Biological hazards - 589 entries found
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Risk of cancer among laboratory workers
A number of rare cancers among workers below 50yrs of age at the Institut Pasteur (Paris, France) prompted an investigation of deaths due to cancer among research laboratory workers of the Institute. The cohort consisted of the 3765 people who had worked at least 6 months in the Institute between 1971 and 1986 (follow-up until end of 1987). Among workers in the cohort, total mortality, deaths from all cancers and from cardiovascular disease were all less than expected, while from cancers of the breast and the ovary, and from leukaemia and lymphoma were close to expected. However, significant excess deaths were found for bone cancer in men, and for pancreatic cancer and brain tumours in women (all in people whose work had been mostly in bacteriology laboratories) - the absolute numbers being in all cases low. More research is being pursued.
Lancet, 5 May 1990, Vol.535, No.8697, p.1097. 1 ref.
Categories of large-scale containment for manufacturing processes with recombinant organisms
Chapter 1 of a major collection of articles on advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Contents: relevant discussions in the Robens' Report (1972) on safety at work, at the Gordon Research Conference on Nucleic Acids held in the US in 1973 and at the Asimolar Conference on recombinant DNA molecules (1975); the 1986 OECD Guidelines for recombinant DNA safety practices (see also CIS 87-550); definitions of containment systems (open and closed (primary and secondary containment) systems; containment of micro-organisms; temporal and biological containment); closed systems in practice; standards of primary and secondary containment; containment in open systems which "minimize release"; comparison of OECD, US and UK guidelines; validation of containment; classification of organisms and processes by categories.
In: Biotechnology and genetic engineering reviews (Volume 7) (editors: Russell G.E. & Tombs M.P.), Intercept Ltd., P.O. Box 716, Andover, Hants SP101YG, United Kingdom, 1989 (ISBN 0-946707-22-7, price: GBP 95.00), p.1-43. Illus. 61 ref.
Comments on proposed rule on occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens
While the Service Employees International Union (SEIU) strongly endorses certain features of OSHA's proposed regulation to reduce occupational exposures to bloodborne infectious diseases, several modifications are suggested in the areas of: coverage of service contractors; compliance hierarchy; exemptions to universal precautions in particular circumstances; proper disposal of needles; quality of personal protective equipment; hepatitis B vaccine; post-exposure follow-up; worker training. Detailed comments are made on each of the OSHA proposals along with SEIU recommendations.
Service Employees International Union, 1313 L Street N.W., Washington, DC 20005, USA, 1989. 42p.
Commission of the European Communities
Health risks of personnel in health-care establishments exposed to chemical and biological agents
Risques pour la santé du personnel exposé aux agents chimiques et biologiques dans les établissements de santé [in French]
This report provides a survey of data on the chemical and biological hazards faced by workers in hospitals and other health-care establishments. Part I describes microbiological hazards (AIDS, hepatitis B, other infectious diseases in hospitals) and appropriate programmes of medical supervision and prevention. Part II is devoted to chemical hazards (ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, chemotherapy agents) and to the requirements of epidemiologic control. Part III deals with certain specific issues (laboratory hygiene, dentistry, handling of blood and blood products). It contains as well recommendations for further research into the occupational health problems of health-care workers.
Office des publications officielles des Communautés européennes, 2 rue Mercier, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1989. ix, 272p. ca. 280 ref. Price: ECU 21.25.
Biosafety in the laboratory: Prudent practices for the handling and disposal of infectious materials
Manual on the safe handling and disposal of hazardous biological materials in the laboratory. Contents: descriptive epidemiology of occupational infections of laboratory workers; safe handling of infectious agents (pathogenic and other microorganisms, hazards from vertebrate animals and from insects, primary and continuous cell cultures, necroscopy and surgical specimens, good laboratory practices, transportation of specimens, prevention of aerosol and droplet generation, containment equipment, biosafety in large-scale and small-volume laboratories); safe disposal of infectious laboratory waste; safety management. Appendices include: guidelines on biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories; recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission; summary of zoonotic pathogens causing disease in man.
National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, USA, 1989. xii, 222p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 29.95.
Liberman D.F., Gordon J.G.
