airborne rat and mouse urinary allergens.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1997. viii, 56p. Illus. 125 ref.

CIS 00-178 Kruize H., Post W., Heederik D., Martens B., Hollander A., van der Beek E.
Respiratory allergy in laboratory animal workers: A retrospective cohort study using pre-employment screening data
In a cohort of 99 research workers exposed to laboratory animals (average follow-up time of 9.7 years), 19 people (19.2%) reported laboratory animal allergy (LAA), as defined by a positive response to a set of questions. There were more people with asthmatic symptoms in the high exposure categories, and more atopic than non-atopic people reported asthmatic symptoms. The mean time until development of symptoms of LAA was about 109 months in non-atopic people and 45 months in atopic people. Time until development of symptoms was shorter at higher intensity of exposure, except for those exposed for less than two hours a week. Results indicate that exposure and atopy are significant predictors of LAA and that the risk of developing LAA remain present for a much longer period (>3y) than considered before.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.54, No.11, p.830-835. 13 ref.

CIS 00-255 Alonso Espadalé R.M., Martí Solé M.C., Constans Aubert A.
Work with experimental animals
Trabajo con animales de experimentación [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; data sheet; experimental animals; genetically modified organisms; handling of animals; health hazards; infectious diseases; safe working methods; Spain; vaccination; zoonoses.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 6p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 98-956 Cipolla C., Lugo G., Sassi C., Belisario A., Nucci M.C., Palermo A., Pescarelli M.A., Nobile M., Raffi G.B.
Sensitization and allergic disease in a group of workers employed in breeding insects for biologic diseaseal pest control
Sensibilizzazioni e patologia allergica in un gruppo di lavoratori addetti all'allevamento di insetti utili per la lotta biologica [in Italian]
Topics: allergies; arthropoda; crop protection; insects; Italy; sensitization; skin tests.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1997, Vol.88, No.3, p.220-225. 6 ref.

CIS 98-200 Garcia-Abujeta J.L., Rodriguez F., Maquiera E., Picans I., Fernandez L., Sanchez I., Martin-Gil D., Jerez J.
Occupational protein contact dermatitis in a fishmonger
Topics: case study; eczema; food industry; mollusca; proteins; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; Spain.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1997, Vol.36, No.3, p.163. 7 ref.

CIS 97-1701 Zeitz P.S.
Assessment of occupational risk for hantavirus infection in Arizona and New Mexico
Interviews on work-related activities were conducted among 494 workers (including farmers, labourers, service industry workers) at risk of occupational exposure to rodents infected with the Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the aetiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). While blood tests indicated that none of the workers were infected with the virus, most reported handling rodents or working in areas that had rodent excreta. Findings support the need for recommendations to reduce human contact with rodents in the workplace.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1997, Vol.39, No.5, p.463-467. 16 ref.

CIS 97-1356
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Working safely with research animals: Management of infection risks
Recommendations for the prevention of infections due to contact with laboratory animals. Contents: survey of the hazards (with a table presenting the specific diseases (zoonoses) spread by different species of laboratory animals); control measures - containment and operating procedures; Animal Containment Levels 1-4; decontamination and waste disposal. In appendices: legislation (in the UK) and local rules; information, instruction and training; emergency procedures; genetic modification; containment of invertebrates.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 1997. vi, 55p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 7.95.

CIS 97-1350 Das I., Fraise A., Wise R.
Are glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in animals a threat to human beings?
A brief case study is presented of a truck driver who suffered a compound fracture of the femur while working in a chicken-packaging factory. Tests showed that the wound was infected with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), commonly found in animals treated with a glycopeptide growth promoter (avoparcin). Identification of VRE in the chicken factory suggests that the infection was transmitted from the poultry.
Lancet, 5 Apr. 1997, Vol.349, No.9057, p.997-998. 5 ref.

