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Biological hazards - 589 entries found

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  • Biological hazards


CIS 09-1375 Tschopp A., Joller H., Jeggli S., Widmeier S., Steffen R., Hilfiker S., Hotz P.
Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers in workers exposed to sewage: A prospective cohort study
Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). To assess the incidence of clinical hepatitis E and peptic ulcers and the seroconversion rate of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure, 332 workers exposed to sewage and a control group of 446 municipal manual workers entered a study with clinical examination and determination of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV. Findings are discussed. Overall, sewage does not appear to be a source of occupational infection by H. pylori or HEV in trained sewage workers with personal protective equipment working in a region with good sanitation infrastructure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.45-50. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1135 Kayumba A.V., Bråtveit M., Mashalla Y., Baste V., Eduard W., Moen B.E.
Working conditions and exposure to dust and bioaerosols in sisal processing factories in Tanzania
Information was collected on working conditions and personal exposures to dust, bacteria, and fungi in sisal fiber processing factories in Tanzania to identify health hazards and possible needs for preventive measures. Walkthrough surveys were performed in six sisal factories. Personal worker breathing zone dust samples were collected during sisal processing and analyzed for concentration of dust and for fungi and bacteria. It was found that workers were exposed to high levels of bioaerosols and most items considered to be a prerequisite for a good working environment were either missing or inadequate.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.165-173. 45 ref.

CIS 09-1165 Dutil S., Mériaux A., de Latremoille M.C., Lazure L., Barbeau J., Duchaine C.
Measurement of airborne bacteria and endotoxin generated during dental cleaning
This study was conducted to characterize bioaerosol generation during dental treatments performed in standardized conditions. Dental cleaning procedures were performed in an isolated treatment room with a controlled ventilation rate. Aerosols concentrations before, during and 2hr after dental treatments were determined using samplers in the breathing zones of dental hygienists. Fluorescence microscopy in combination with culture showed that dental staff and patients were exposed to up to 1.86 E+05 bacteria/m3 generated during treatments. Fortunately, bioaerosols returned to baseline within 2h after the dental procedures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2009, Vol.6, No.2, p.121-130. Illus. 62 ref.

CIS 09-943 Rapp R., Fontaine J.R., Henry F., Duquenne P., Koehler V., Greff G., Liang S., Görner P., Becker A.
Air diffusion in sorting rooms at domestic waste treatment centres - Which work station ventilation system?
Diffusion de l'air dans les salles tri des centres traitement des ordures ménagères - Quelle ventilation au poste de travail ? [in French]
Domestic waste sorting may be the cause of respiratory or digestive diseases for employees in the waste treatment sector. Site measurements have led to the proposal of ventilation-based prevention methods for reducing biocontamination risk in manual sorting rooms. Each operator is positioned in a unidirectional fresh air flow. Ventilation system performance characteristics were evaluated by measuring dust concentrations, biological indicators and climatic parameters, providing an estimate of the personnel's thermal comfort. Findings are based on a design study involving two pre-sorting cabins before and after modifying the ventilation systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2009, No.215, p.19-28. Illus. 28 ref.$File/ND2309.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-711 David C., Boucher D., Laffaire J.B., Peyret P., Duquenne P., Brugnot C.
Monitoring microbiological flora in grease bacterial degradation fountains
Suivi de la flore microbiologique des fontaines de biodégradation des graisses [in French]
Grease bacterial degradation fountains consist of a tank containing a surfactant inoculated with a mixture of bacteria. Monitoring the microbiological flora of several fountains for one year allowed assessing the biological hazards. Bacteria quantification gave a concentration of 3.4 x105 CFU/mL. Microorganism identification revealed the presence of moulds and numerous bacterial species different from those initially seeded in the fountains. These microorganisms could originate from the working atmosphere or the personnel. A number of prevention measures are recommended, based on the potential risks of the identified germs and the type of exposure when using the tanks.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.214, p.25-35. Illus. 8ref.$File/nd2304.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-429 Exposure limits at the workplace 2009 [Switzerland]
Grenzwerte am Arbeitsplatz 2009 [in German]
Valeurs limites d'exposition aux postes de travail 2009 [Suisse] [in French]
List of exposure limits at the workplace for 2009 in Switzerland. Contents: exposure limits for harmful substances; list of average and limit exposure values; permissible biological exposure indices; permissible values for physical agents at the workplace (ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, noise and vibration, compressed air, infrared radiation). Replaces CIS 07-673.