Biohazards management handbook
This handbook is divided into 3 main sections: 1. Facility considerations: design and ventilation of biomedical and other facilities and certification of biosafety cabinets; management programmes for pests and hazardous chemicals; hazard control on the animal research facility. 2. Biosafety principles and practices: laboratory and industrial perspectives on biosafety; hospital epidemiology and infection control; personal protection and hygiene and medical surveillance; infections waste management; safe use and disposal of chemotherapy agents; chemical health risks. 3. Regulatory agency consideration: controlling the release of microorganisms; consideration of OSHA standards as applied to laboratories; training program to meet the OSHA requirement on HBV/HIV.
Marcel Dekker Journals, 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1989. 466p. Illus. Bibl. Price: USD 125.00 (for USA and Canada); USD 150.00 (for all other countries).
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacture and painting
Topics covered include organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacture and painting. Monographs on individual chemicals or complex mixtures contain data on chemical and physical properties and on production, use, occurrence and analysis. Sections covering biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans contain reports of animal studies and human epidemiological studies where available. The monograph on occupational exposure in the painting trades covers a description of paint products, a history of their manufacture, applications in various industries, and current production processes. Studies of workplace exposures are reviewed and biological data on the human carcinogenic risk are presented. Appendices provide a summary table and activity profiles of genetic and related effects.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 535p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: CHF 65.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Genetic Manipulation Regulations 1989 - Guidance on regulations [United Kingdom]
This guidance publication contains the text of the Genetic Manipulation Regulations 1989 (see also CIS 89-1763), together with extensive explicatory text and commentary. Main topics covered: notification of accidents involving genetic manipulation; risk assessment; application outside Great Britain; exemption certificates; revocations; hazard groups for organisms.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 13p. Price: GBP 3.00.
DDT and its derivatives - Environmental aspects
DDT is an organochlorine insecticide whose properties enable it to be readily taken up by organisms. This review covers: the physical and chemical properties of DDT and related compounds; kinetics, metabolism, biotransformation and bioaccumulation; toxicity to microorganisms and aquatic and terrestrial organisms; ecological effects from field application. DDT metabolites are resistant to breakdown and are readily absorbed on to sediments and soils which can then act as long-term sources of exposure. A table summarises laboratory experimental data on the bioaccumulation of DDT in various organisms. Further tables show the toxicity of DDT and its derivatives to aquatic invertebrates, fish, amphibians and birds. It is concluded that widespread use of DDT as an insecticide has resulted in worldwide contamination of the environment. DDT and its metabolites are highly toxic to fish and should be regarded as hazardous to fish productivity and distribution, and hence to human food supplies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 98p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 13.00.
Hazardous waste [Sweden]
Riskavfall [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective 1 Apr. 1990) apply to the handling of hazardous waste resulting from health and medical services, dental care, dispensaries and veterinary medicine. Contents: definitions; general; packing; storage; marking; personal protective equipment and vaccination; cleaning and hygiene. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 16289 Stockholm, Sweden, 14 Apr. 1989. 22p.
AIDS in the workplace
In a survey of 67 corporations done in 1987 and 1988, 66 were found to have had employees with human immunodeficiency virus infections. The numbers and backgrounds of the infected employees tend to correspond to those of the surrounding community. These employees were accommodated in keeping with published public health and social guidelines without significant problems. Responsible intervention should include specific, medically and socially appropriate, policy statements, as well as effective education and various forms of direct care.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.31, No.10, p.839-841. 10 ref.
Paul M., Himmelstein J., Weinstein S., Pransky G., McDougal C., Brogie B., Legendre S.
Ocular infections and the industrial use of microscopes
A cluster of ocular infections occurred in one area of a computer fabrication facility that relied on the use of industrial microscopes. A questionnaire was administered to all employees in this area. Microscope oculars were cultured and compared with control microscopes from a nonindustrial setting. Risk of infection was correlated with the number of hours of microscope use per day and subjective indicators of cleanliness. Bacterial cultures confirmed increased colony counts in industrial oculars compared with control oculars. Hygienic practices were instituted similar to those employed in medical settings. No further outbreaks of conjunctivities have been reported in a 1-year follow-up.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.763-766. 24 ref.
Doyle L., Gallagher K., Health B.S., Patterson W.B.
