Hyperbaric pressure - 211 entries found
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Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Work in Compressed Air) Regulations [Hong Kong]
Regulations effective 1 Apr. 1976 and issued under the authority of the 1955 Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (see CIS 89-6). The Regulations concern: safety of compressed air operations; man-locks and working chambers; decant locks; medical locks; medical supervision of workers; miscellaneous (notification of work in compressed air, employment of inexperienced workers, advisory leaflets, personal labels, alcohol consumption, smoking, duty to follow instruction of lock attendants, fire safety). Schedules provide details on: purity of compressed air; compression and decompression procedures; decompression tables (in function of length of working period); official forms (in English and Chinese) used for registers, records, medical cards and notifications; advisory leaflet (in English and Chinese) to be given to compressed air workers.
Government Printer, Hong Kong, 1991. 21p. Price: HKD 30.00.
Böni M., Schibli R., Nussberger P., Bühlmann A.A.
Diving at diminished atmospheric pressure: Air decompression tables for different altitudes.
The rationale of the tables and the studies that led up to them (106 simulated dives and 278 actual dives at 900-1,700m altitude) are described. The schedules themselves are decompression tables, maximum ascent-rate tables, surface-interval tables and repetitive timetables, for altitudes up to 3,200. Schedules up to 2,000m were tested in humans under wet conditions; some are untested.
Undersea Biomedical Research, Sep. 1976, Vol.3, No.3, p.189-204. 5 ref.
Skeletal changes in decompression sickness
Skelettveränderungen bei der Taucherkrankheit [in German]
The symptoms and pathology of decompression sickness are described, followed by an account of the radiological findings at each stage (I-IV) of the disease. The radiological picture has features of infarct, osteochondrosis and coxarthrosis, i.e. rheumatoid arthritis in its final stage. Other aspects dealt with are differential diagnosis, therapeutic measures, medicolegal considerations and prognosis. Description of 2 case histories, with X-ray findings.
Beiträge zur Orthopädie und Traumatologie, 6 June 1976, Vol.23, No.6, p.306-313. Illus. 12 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, June 1976.
Basic principles for occupational medical examinations - Hazards of work in pressurised atmosphere
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Grundsätze für arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen - Gefährdung durch Überdruck [in German]
These principles are intended to serve as basic guidelines for pre-employment screening tests to discover persons who are unsuitable for compressed air work (i.e. work in atmospheres of >0.1bar or diving with air supply equipment). The appropriate medical tests (more thorough pre-employment examination and periodic check-ups) and occupational medical criteria for assessment of fitness for this type of employment are listed. Other sections of this article are devoted to: pressurisation tests; technical information on underwater breathing apparatus and light diving equipment; physiopathology, clinical picture and diagnosis; late lesions. Medical and technical bibliography.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Nov. 1976, Vol.11, No.11, p.283-287. 13 ref.
Screening test for decompression sickness.
The fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) test was performed in 18 patients with a history of illness associated with diving. 8 with positive FDP tests had serious neurological signs and required repeated hyperbaric oxygen therapy; 6 with negative tests had musculoskeletal complaints only and were asymptomatic after the first course of treatment, and 3 were suffering from other diseases. The FDP test appears to be useful for screening, and may serve as an indicator of when to use anticoagulants in addition to hyperbaric oxygen.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1976, Vol.47, No.9, p.993-994. 9 ref.
Thomas J.R., Burch L.S., Banvard R.A.
Interaction of hyperbaric nitrogen and oxygen effects on behavior.
Experiments in rats exposed to 5 partial pressures of nitrogen (0.8-10.4ATA) and 3 of oxygen (0.2-2.2ATA) showed an interaction between the gases. Response rates first increased and then declined as nitrogen pressure increased, and these changes were enhanced by increasing the oxygen partial pressure.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1976, Vol.47, No.9, p.965-968. 15 ref.
D'Aoust B.G., Smith K.H., Swanson H.T.
Decompression-induced decrease in nitrogen elimination rate in awake dogs.
Measurement of the mixed venous blood nitrogen content during compression and following decompression in non-anaesthetised dogs showed that desaturation is markedly slower than saturation and that this may be a result of decompression itself. The disappearance of arteriovenous N2 concentration differences during desaturation following decompression sickness shows that cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular changes associated with decompression can potentiate the latter's effects. The decompression model used in the United States, as distinct from that used in the United Kingdom, does not take this asymmetry of uptake and elimination rates into account, and the implications of this are discussed.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Sep. 1976, Vol.41, No.3, p.348-355. Illus. 36 ref.
Goad R.F., Neuman T.S., Linaweaver P.G.
Hematologic changes in man during decompression: Relations to overt decompression sickness and bubble scores.
Studies after dives to a pressure of 7.4 and 5ATA revealed changes in platelet and white blood cell (WBC) count, prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time. The WBC count was the only variable correlating with the total bubble score.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1976, Vol.47, No.8, p.863-867. 32 ref.
Neuman T.S., Harris M.G., Linaweaver P.G.
Blood viscosity in man following decompression: Correlations with hematocrit and venous gas emboli.
Whole blood viscosity was measured before and after chamber compression to 5 and 7.4ATA by a capillary viscometer, which is described. Bubble scores were determined during decompression and for a further 30min. There was no significant changes in blood viscosity or haematocrit in the subjects, whether or not they suffered from decompression sickness, and no relation between total bubble score and blood viscosity and haematocrit. Thus no major changes in viscosity occur during decompression sickness as usually encountered.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1976, Vol.47, No.8, p.803-807. 31 ref.