Suva, Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2009. 152p. Illus. [in German] [in French]


CIS 11-0300 Crook B., Easterbrook A., Stagg S.
Health and Safety Executive
Exposure to dust and bioaerosols in poultry farming: Summary of observations and data
The poultry industry in the United Kingdom involves a range of activities including laying litter, populating with young birds, depopulating (reducing bird density during growth or removing at the end of the cycle), litter/manure removal, cleaning houses after depopulation, and routine maintenance and housework. The objective of this study was to measure workers' exposure to airborne dust and bioaerosols associated with these tasks in a representative cross-section of commercial poultry production. In total, eleven sampling visits to eight different farms were undertaken. The results showed that, at maximal exposure, poultry workers were exposed to total inhalable dust levels exceeding 10 mg/m3 during most activities. Exposure to airborne bacteria potentially exceeded one million cfu/m3 of air in each of the activities monitored. Maximal endotoxin levels ranged according to task from 30 to more than 38,000 EU/m3. Maximal airborne fungal concentrations ranged from 2,000 to 600,000 cfu/m3. Implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 62p. Illus. 20 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_655.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0796 van Larebeke N.A., Sasco A.J., Brophy J.T., Keith M.M., Gilbertson M., Watterson A.
Sex ratio changes as sentinel health events of endocrine disruption
This review article on sex ratio changes as an early indicator of endocrine disruption presents the findings of recent epidemiological and mechanistic studies. The sex ratio in human populations can be readily measured to ascertain whether reproductive effects, such as subtle birth defects of the reproductive tract caused by exposures to chemicals, might be occurring. Male to female sex ratios appear to be declining in populations in several parts of the globe, possibly as a result of prenatal exposures to chemicals. Sex ratio data for communities with unusual occupational or environmental exposures can be compiled using traditional epidemiological techniques.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol. 14, No.2, p.138-143. 77 ref.
Sex_ratio_changes.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1377 De Schryver A., Cornelis K., Van Winckel M., Moens G,, Devlies G., Derthoo D., van Sprundel M.
The occupational risk of Heliobacter pylori infection among workers in institutions for people with intellectual disability
This study evaluated Helicobacter pylori infection among 671 workers of two mental institutions for people with intellectual disability in Belgium. The study also included 439 administrative workers from other sites as a reference group. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and employment were collected by means of a questionnaire, and subjects underwent a serology test. The prevalence of H. pylori antibodies was 40.6% in the study group compared to 29.2% in the reference group. The crude odds ratio for occupational risk was 1.68. After adjusting for the various confounding factors, the odds ratio was even higher (1.98). In multiple logistic regression analysis, faecal contact was found to be an independent risk factor for H. pylori infection.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.587-591. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 09-708 Sernia S.
Tuberculosis biological risk in the workplace: Legislative aspects, specific prophylaxis, new perspectives and management criticalities
Il rischio biologico da tubercolosi in ambito occupazionale: aspetti legislativi, profilassi specifica, nuovi orientamenti e criticità gestionali [in Italian]
This editorial discusses tuberculosis risks at the place of work, addressing diagnosis (skin tests, blood tests) and prophylaxis (vaccination, health surveillance), with reference to Italian legislation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.1-16. Illus. 9 ref. [in Italian] [in English]

CIS 09-582 Peate W.F., Mullins J.
Disaster preparedness training for tribal leaders
This short report describes a training programme set up to ensure that Native American communities were adequately informed and trained to implement coordinated response plans for a range of potential public health emergencies on tribal lands and in surrounding communities. The commentary outlines how specific cultural aspects (including for example a public prayer by an elder during the training), respect for tribal sovereignty, presentation of historical examples of indigenous preparedness, and incorporation of tribal community networks were essential to the success of this programme.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.2, 5p. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-712 Musharrafieh U.M., Bizri A.R.N., Nassar N.T., Rahi A.C., Shoukair A.M., Doudakian R.M., Hamadeh G.N.