An outbreak of infectious conjunctivitis spread by microscopes
Among the potential occupational hazards of microscope use is the transmission of infectious agents among employees. A large (145 cases) and costly ($647 000) epidemic of viral conjunctivitis in a microelectronics factory is reported. Spread of the illness appeared to be through sharing of microscopes among employees. Routine handwashing instructions and safety glasses failed to prevent spread of the epidemic. Mandatory screening prior to work and temporary plant shut-down were finally successful. Efforts to control this outbreak and recommendations to prevent similar epidemics in other workplaces are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.758-762. 12 ref.
Schwartz B.S., Goldstein M.D.
Lyme disease: A review for the occupational physician
Lyme disease, a multisystem illness caused by a spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and transmitted to humans by ticks, is increasing in incidence. Outdoor workers in areas of endemic disease are at increased risk of infection. Increased recognition of this fact will be necessary to prevent the disease in working populations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.31, No.9, p.735-742. Illus. 59 ref.
Mortality among non white men in the meat industry
Mortality among 5145 nonwhite men in a local meatcutters' union in Baltimore, who were observed between July 1949 and December 1980, was compared with that of nonwhite men of the United States general population, through the estimation of standardised mortality ratios. The study population had potential for exposure to viruses that cause leukaemia and lymphoma in cattle and chickens and to other harmful agents. Statistically significant standardised mortality ratios of 2.1 for lung cancer and 3.1 for cancer of the oesophagus were observed among workers in abattoirs and meatpacking plants, respectively. The results obtained are consistent with findings for white male and female members of the same union, and with other published data.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.31, No.3, p.270-272. 35 ref.
Health and Safety - The Genetic Manipulation Regulations 1989 [United Kingdom]
Regulations concerning obligatory notification and risk assessment when genetic manipulation is performed in the workplace. Schedules include details of what information must be given in notification forms, and a list of hazard groups for organisms.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 6p. Price: GBP 1.35.
Act of 20 May 1988 concerning the protection of workers against the risks of exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents during work [Luxembourg]
Loi du 20 mai 1988 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à une exposition à des agents chimiques, physiques et biologiques pendant le travail [Luxembourg] [in French]
This Act foresees the issuing of Regulations for protective measures (limitation of exposure, technical preventive methods, establishment of exposure limits, appropriate working methods, collective and personal protection, hygiene, information of workers, warning signs, exposure registers, first-aid measures, absolute prohibition) against risks due to harmful agents in the workplace. Additional measures (medical supervision, access to the results of medical tests, other information measures) are foreseen in case of exposure to the following chemical substances: acrylonitrile, asbestos, benzene, certain chlorinated hydrocarbons, certain other substances and their compounds (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel, lead).
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 27 May 1988, A - No.24, p.519-520.
Occupational pathology of medical and paramedical occupations
Pathologie professionnelle des professions médicales et paramédicales [in French]
The hazards encountered by workers in the health professions are reviewed. These include: infectious hazards including viral infections (viral hepatitis and AIDS) and bacterial infections (principally tuberculosis); physical hazards (ionising radiation); toxic hazards (gaseous and volatile anaesthetics, antiseptics and disinfectants, sterilising agents, medicinal substances and cytostatic drugs); hazards inherent in particular occupational activities (occupational accidents, back disorders, disorders due to stressful postures and hand movements, hours of work, mental stress). For each of these hazards, preventive measures are put forward.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications - Pathologie du travail, 1988. 12p. 48 ref.
Infection control policy
This manual represents the City of New York Department of Health's official policy on infection control in its clinic, laboratory and field sites. Contents: supervision and monitoring of infection control practices; preventive practices (personal hygiene, protective clothing, waste disposal, correct use of equipment, regular daily cleaning of workplaces, precautions during handling and transportation of specimens); accident and emergency procedures and first aid; staff training and education; procedure in response to accidental needle sticks or mucous membrane exposures to potentially infectious materials. Prevention of AIDS infection is the primary aim of the policy.
City of New York Department of Health, 125 Worth St., New York, NY 10013, USA, 1988. 32p.
WHMIS right to know: Class D3: Poisonous and infectious material: Biohazardous infectious material. Module D-3, Participant's guide
Basic information on how to work safely with biohazardous infectious materials is presented. Included is resource information which can be used during and after a training programme. Subjects covered: definition of biohazardous infectious materials, conditions of exposure, health effects, safe working methods and emergency response measures.