CIS 97-1349 Neumann-Haefelin D., Schweizer M.
Nonhuman primate spumavirus infections among persons with occupational exposure - United States, 1996
A serosurvey of workers potentially exposed to simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) identified SIV seroreactivity in samples from three workers who had worked with nonhuman primates for several years. Laboratory findings and case reports of the three infections are presented. Results indicate that SIVs from nonhuman primates can persistently infect exposed humans and may or may not cause disease or be transmitted among humans. Article reproduced from MMWR 1997; 46:110-111 of the US Centers for Disease Control.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 12 Mar. 1997, Vol.277, No.10, p.783-785.

CIS 97-1011 Krakowiak A., Szulc B., Górski P.
Occupational respiratory diseases in laboratory animal workers: Initial results
Sixty workers occupationally exposed to laboratory animals underwent respiratory function and skin tests. For the skin tests, both common allergens and hair extracts from animals were used. Of the workers tested, 26 workers were positive in the skin tests, 5 had bronchial asthma and 4 had occupational allergic rhinitis.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.10, No.1, p.31-36. 21 ref.

1996

CIS 98-151 Vogelzang P.F.J., van der Gulden J.W.J., Preller L., Heederik D., Tielen M.J.M., van Schayck C.P.
Respiratory morbidity in relationship to farm characteristics in swine confinement work: Possible preventive measures
Topics: agriculture; asthma; chronic bronchitis; disinfectants; dyspnoea; livestock rearing; natural ventilation; Netherlands; pulmonary function; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; risk factors; smoking; swine; wood dust.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.30, No.2, p.212-218. 25 ref.

CIS 97-2053 Ejlertsen T., et al.
Pasteurella aerogenes isolated from ulcers or wounds in humans with occupational exposure to pigs: A report of 7 Danish cases
A case report on seven Danish patients employed in livestock rearing who were bitten by pigs. Seven strains of Pasteurella aerogenes, rarely isolated from humans, were found in samples taken from the bite sites. Most bite wounds were located on the lower lateral part of the thigh. Abscess formation was the rule. Incision, drainage and antibiotic treatment were usually necessary.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1996, Vol.28, No.6, p.567-570. 16 ref.

CIS 97-658 Clark K.L., Wills W., Tedders S.H., Williams D.C.
Ticks removed from dogs and animal care personnel in Orangeburg County, South Carolina
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from animals and workers at veterinary clinics and animal shelters in Orangeburg County, South Carolina, USA from April to December 1994. A total of 623 ticks were collected; 21 from humans and 602 from dogs and cats. The most common species collected was Dermacentor variabilis, the American dog tick, known to be associated with various diseases including tick-borne rickettsial fever and tick paralysis. The medical and veterinary importance of the most frequently occurring species are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.4, p.45-55. 44 ref.

CIS 96-2149
Health and Safety Executive
Working with animals in entertainment
This data sheet provides advice for production activities involving animals on stage, in a studio or on location. Potential hazards are identified (bites, stings, kicking or crushing, infection, allergy, exposure to harmful veterinary products), legal requirements for risk assessment are outlined and basic precautionary measures are suggested.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1996. 2p. 3 ref.

CIS 96-2309 Erlam A.R., Johnson A.J., Wiley K.N.
Occupational asthma in greenhouse tomato growing
An employee in a commercial tomato growing greenhouse developed asthma of increasing severity over a period of eight years. Occupational asthma was diagnosed. Initial allergy testing was negative, but further investigation of the workplace gave rise to suspicion of arthropod allergy. Immunological testing confirmed sensitization to red spider mite.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.46, No.2, p.163-164. 9 ref.

CIS 96-1706 Hodgson L., Dixon J., Taylor R., Boocock G.
A safety officer's notes: Rough guide to dogs
The hazards of dog attacks on electricity metering staff are described and precautions are outlined. Typical behaviour patterns of different breeds of dogs are described along with ways of approaching them, first aid in case of a dog bite, reporting of incidents and legal provisions in the United Kingdom.
Safety Review (Electricity Association), Sep. 1996, No.60, insert p.i-vii. 2 ref.