Health care workers' exposure to blood-borne pathogens in Lebanon
The objective of this study was to assess the pattern of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) at a 420-bed hospital in Beirut, Lebanon. A total of 1,590 BBF exposure-related accidents reported to the Infection Control Office over a 17-year period were retrospectively analysed. Results are expressed in terms of long-term trends, categories of personnel exposed and causes of the incident. The study shows that health care workers continue to be exposed to blood-borne pathogens. Findings and their implications are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.94-98. Illus. 29 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-458 Lagoma Loren L.
Occupational hazards due to exposure to prions
Riesgos laborales derivados de la exposición a priones [in Spanish]
Prions are considered to be live biological agents according to the technical guide for biological agents. They may cause diseases among exposed workers that are particularly serious and for which, at the present time, there is no known efficient treatment. Following an introduction on the general aspects of prion properties and their mode of transmission, this article discusses the appropriate preventive and protective measures based on the occupational activity and the type of infectious material being handled.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2008, No.50, p.14-19. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 09-317 Clin B., Stosse-Guevel C., Marquignon M.F., Verneuil L., Letourneux M.
Professional photosensitive eczema of fishermen by contact with bryozoans: Disabling occupational dermatitis
Eczema associated with bryozoans is a form of occupational contact dermatitis caused by a living organism, occasionally associated with photosensitivity and essentially concerning fishermen. It can be extremely disabling and often giving rise to major social consequences since the eviction of the responsible allergen generally requires occupational reclassification, a measure which fishermen have great difficulty in accepting. Based on the description of three cases of photosensitive eczema associated with contact with the bryozoan Alcyonidium gelatinosum among fishermen from the English Channel coastline, this article describes the characteristics of this occupational dermatitis and its prevention.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.45-52. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 09-457 Miraz Novás C.
Hygiene evaluation of occupational biological hazards in the animal house of a health research facility
Evaluación higiénica de riesgos biológicos del trabajo en estabulario de un centro de investigación sanitaria [in Spanish]
The purpose of this study was to assess the biological hazards to which workers in the animal facilities of a health research facility are exposed in order to determine the need for preventive measures. The methodology used involved identification of the microorganisms present, damage to health, routes of transmission, possibility of vaccination and percentage of vaccinated personnel, and the existing hygienic measures. Findings highlight the need of further preventive measures, particularly for the control of Leptospira and Brucella.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.97-103. Illus. 8 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 09-393 Sikkeland L.I.B., Skogstad M., Øvstebø R., Brusletto B., Haug K.B.F., Kongerud J., Eduard W., Kierulf P.
Circulating lipopolysaccharides in the blood from "bioprotein" production workers
Workers producing bacterial single-cell protein (bioprotein) are exposed to organic dust containing high levels of endoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS). Workers in this industry have complained of episodes of fever, fatigue, chest tightness, skin dryness and rubor. The aim of this study was to quantify LPS and inflammatory mediators in plasma in eight non-smoking production and eight non-smoking, non-exposed controls. Airborne and plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured, as well as plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein and different cytokines, chemokines and metalloproteinases. The workers who did not use personal respiratory protection were exposed to varying airborne levels of endotoxin (75-15,000 EU/m3). The level of plasma LPS was significantly elevated among the workers compared to the non-exposed controls. The workers also had increased levels of several inflammatory cytokines.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.211-214. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 09-70 Guseva Canu I., Rogel A., Samson E., Benhamou S., Laplanche A., Tirmarche M.
Cancer mortality risk among biology research workers in France: First results of two retrospective cohorts studies
The mortality of two cohorts of French biological research workers was compared with that of the French population. Standardized mortality ratio (SMRs) were significantly below 1.00 in both cohorts for all-cause mortality and for all-cancer mortality. There were some specific cancers for which the SMR was higher than 1.00, but not significantly. In one of the cohorts, a relationship was observed between ionizing radiation cumulative doses and all-cause as well as all-cancer SMRs. This needs to be confirmed with more precise assessment of exposures and additional information on individual risk factors.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.777-785. 21 ref.

CIS 09-193 Johnson D.L., Lynch R.A.