Occupational Health and Safety Education Authority of the Workers' Compensation Board of Ontario, 2 Bloor Street East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C3, Canada, Sep. 1988. 25p. Illus. 21 ref.
Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Inactivation of viral haemorrhagic fever specimens with B-propiolactone
These guidelines describe how heparimised or EDTA treated blood specimens suspected of containing certain haemorrhagic fever viruses may be made safe for examination by inactivation with B propiolactone (BPL). Details are given of the characteristics of BPL and precautions to be taken during its use, and of the effect of BPL inactivation of blood on test results. Kits for blood specimen collection are described and a model information and instruction sheet provided for physicians submitting specimens for inactivation. Details are given of the inactivation procedure and the materials required, and accident procedures are outlined for cases of inoculation accident or spillage.
Health Services Division 1B, Room A414, Alexander Fleming House, Elephant and Castle, London SE1 6BY, United Kingdom, 1988. 14p. Illus. Bibl.
International Social Security Association (ISSA)
12th International symposium on the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in the chemical industry
12ème Colloque international pour la prévention des risques et des maladies professionnels dans l'industrie chimique [in French]
Report of a conference held at Frankfurt/Main, Federal Republic of Germany, 6-8 June 1988. The papers and discussions are grouped under the headings: biotechnology and genetic engineering; protection from substances hazardous to health. The papers are printed in their original languages, followed by summaries in English, French and German.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Gaisbergstrasse 11, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 588p. Illus.
Indicators for assessing exposure and biological effects of genotoxic chemicals: Consensus report
Indications pour l'évaluation de l'exposition aux produits chimiques génotoxiques et de leurs effets biologiques: rapport commun [in French]
This document contains the report and conclusions of an international workshop held in Luxembourg in 1987. Nine types of biological monitoring methods are described: methods measuring the chemical or its metabolite in biological media; determination of mutagenic activity in biological material; cytogenetic observations on human somatic cells; detection of gene mutations in somatic cells; determination of protein or nucleic acid adducts; determination of markers of cell proliferation and transformation; determination of DNA repair; sperm assays; determination of nucleic acid damage by products in urine. It is concluded that none of the methods is able to assess exposure and estimate health risk at the individual level, although some methods are able to identify groups who are potentially at risk. Also available from the European Communities in the other official languages.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2985 Luxembourg, 1988. 37p. 2 ref. Price: ECU 5.00.
Council Directive of 16 Dec. 1988 amending Directive 80/1107/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work [EEC]
Directive du Conseil, du 16 déc. 1988, modifiant la directive 80/1107/CEE concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à une exposition à des agents chimiques, physiques et biologiques pendant le travail [CCE] [in French]
Modification of Directive 80/1107/EEC (CIS 81-1610). The main modification refers to the limit values to be established. A new appendix has been added on the reference method referred to in Article 4 (4) (b) of the original text. Given are definitions of the terms "suspended matter and limit value" and requirements to be met in the assessment of exposure and measuring strategy.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 24 Dec. 1988, Vol.31, No.L.356, p.74-78.
Richardson J.H., Barkley W.E.
National Institute of Health
Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories
This publication describes combinations of standard and special microbiological practices, safety equipment and facilities which are recommended for working with a variety of infectious agents in various laboratory settings. Topics covered include: principle of biosafety; laboratory biosafety level criteria; vertebrate animal biosafety level criteria; recommended biosafety levels for infectious agents and infected animals. Agent summary staements are given for a range of agents and for arboviruses. An appendix describes 3 types of biological safety cabinets. A final appendix provides the text of the 1988 agent summary statement for human immunodeficiency virus, and a report on laboratory-acquired infection with human immunodeficiency virus.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 2nd ed., May 1988. 139p. 130 ref. Index.
Mikroorganismer [in Swedish]
This ordinance (effective 1 Oct. 1989) applies to all deliberate use of microorganisms i.e. in laboratories and biotechnology plants. It applies to microorganisms both in their original form and when genetically modified. Contens: general; information and instructions; workroom and technical equipment; personal protective equipment and hygiene; decontamination and waste disposal; classification; warning symbols. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 9 Dec. 1988. 34p.