CIS 96-1083 Galindo P.A., Melero R., García R., Feo F., Gómez E., Fernández F.
Contact urticaria from chironomids
A 35-year-old man, with a previous history of propifenazone allergy, worked in a chemist's (drugstore), but as a hobby, kept fish in an aquarium at home. He fed these fish with dried Chironomus plumosus and frozen Chironomus spp red midge larvae. He gave a six-year history of contact urticaria 15min after handling such fish food: conjunctivitis and eyelid oedema could also occur. The urticaria resolved spontaneously in 1-2h and from then on he handled the frozen chironomus spp with latex gloves without any problems. Specific IgE for Chironomus thummi was strongly positive at 56.1kU/L; total IgE was normal (86.5kU/L). There were strong positive reactions to prick tests with both frozen and dried Chrionomus extracts. No such positive reactions were obtained in 10 healthy and 10 atopic subjects, although a rub test with both kinds of fish food showed local urticaria after 15min. This is the second known case of Chironomus allergy to be reported from Spain.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.297. 5 ref.

1995

CIS 97-831 Preller L., et al.
Determinants of dust and endotoxin exposure of pig farmers: Development of a control strategy using empirical modelling
Personal exposure to dust and endotoxin was measured among 198 Dutch pig farmers. For each participant 8h measurements were made twice, once in the Summer of 1991 and once in the Winter of 1992. Empirical statistical modelling was applied to identify activities and farm characteristics associated with exposure. Aspects of hygiene and feeding were major characteristics associated with dust exposure. Flooring and feeding were predominant characteristics explaining variation in endotoxin exposure. Activities performed frequently, like feeding and controlling, cleaning activities and activities in which very active animals were involved, such as teeth cutting and ear tagging, were associated with exposure to dust and endotoxin. The models were used to set priorities for the development of control measures to eliminate the dust and endotoxin hazard of pig farmers.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1995, Vol.39, No.5. p.545-557. 42 ref.

CIS 96-1886 Botham P.A., Lamb C.T., Teasdale E.L., Bonner S.M., Tomenson J.A.
Allergy to laboratory animals: A follow up study of its incidence and of the influence of atopy and pre-existing sensitisation on its development
This follow-up prospective study investigated the incidence of allergy to laboratory animals (ALA) during the first two years of employment, and the effect on ALA of atopy and sensitization. The incidence of the disease during the first year of employment has remained at about 10% since the mid-1980s. The reduction in incidence and its maintenance at a lower level is thought to be due to the introduction and management of improved engineering controls, working practices, and educational programmes designed to reduce exposure to allergens from laboratory animals. The underlying incidence of immunological sensitization to animals (the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to animal allergens) is much higher (40% after one and 53% after two years of exposure). Both atopic diathesis and pre-sensitization to laboratory animals increased the likelihood that a person would develop ALA. Neither factor predicted the disease accurately, therefore their use should be restricted to the identification of people who may be more susceptible to the development of ALA.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.52, No.2, p.129-133. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 96-1085 Jones R.B., Kacergis J.B., MacDonald M.R., McKnight F.T., Turner W.A., Ohman J.L., Paigen B.
The effect of relative humidity on mouse allergen levels in an environmentally controlled mouse room
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.398-401. Illus. 12 ref. ###

CIS 96-1094 Tong D.
Coral dermatitis in the aquarium industry
Case report of an aquarium shop worker with a history of hay fever and contact allergy to prawns who developed dermatitis after contact with coral while changing a tank. Previous reports of skin reactions to corals had been of divers in the natural habitat of these organisms.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1995, Vol.33, No.3, p.207-208. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 96-1089 Ellis B.A., Mills J.N., Childs J.E.
Rodent-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses of importance to agricultural workers
The aetiology, epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and prevention of rodent-borne haemorrhagic fever viruses are discussed. The family Arenaviridae includes Lassa virus, which causes Lassa fever in West Africa, and four South American viruses, Junín, Machupo, Guanarito and Sabiá. At least three members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae, cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. Sin Nombre virus is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome that has resulted in about 100 cases since its discovery in southwestern USA in 1993. Agricultural workers are particularly at risk because of the increased likelihood of exposure to rodents in rural environments.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.4, p.7-44. 178 ref.

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