An efficient analytical method for particle counting in evaluating airborne infectious isolation containment using fluorescent microspheres
The containment efficiency of patient isolation enclosures in hospitals must be verified to protect staff, other patients and visitors. This article reports on the development and validation of a simple technique to measure the low count concentrations of escaping airborne particles that might be present outside an isolation enclosure, based on micrometer-sized fluorescent polystyrene latex microspheres as a surrogate for pathogenic bioaerosols. Particles are released into the isolation enclosure and air is sampled inside and outside the room to capture airborne particles on 25mm diameter filters, which then allows the number of particles to be quantified using a random field counting approach. The method was found to be specific, sensitive and accurate.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.271-277. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-1461 David C.
Contamination of aqueous metalworking fluids and prevention of biological hazards
Contamination des fluides de coupe aqueux et prévention des risques biologiques [in French]
Cutting fluids are used in metalworking processes. Various diseases, often associated with cutting fluid constituents, have been observed among exposed users. Cutting fluids are colonized by microorganisms, potentially giving rise to a biological hazard for operators. This article describes in detail the mechanisms of microorganism proliferation, lists the main biological agents identified in the fluids and reports their possible implication in pathologies observed in operators. Finally, maintenance and prevention measures are recommended for controlling biological proliferation in metalworking fluids.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2008, No.211, p.31-43. Illus. 45 ref.$File/ND2290.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-1462 Jolly H.
Biological hazards: Real nature of the problem in the construction sector
Risque biologique: quelle réalité dans le BTP? [in French]
Through many of the diverse activities of the construction sector, workers may be faced with biological hazards. This article reviews the biological agents that can be encountered in the sector (hepatitis A, influenza and poliomyelitis viruses, legionella, leptospira and tetanus bacilli, Candida alibicans and Entamoeba hystolica), diseases they cause, modes of contamination and preventive measures (disinfection of premises, ventilation, personal protective equipment, vaccination).
Prévention BTP, June 2008, No.108, p.48-50. Illus.

CIS 08-1210 Rybacki M., Michowicz A.
Exposure to viruses at the workplace, with the example of viral hepatitis
Zagrożenia wirusowe w miejscu pracy na przykładzie wirusowego zapalenia wątroby [in Polish]
The characteristics of hepatitis B and C viruses are presented, together with their infection mechanisms. The occupational groups most exposed to infection hazards from these viruses are mentioned, together with the methods of prevention and treatment.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2008, No.1, p.10-16. Illus.

CIS 08-1222 Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
The exposure control plan is the focal point of any programme aimed at the prevention of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. It details in writing the employer's plan for reducing exposures to bloodborne pathogens and explains what steps to take when an exposure occurs. Aimed at employers of first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement), this leaflet outlines the basic elements of an exposure control plan and how to develop such a plan. See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1221.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1221 Encourage your workers to report bloodborne pathogen exposures
Aimed at employers, this leaflet outlines the importance of encouraging first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) to report exposures to bloodborne pathogens. Topics addressed: why employees may be reluctant to report exposures; why employees should report all exposures; how employers can encourage reporting (developing a policy, informing and training personnel). See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1012 Protect yourself. Protect your family. Protect the public
These posters visually reinforce the importance of frontline first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) protecting themselves from work-related exposures to bloodborne pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Protection includes reading the employer's exposure control plan, wearing personal protective equipment and reporting all exposures. See also CIS 08-1221/1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. Two posters. Illus. [in English] [in English]

CIS 08-1208 Muñoz Doncel N., Moreno Toral E., Megias Guijo M.
Biological safety data sheet for the bacterium L. pneumophila
Ficha de datos de seguridad biológica de la bacteria L. pneumophila [in Spanish]
L. pneumophila is the bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Workers with the highest risk of exposure to this bacterium are medical laboratory personnel and maintenance workers of systems in which the growth of L. pneumophila is likely. This article discusses the data which need to be included in the biological safety sheet on L. pneumophila, which should be considered as being an occupational safety and health tool for use in the information and training of workers.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2008, No.47, p.18-23. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 08-961 Constans Aubert A., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Pérez Nicolás J.