Council decision of 29 June 1988 revising the multiannual research programme for the European Economic Community in the field of biotechnology [CEC]
Décision du Conseil, du 29 juin 1988, portant révision du programme pluriannuel d'action de recherche pour la Communauté économique européenne dans le domaine de la biotechnologie [CCE] [in French]
The revision of the programme specifies the activities which are to be intensified.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 July 1988, Vol.31, No. L206, p.38-40.
Biological hazards of wool dust
Šerstjanaja pyl' kak biologičeskaja vrednost' [in Russian]
The biological effects of wool dust and its compenents were studied in 60 primary wool processing workers and in experimental animals to obtain a more precise exposure limit. 870 investigations of dust morphology, particle size distribution, physical, chemical and microbiological composition were carried out. Industrial wool dust is a fibrous, coarse-grained industrial aerosol of composite physical and chemical structure, which in combination with impurities of animal and vegetable origin forms an albumin-antigen complex having pronounced allergic and weak fibrogenic effects on the respiratory system. This latter fact might be accounted for by the low free silica level in respirable dust. It seemed advisable that the current MAC values for wool dust (2, 4 and 6mg/m3) be revised and a single exposure limit of 2mg/m3 (the lowest of the three) established instead, regardless of SiO2 content. Comprehensive and efficient control measures should be introduced to reduce workplace air dust levels and microbial contamination.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.14-18. 27 ref.
Precautions against humidifier fever in the print industry
Health and Safety Executive, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside, L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p.
Guide to occupational hygiene
Rukovodstvo po gigiene truda [in Russian]
First of 2 volumes adressed to industrial physicians, specialists in occupational medicine, plant physicians etc. Contents: principles and organisational forms of OSH and occupational medicine, temporary disability, occupational diseases, epidemiologic studies, hygienic and social aspects of women's employment; labour and health legislation; workplace microclimate; industrial dust; noise, vibration, ultrasound and infrasound; ionising radiation; non-ionising radiation; biological hazards; hygienic standards for chemical substances; sources of physical and mental stress, and prevention of their unfavourable effects.
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1987. Vol.1, 368p. 62 ref. Price: SUR 1.60.
Maroni M., Colombi A., Alcini D., Foà V.
Health risks in the biotechnology industry
Rischi per la salute nell'industria delle biotecnologie [in Italian]
Study of the specific risks of the biotechnology industry. They are: immunological diseases (bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, oculo-rhinitis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis) - in some sectors (bioenzymes, pharmaceuticals, animal husbandry), such diseases may affect up to 30% of workers; immune deficits due to exposure to antiblastic drugs, immunodepressive substances or radiations; toxic effects due to exposure to antibotics and hormones; pathological effects of microorganisms (mycoses of the skin, exposure to antiviral vaccines, possible effects of exposure to microorganisms with recombinant DNA). Preventive methods are recommended.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1987, Vol.78, No.4, p.272-282. 20 ref.
Choudat D., Le Goff C., Delemotte B., Paul G., Mady V., Fages J., Conso F.
Occupational exposure to animals and antibodies against Pasteurella multocida
The relation between occupational exposure to cattle and prevalence of antibodies against the coccobacillus Pasteurella multocida was evaluated in 680 workers. Three groups of exposed workers in slaughterhouses (S), industrial breeding (I), and traditional breeding (T) were compared with control workers not exposed to cattle or chickens (C). The prevalence of antibodies against capsular antigen A was significantly higher in the exposed groups (S:26.2%; I:29.0%; T:32.1%) than in the control group (C:14.0%). The prevalence of antibodies against one or more somatic antigens 1,2,3,7,8, or 9 was higher in the exposed groups. There was also a significant relation between antibodies against capsular antigen A and contacts with pets. This high prevalence of antibodies suggests that infection is frequently subclinical, and that it is not only associated with pets but also with occupational exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.44, No.12, p.829-833. Illus. 13 ref.
Burge H.A., Chatigny M., Feeley J., Kreiss K., Morey P., Otten J., Peterson K.