Use of personal protective equipment against biological hazards by health care personnel
Utilización de los equipos de protección individual frente al riesgo biológico por el personal sanitario [in Spanish]
The aim of this questionnaire survey was to examine the degree of use of personal protective equipment against biological hazards in health care centres in Spain. The survey shows that: 87% of the centres have implemented an occupational safety and health policy; approximately 75% claim to apply a management system for personal protective equipment; a large majority supply gloves, eye protection and respirators, and have specified rules for their use; more than 90% of the centres train their personnel on the use of PPEs and inform them on the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of equipment. Other findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.210, p.35-45. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 10-0459 Occupational safety and health manual - Electroplating industry
Manual de segurança e saúde no trabalho - Indústria galvânica [in Portuguese]
This manual covers the occupational safety and health aspects specific to the electroplating industry in Brazil. It is based on the results of a literature survey as well as a field study carried out in 65 enterprises by a multidisciplinary team. It specifies the hazards that are to be found within this industry and proposes preventive measures aimed at protecting the workers and improving productivity. Contents: typology of enterprises and risk factors; field studies; hazard prevention and action programmes; legal aspects.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI), Departamento Regional de São Paulo, Av. Paulista 1313, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2007. 259p. Illus. 60 ref.
Manual_de_SST.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1468 Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite biologični riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZP) [in Bulgarian]
Expertprognos om nya mikrobiologiska arbetsmiljörisker [in Swedish]
Ekspertvarsling om biologiske risici i fremvækst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljø [in Danish]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden biologischen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit (OSH) [in German]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous anaduómenous biologikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [in Greek]
Previsiones de los expertos sobre riesgos biológicos emergentes relacionados con la salud y la seguridad en el trabajo (SST) [in Spanish]
Ekspertprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu bioloogiliste riskide kohta [in Estonian]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä uusia biologisia riskejä [in Finnish]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques biologiques émergents liés à la sécurité et à la santé au travail [in French]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló biológiai kockázatokról [in Hungarian]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi biologici emergenti per la salute e la sicurezza sul lavoro [in Italian]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujos biologinės rizikos, kylančios darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [in Lithuanian]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem bioloģiskiem riska faktoriem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [in Latvian]
Tbassir espert dwar riskji bijoloġiċi emerġenti relatati massaħħa u s-sigurta fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [in Maltese]
Prognose van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde biologische risico's in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca nowo powstających biologicznych czynników ryzyka zawodowego (BHP) [in Polish]
Previsões de peritos sobre os riscos biológicos emergentes relacionados com a segurança e a saúde no trabalho (SST) [in Portuguese]
Previziunea experţilor privind riscurile biologice emergente legate de securitatea şi sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [in Romanian]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich biologických rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia na pracovisku (BOZP) [in Slovak]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih bioloških tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [in Slovenian]
Odborná prognóza vznikajících biologických rizik souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [in Czech]
About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has raised public awareness of biological hazards, such as anthrax at work due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the threat of avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-06 called on the European Agency for Occupational Safety and Health to set up a risk observatory to anticipate new and emerging occupational safety and health risks. The expert forecast on emerging occupational safety and health biological risks was formulated from the results of three consecutive questionnaire-based surveys using the Delphi method. The full report has been analysed under CIS 08-214. This information note summarizes the contents and the findings of this forecast. It is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2007. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. [in Multilingual]

CIS 08-1466 Marziale M.H.P., da Silva E.J., Haas V.J., Robazzi M.L.C.C.
Accidents involving biological material in a hospital of the network on occupational accident prevention - REPAT
Acidentes com material biológico em hospital da Rede de Prevenção de Acidentes do Trabalho - REPAT [in Portuguese]
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyse occupational accidents involving exposure to biological materials that have occurred at a Brazilian university hospital, as well as preventive actions. Data were obtained from the Brazilian occupational accident prevention network (REPAT) for the years 2003 and 2004, and subjected to statistical analyses. Among the approximately 2000 workers employed at that time, 107 accidents were recorded. Most occurred in the morning, among women, and involved a perforating hand injury caused by needles and catheters. Preventive actions including training, visits to work places and individual orientation, need to be revised and expanded.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2007, Vol.32, No.115, p.109-119. Illus. 22 ref. [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1465 Gershon R.R.M., Qureshi K.A., Pogorzelska M., Rosen J., Gebbie K.M., Brandt-Rauf P.W., Sherman M.F.