This draft protocol, by an ACGIH committee, is designed for the investigation of building-related complaints that are likely to be the result of bioaerosols. Covered are: preassessment (walkthrough, presumptive sources, reservoir and amplifier samples); air sampling (objective, sampling volume and replicates, where to sample); general sampling procedures (viable particle sampling, total spore counts, microaerosols, sedimentation, calibration, sampler disinfection, culture plates and media, quality control); handling and processing of samples (incubation, enumeration of organisms and spores, assessment of submicronic antigens and toxins, enumeration of taxa); data interpretation; recommendations for remedial actions; sampling after remedial action.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Sep. 1987, Vol.2, No.5, p.R-10-R-16. Illus. 13 ref.
Di Martino V., Yoxen E., Wakeford R.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
The impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions: A selected bibliography
Bibliography listing ca. 600 articles, books, reports and other documents relating to the impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions. Chapters cover: work employment and industry; medicine; environment; agriculture; society and government. Most citations are accompanied by abstracts. Indexes by author and keyword.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1987. 107p. Price (excluding VAT): ECU 9.40, BEF 400.00, IEP 7.30, GBP 7.10, USD 10.90.
Immunizations among hospital personnel
To minimise the likelihood of transmission of certain infectious diseases within the hospital, the 5 million US health care personnel are becoming a special target group for immunisation programmes. A review of immunisations conducted by a hospital employee health service demonstrated that 80% of hospital employees are adequately protected against tetanus/diphtheria, and 97% are immune to rubella. In contrast, only 28% of at-risk employees are immunised against hepatitis B and only 2% are immunised against influenza. Vaccination programmes for tetanus/diphtheria and rubella, which are supported by appropriate legislation, are more effective than vaccination programmes for hepatitis B and influenza, which are not supported by appropriate legislation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1987, Vol.29, No.5, p.433-436. 8 ref.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
The impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions
Die Auswirkungen der Biotechnologie auf die Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen [in German]
L'impact de la biotechnologie sur les conditions de vie et de travail [in French]
This consolidated report on 4 research reviews of different aspects of biotechnology covers: general considerations of biotechnology; biotechnology and health care; the impact of biotechnology on agriculture (substitution, changes in the sources of carbohydrates); the impact of biotechnology on work and employment; environmental aspects (accidental or deliberate release of genetically engineered organisms, applications of biotechnology in pollution control, environmental impact of substitution by fermentation processes - the case of ethanol). Conclusions and suggestions for further research.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1987. 114p. 145 ref. Price (excluding VAT): ECU 8.10, BFR 350.00, IEP 6.30, GBP 5.80, USD 9.20.
Occupational hazards in hospitals: risk of infection
In this review of the risk of infection to hospital staff, attention is drawn to the continuing risk presented by hepatitis B and pulmonary tuberculosis, which are more common than diseases such as typhoid fever, brucellosis, histoplasmosis, whooping cough, infectious gastroenteritis, measles, and parotiditis. Other items considered include the susceptibility of female hospital staff to rubella and the importance of their undergoing screening and vaccination; the risks currently presented by epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and by herpes viruses (herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and cytomegalovirus); and the risk of contracting the new infectious diseases (Legionnaires' disease, Marburg disease, Lassa fever, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1987, Vol.44, No.7, p.435-442. 154 ref.
Department of Labor and Industry
Minnesota Rules - Chapter 5206: Hazardous Substances; Employee Right-to-Know [USA - Minnesota]
Standards (updated to 2003) implementing the provisions of the Employee Right-to-Know Act of 1983. Contents: definitions; scope (all employers and employees in Minnesota, except for certain "technically qualified individuals" [in the medical or research fields], workers on farms employing 10 or fewer people, waste service employees and laboratory workers; however, some provisions may apply to workers in the exception categories as well); hazardous substances (list of approx. 1200 substances, with CAS number and codes indicating source for authoritative exposure limits or hazard codes); list of harmful physical agents (heat, noise, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation); list of infectious agents (classified by type, and with codes indicating source of authoritative hazard codes); training requirements; availability of information (data sheets); labelling requirements; certification of existing labelling programmes; specific provisions for the provision of training programmes for farming operations in relation to hazardous substances and harmful physical agents.
Internet document, 1986-. 59p.
http://www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/arule/5206/ [in English]
Čečura A.N., Dhaginjan A.I., Šljaheckij N.S., Andreeva L.N.