Non-hospital based registered nurses and the risk of bloodborne pathogen exposure
The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exposure to blood and other body fluids among non-hospital based nurses employed in New York State. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a random stratified sample of nurses. Results were reviewed to identify opportunities for improvement. Nine percent of respondents reported at least one needlestick injury in the 12-month period prior to the study. The percutaneous injury rate was 13.8 per 100 person years. Under-reporting was common; 49% of all percutaneous injuries were never formally reported and 70% never received any post-exposure care. Findings are comparable to data concerning hospital-based nurses. Underreporting is an important obstacle to infection prevention. Risk management strategies appeared to be poorly implemented. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.695-704. 37 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1130 Augustyńska D., Pośniak M.
Harmful agents in the working environment - Permissible levels 2007
Czynniki szkodliwe w środowisku pracy - Wartości dopuszczalne 2007 [in Polish]
This manual lists the occupational exposure limits for chemical, physical and biological harmful agents. The methods of measurement and assessment of occupational exposure to individual substances, as well as the basic rules for limiting exposures are discussed. The European Union directives and Polish regulations specifying employers' obligations with regard to the protection of their employees against harmful exposures to chemical, physical and biological agents are reviewed.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2007. 356p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-1209 Cyprowski M., Piotrowska M., Żakowska Z., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.
Microbial and endotoxin contamination of water-soluble metalworking fluids
The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of microbial contamination of metalworking fluids as a potential source of harmful biological agents in three metalworking plants in Poland. Ten samples of fluids, including four fresh fluids, were analyzed. The analysis showed total bacterial counts ranging from 1.0x101 to 3.2x107 CFU/mL, 60% to 100% of which were Gram-negative bacteria capable of producing endotoxins. The predominant species of bacteria was Shewanella putrefaciens present in 60% of the samples. As for moulds, the predominant species was Acremonium butyric. The average concentration of bacterial endotoxins was 773 EU/mL in used fluids and 285 EU/mL in fresh fluids. A correlation was found between endotoxin concentration and the number of Gram-negative bacteria detected in the fluids. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.365-371. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-1212 Johnson E.S., Zhou Y., Sall M., El Faramawi M., Shah N., Christopher A., Lewis N.
Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: A model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans
A study of mortality from non-malignant causes was conducted between 1949 and 1989 in a cohort of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to infectious agents. Mortality in this cohort was compared with that in a control group of 6081 unexposed workers in the same union, and also with the United States general population. Proportional, standardized and relative mortality ratios were calculated. Significant excesses of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, endocarditis and functional diseases of the heart were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the United States general population. It is hypothesized that zoonotic transmissible agents may be responsible for the occurrence of some of the circulatory, neurological and other diseases observed among these workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.64, No.12, p.849-855. 53 ref.

CIS 08-963 Obuchowska A.
Biological factors in the workplace: Risk assessment
Czynniki biologiczne na stanowisku pracy: Ocena ryzyka [in Polish]
This guide explains how to carry out an evaluation of biological hazards at the workplace. The procedures of hazard evaluation are described and examples of assessments at selected workplaces are included, together with the list of hazardous biological factors (sources, occurrence, modes of transmission and possible effects on human health) and Polish regulatory texts.
Ośrodek Doradztwa i Doskonalenia Kadr Sp. z o.o., ul. Obrońców Westerplatte 32a, 80-317 Gdańsk Oliwa, Poland, 2007. 136p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-684 Villalba Benavides E.
Evaluation of the exposure of electrotherapy care personnel to electromagnetic radiation
Evaluación de la exposición a campos electromagnéticos del personal de electroterapia [in Spanish]
Within the framework of a general evaluation of occupational hazards, an evaluation was undertaken on the exposure to electromagnetic fields among workers providing electrotherapy care. Following a description of electrotherapy equipment and techniques, and of the biological effects of magnetic fields, the evaluation procedure is described. Findings show that workers are exposed to levels of electromagnetic radiation far below threshold limit values. Recommendations are made concerning the surveillance of workers and the protective measures to be implemented.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2007, No.182, p.6-19. Illus. 7 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-537 Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons and jails to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood-borne diseases. This leaflet provides tips to medical service administrators and supervisors for improving the plans aimed at protecting workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which are required by OSHA. These tips include information on the exposure control plan, workers' participation in the selection of equipment, supply and use of personal protective equipment and designating persons responsible for the implementation of the plan and of the vaccination policy.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-536 Bloodborne pathogen exposure
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons and jails to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood borne-diseases. This poster is meant to be informative and reinforce how workers of prison health services can protect themselves from the risk of blood-borne disease transmission.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 1p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-535 Encourage your workers to report blood-borne pathogen exposures
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood-borne diseases. Aimed at prison medical service administrators and supervisors, this leaflet provides explains why workers are sometimes reluctant to report exposure to blood-borne pathogens in correctional facilities and how to encourage them to report.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-534 Let art be your legacy
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how contamination by hepatitis B occurs; it suggests that body artists be vaccinated against hepatitis B and that they attend yearly blood-borne pathogen training. See also CIS 08-532/533.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-533 Good, clean art
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how to reduce cross-contamination within the body art sector. See also CIS 08-532 and 08-534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-532 Look sharp
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card addresses the issues of handling and disposing sharps within this sector of activity. See also CIS 08-533/534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-659 Lavoie J., Beaudet Y., Lemay S., Belzile M., Côté C., Godbout S., Roseberry K.
Air quality in veal calf barns
Qualité de l'air dans les étables de veaux de lait [in French]
It is now recognized that the air quality in buildings used for animal production can affect the workers' quality of life and health as well as the productivity of the animals. Although this situation is well understood in the context of swine production, no study deals with veal calf breeding, which is expanding. The aim of this project was to characterize and quantify, by season, the chemical substances and biological agents present in the air of veal calf production buildings, to determine the risks to human health in relation to standards and guidelines, and to propose simple guidelines enabling facility managers to improve air quality, if needed. Results of the measurements show that there is no serious air quality issue in veal calf barns.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. 102p. Illus. 76 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-468 Clermont H., David C., Duquenne P., Meyer A., Nassar N., Rocher M., Suiro A., Touche S.
Design of laboratories for the analysis of biological matter
Conception des laboratoires d'analyses biologiques [in French]
The objective of this guide is to help persons responsible for designing or renovating laboratories for the analysis of biological matter take account of hazards, and in particular of biological hazards. Various types of laboratories are covered, including medical laboratories, medical practices and laboratories carrying out anatomy and cytological pathology analyses, veterinary laboratories and industrial analytical laboratories. The guide is designed in the form of a check-list of specifications. Based on the type of laboratory, it defines the functions, layouts and design requirements specific to each area of the premises.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2007. 111p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: EUR 12.20. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed999.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-462 Le Bâcle C.
Biological hazards in occupational settings
Les risques biologiques en milieu professionnel [in French]
Protection against biological hazards within the enterprise remains hindered by several obstacles. Their effects being generally neither immediate nor spectacular, they are not considered as having the same priority as other more visible hazards. There is insufficient understanding of these hazards among persons responsible for occupational safety and health. This article presents a concise overview of these hazards and proposes an approach to safety and health based on the type of risk (infections, toxins, immuno-allergies, cancer) and the sector of activity (health care, agriculture, food industry, waste disposal).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.85-96. Illus. 19 ref.$File/PR28.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-329 Sambo L.G., Kisting S., Alli B., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Ansa V.O., Anah M.U., Udoma E.J., Umoh M.S., Gold D., Comlan P., Ezinah F., Nambo Wezet G., Anyunzoghe E.S., Ossoubita B.O., Kibwage J.K., Momanyi G.M., Odondo A.J., Lekei E.E., Akhabuhaya J., Mkalaga H., Clarke E.E., Sutherland D.K.
Infectious diseases
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work; protecting health care workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens; reducing occupational risks to HIV and hepatitis B virus exposure among health care workers in Nigeria. Other topics: addressing psychosocial issues in Africa through the ILO's SOLVE programme; occupational safety and health (OSH) problems among wood processing workers in Gabon; OSH concerns of smallholder tobacco farmers in Kenya; OSH issues in pesticide formulation plants in Tanzania; OSH initiatives aimed at health care workers in Ghana.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2007, Vol.17, No.2, p.31-55 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 08-465 Lot F.