Immunological shifts in workers due to contact with biological factors in the industrial environment
Osobennosti izmenenija immunologičeskih pokazatelej u rabočih pri kontakte s biologičeskimi faktorami proizvodstvennoj sredy [in Russian]
Ninety-six workers occupationally exposed to a range of biological factors (length of exposure: 1 month to 8yrs or more) were examined for changes in the immune system. All had positive skin reactions to Candida maltosi and depression of all elements of the immune system. This case shows a typical combination of increased sensitisation with depression of the immune system. Disturbances in certain elements of the immune system in patients with skin and pulmonary pathology indicate direct and active participation of immune reactions in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1986, No.10, p.17-20. Illus. 8 ref.
Effect of dairy farming on the health of farmers - Spirometric, serological, and allergological study of the effects of the indoor cattle-feeding season
Karjanhoitotyön vaikutus viljelijöiden terveyteen - Spirometrinen, serologinen ja allergologinen tutkimus karjan sisäruokintakauden vaikutuksista [in Finnish]
The study group consisted of 91 randomly selected, healthy, non-smoking dairy farmers and 90 controls (teachers). A 6-month follow-up showed a significant deterioration of mean forced vital capacity in the farmers, suggesting the development of a restrictive defect of lung function. There were no significant changes in the controls. The mean titres of antibodies to Aspergillus umbrosus in the farmers was significantly higher than in the controls. Mean titres of antibodies to Micropolyspora faeni, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Aspergillus fumigatus did not differ between study groups. This confirmed that Aspergillus umbrosus is one of the most important sources of mould exposure in dairy farming in Finland. Skin test reactivity to cow epithelium and oat pollen was greater among the farmers than among the controls, implying that these 2 allergens are work-related in dairy farming. The study shows the need for minimising exposure to biological dust during the indoor feeding season, e.g. by using efficient personal dust respirators.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia lisänumero 3.1986, Työterveyslaitos, Haartmaninkatu 1, 00290 Helsinki, Finland, 1986. 98p. 244 ref. Price: FIM 80.00.
Laboratory biosafety principles and practices: An instructor's guide for biosafety training
An instructor's guide on laboratory biosafety principles for biosafety trainers and laboratory workers at all levels, incorporating 227 35mm colour slides in 17 modules covering: laboratory associated infections; dissemination of microbes in standard laboratory practice; biosafety principles; classification of risk; safeguards on entering the laboratory; receipt and transport of specimens; experimental procedures (minimising aerosols, containment of aerosols in biological safety cabinets); decontamination and sterilisation (heat treatments, liquid chemical germicides); handling and storage of hazardous chemical materials; waste disposal procedures; emergency procedures; safeguards before leaving the laboratory; laboratory design and facilities; hazard control in the animal laboratory; elements of a laboratory safety programme. The guide is designed to be used with the Laboratory Biosafety Manual (see CIS 83-2044), also available in French.
World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1986. 1 loose-leaf binder, colour slides, 2 manuals. Bibl.
Guideline for the medical monitoring of workers exposed to sewage
This guideline is intended for employers, physicians and nurses. Discussed are: chemical and biological hazards; medical monitoring (health inquiry of workers, examination, immunisation); worker education (personal hygiene and hazards).
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Medical Services Branch, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Sep. 1986. 4p.
Leptospirosis as an occupational disease
Leptospirosis is a febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is relatively common in Great Britain (48-120 confirmed cases annually in the period 1980-1985), and it can be fatal. Its changing epidemiology is discussed - the new emerging hazard is exposure to cattle leptospirosis by dairy workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1986, Vol.43, No.11, p.721-725. Illus. 10 ref.
Drinking Water on Construction Jobs
Data sheet on the supply, testing, distribution and dispensing of potable water on construction sites. Reference to relevant American standards.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
The management of simians in relation to infectious hazards to staff
This statement by the Medical Research Council describes practices to minimise the risk to staff of infection with pathogens which may be harboured by simians. Contents: development of local codes of practice; use of animals free of rabies virus and B virus; isolation and examination of simians; rabies control; poxviruses; Marburg disease virus. Appendices cover: hazards from certain primate herpes viruses; serological screening; action to be taken in the event of a bite or other incident; cage design, cleaning and use in relation to microbiological hazards.
Medical Research Council, 20 Park Crescent, London W1N 4AL, United Kingdom, 1985. 17p. 20 ref.