Surveillance of occupational contamination by HIV, HCV and HBV among health care personnel
Surveillance des contaminations professionnelles par le VIH, le VHC et le VHB chez le personnel de santé [in French]
The surveillance of occupational seroconversions among health care personnel is in effect since 1991 for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, or AIDS virus), since 1997 for HCV (or hepatitis C virus) and since 2005 for HBV (or hepatitis B virus). Between 1983 and 2005, 14 HIV seroconversions were notified. Within this surveillance programme, there were also 34 notifications of presumed HIV infections. With respect to HCV, 55 occupational seroconversions were counted between 1991 and 2005. In almost all cases, seroconversions were the result of a percutaneous skin injury. Close to half of the HIV and HCV seroconversions were related to accidents involving an exposure to blood when the putting away or disposal of equipment and therefore could have been avoided by following usual precautions. To this day, no occupational contaminations by HBV have been notified.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2007, No.109, p.51-60. Illus. 13 ref.$File/TF158.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-466 Gómez Murcia J.E., Flórez C.M., Mejía Rodríguez S., González Ó ., Cajigas de Acosta B.E.
Biological safety in the health care sector
Bioseguridad en el sector salud [in Spanish]
Contents of this collection of articles on biological safety in the health care sector: classification of biological waste and infection hazards; biological safety standards and procedures in hospital settings; importance of having equipment that can limit the ambient concentration of infectious agents; biological safety and pathogens; criteria for the selection of single-use or re-usable protective clothing; waste management in hospital settings; workers exposed to blood-borne viral infections (HIV, HBV, HCV).
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2007, Vol.53, No.311, p.51-79. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-469 Guidance on preparing workplaces for an influenza pandemic
A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemic's impact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) therefore developed this pandemic influenza planning guidance based upon traditional infection control and industrial hygiene practices. Topics addressed: how a severe pandemic influenza could affect workplaces; how influenza can spread between people, classifying employee exposure to pandemic influenza at work, how to maintain operations during a pandemic, how organizations can protect their employees; steps every employer can take to reduce the risk of exposure to pandemic influenza in their workplace; what employees living abroad or who travel internationally for work should know.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2007. 43p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-463 Rosenberg N.
Non-infectious occupational respiratory diseases due to biological agents - Sector of waste collection, sorting and recovery
Affections respiratoires professionnelles non infectieuses dues aux agents biologiques - Secteur des déchets: collecte, tri et valorisation [in French]
This information sheet describes the main respiratory symptoms faced by workers involved in collecting and sorting household waste. These include hypersensitivity pneumopathy, organic dust toxic syndrome, ocular, nasal and bronchial irritation symptoms and chronic bronchitis. Prevention is based on avoiding the inhalation of dusts and microorganisms. It includes the design and layout of equipment, machinery and containers, ventilation of work premises, work organization and the use of personal protective equipment suited to the types of exposures and activities.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.229-236. Illus. 27 ref.$File/TR39.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-213 Benvant Nácher S., Machí Alapont M., Moliner Sales I., Soto Ferrando P.
Evaluation of biological hazards at the Rey Don Jaime hospital
Evaluación de riesgo biológico en el hospital Rey Don Jaime [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological hazards faced by the staff of a Spanish hospital and to recommend appropriate preventive measures. The biological hazards were evaluated using the Biogaval methodology. Work involved identifying the microorganisms most likely to be present, and evaluating their health hazards and transmission mechanisms, the percentage of the target populations that are vaccinated and the effectiveness of hygiene measures. High levels of airborne microbial transmission were observed, with the nursing staff of emergency units being particularly at risk.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr. 2007, Vol.LII, No.206, p.9-14. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-212 Moy L.
Spread cheat
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSSH) 2002 of the United Kingdom (see CIS 03-1023) also covers biological agents, which include microorganisms, cell cultures or human endoparasites that can cause infection, allergy toxicity, or otherwise create a hazard to human health. Biological hazards are present in many workplaces, but particularly so in hospitals and the health-care sector. They can pose a significant threat to workers' health. This article outlines how these risks can be reduced, based on a suitable and sufficient risk assessment, coupled with effective infection control measures.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2007, Vol.25, No.8, p.47-50. Illus. 2 ref.

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