Ontario Ministry of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety Division
Designated substances in the workplace: A general guide to the regulations
The guide was prepared to help employers, workers, members of joint health and safety committees, supervisors, and occupational health personnel meet the requirements of the designated substances regulations under the Occupational Health and Safety Act (1980). The designated substances apply to biological, chemical, or physical agents in the workplace. Guide topics include: exposure limit determination; control programmes; assessment of extent of exposure; personal protective equipment; air monitoring and exposure records; medical surveillance programmes. List of useful addresses in Ontario.
Ontario Goverment Bookstore, Publications Services Section, 5th floor, 880 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M7A 1N8, Canada, 1985. 79p. Illus. 23 ref.
Maslov N.N., Elsukov V.A.
Occupational safety and health in underground railways
Ohrana truda na metropolitenah [in Russian]
Contents of this book for supervisors and technical personnel: basic principles (labour activity, conditions and characteristics of work, standards in occupational hygiene, classification and methods of determination of dangerous and hazardous industrial agents); methods and means of protection against dangerous physical and hazardous industrial factors; chemical, psychophysiological and biological hazards; electrical safety; compliance with occupational hygiene requirements in the design, modernisation and exploitation of underground railways; management of occupational hygiene in underground railways; injuries and measures for their prevention.
Izdatel'stvo Transport, Basmannyj tup. 6a, 103064 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 144p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: SUR 0.50.
Duffus J.H., Brown C.M.
Health aspects of biotechnology
This is a review of biotechnological processes and of their health implications for workers. Most of the hazards associated with industrial fermentation, not a new process, are known. Newer processes, such as the manufacturing of certain pharmaceuticals and enzymes on a large scale, can lead to direct effects on human tissue, or to allergic reactions. So far no new hazards have been identified in connection with genetic manipulation (work with recombinant DNA), but care should be taken to prevent such hazards from developing.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1st quarter 1985, Vol.29, No.1, p.1-12. 57 ref.
The management and assessment of risk from recombinant organisms
Description of the "untraditional" path followed to develop risk management policies for recombinant DNA research in the USA. Aspects covered: the recombinant DNA technique; potential risks; historical and institutions involved in rulemaking; the National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines; risk assessment.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos. 2+3, special issue, p.241-261. 58 ref.
Dutkiewicz J., Krysińska-Traczyk E., Skórska C., Dutkiewicz E., Babicz W.
Biological workplace hazards in an enterprise cultivating mushroom spawn - I. Study of the working environment
Biologiczne szkodliwości zawodowe w wytwórni grzybni pieczarek - I. Badania środowiska pracy [in Polish]
Results of air sampling and analyses carried out in 10 work premises of a plant where about 50 workers were exposed to airborne micro-organisms and complained of various respiratory, eye, and skin conditions. It was found that the air in the wheat substrate preparation department contained high concentrations of micro-organisms (26,000-60,000/m3), the most frequently encountered bacteria being Erwinia herbicola and corynebacteria. In the subsequent phases of the production cycle (sterilisation, inoculation of the culture, incubation, shipping), the air concentrations were lower (1,100-10,900/m3), the dominating component being Penicillium moulds. The analyses revealed the presence of 46 different genera and species of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, 24 of which are known to have allergenic and toxic effects.
Medycyna Wiejska, 1984, Vol.19, No.3, p.177-188. Illus. 7 ref.
Satoh K., Fujii S.
Bio-hazard preventing facilities
Description of some buildings in Japan with bio-hazard containment facilities. A presentation of the design criteria for preventing bio-hazards from pathogenic microorganisms and recombinant DNA is followed by examples of pathogenic microorganism facilities: the maximum isolation ward of Tokyo Metropolitan Ebara Hospital, the maximum safety laboratory of the Murayama Branch of the National Institute of Health (class 4 level), the Virus Infection Research Department of the Medical Institute of Tokyo University and the Virus Isolation Laboratory of the Domestic Animals Sanitary Examination Institute (class 3 level). As for recombinant DNA facilities, the maximum containment laboratory of the life science facilities of the Tsukuba Centre Institute of Physics and Chemical Research and the DNA Experiment Laboratory of the Chemical Institute of Kyoto University are presented as examples of P4 and P3 levels respectively.
Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Sep. 1984, Vol.22, No.2, p.1-13. Illus. 4 ref.
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