Decompression accidents during short-term deep diving
Les accidents de décompression de la plongée profonde d'intervention. [in French]
MD thesis. After a historical survey, 64 cases compiled by the French Submarine Study and Research Group (GERS) are examined in respect of the clinical features of decompression sickness during diving of short duration (involving a maximum of a few hours' submersion, in opposition to saturation diving): early appearance of clinical signs; frequent association of neurological and osteo-arthro-muscular signs; neurological signs associating loss of function of the upper extremities and cerebral lesions with classic paraplegia; general signs often very marked (severe asthenia with tendency to collapse) and a course that may involve exacerbation or relapse. Physiopathological hypotheses to explain the difference between this condition and classic decompression sickness. Current therapeutic practice.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1975. 85p. Illus. 54 ref.
Medical code of practice for work in compressed air.
This new updated edition (first edition CIS 2124-1973, Bbg Jwan Rok Vgz) incorporates changes arising from the Employment Medical Advisory Service Order 1973. Recommendations cover: air supply, man-locks, persons without previous experience, medical supervision, compression and decompression procedures, decanting, flying. Appendices: the new (Blackpool) decompression tables; extracts from British Standard BS 4001 (purity of the breathing air); medical care of men working in compressed air; treatment of decompression sickness, etc. Annexes: comparison of the present code and the existing law (Work in Compressed Air Special Regulations, 1958), which is reproduced; memorandum on medical aspects of work in compressed air; rules for work in compressed air.
Report No.44, Construction Industry Research and Information Association, 6 Storey's Gate, London SW1P 3AU, United Kingdom, 2nd edition, Dec. 1975. 78p. Price: £10.00.
Smith A.H., Tappan D.V.
Naval Submarine Medical Research Lab, Groton, Connecticut.
Erythrocyte fragility changes resulting from short exposures to 6.7 ATA compressed air.
Analyses were made of osmotic fragility changes in human erthrocytes occurring as a result of 40-45min exposures to 6.7 ATA of compressed air with subsequent decompression. The cells exhibited a decreased fragility at 1h after completion of the simulated dives; mean fragility subsequently increased for 2 to 3 days and did not return to normal for 5 or more days after the dives. When a second dive followed within 3 days of the first diving episode, a decrease in fragility occurred similar to that observed 1h after the first dive. The upward trend of the fragility curve resumed within 1 day following the second dive with the increased fragility persisting for the ensuing week. Correlations of erythrocyte fragility with other biochemical components measured in the sera of these subjects are discussed. Fragility changes correlate negatively with the serum protein concentration. Positive correlations of fragility with the 3 serum enzymes measured indicate potential erythrocyte damage from the same stresses associated with diving that cause leakage of tissue enzymes into the serum.
AD-A021 775/2WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, 2 Dec. 1975. 14p. 21 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$3.50/Microfiche US-$2.25.
Wünsche O., Scheele G.
Development and manifestation of bone changes after exposure to hyperbaric atmospheres
Entwicklung und Manifestation von Knochenveränderungen nach Überdruckexposition [in German]
Part I: Experimental studies on the early stages of bone and joint changes following such exposure. The results of experiments in rats to establish the origin and course of skeletal lesions in thin bone sections following critical decompression are discussed. Typical intraosseous, epiphyseally located foci of cicatricial tissue with cysts and paraosseous changes, above all at the metaphyses, occurred. Owing to their apparently very rapid development only hypothetical conclusions as to the early stages could be drawn. Part II: Periodical X-ray controls of skeletal changes in pressure workers. Because of the lack of special features of manifest skeletal damage and the difficulty of differential diagnosis, periodical X-ray controls are a necessary part of routine medical care. After a review of early X-ray studies in over 100 tunnel and caisson workers the findings of such controls in 10 pressure workers are reported. In 3 cases the bone lesions had progressed after 2 years.
Forschungsbericht Nr.143, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1975. 59p. Illus. 27 ref.
Bennett P.B., Elliott D.H., Bachrach A.J., Behnke A.R., Bornmann R.C., Brauer R.W., Bühlmann A.A., Evans A., Farmer J.C., Griffiths P.D., Hallenbeck J.M., Hanson R. de G., Haxton A.F., Hempleman H.V., Hills B.A., Kidd D.J., Kylstra J.A., Lanphier E.H., McCallum R.I., MacDonald A.G., Macinnis J.B., Miller J.N., Morrison J.B., Schaefer K.E., Thomas W., Walder D.N., Webb P., Whyte H.E., Williams S., Wood J.D., Workman R.D., Young J.M.
The physiology and medicine of diving and compressed air work.
This book is an edited collection of reviews each written by an internationally recognised authority. Contents: the compressed air environment; open-sea diving techniques; engineering and physiological principles of underwater breathing apparatus; life support systems; physiology; liquid breathing and artificial gills; oxygen toxicity; carbon dioxide effects; inert gas narcosis; the high pressure nervous syndrome in animals and in man; underwater performance; decompression theory (U.S., British and Swiss practice); biophysical, gas dynamic, pathological and preventive aspects of decompression; dysbaric osteonecrosis; auditory and vestibular function in diving; diving accidents. Subject index.
Baillière Tindall, 35 Red Lion Square, London WC1R 4SG, United Kingdom, 2nd edition, 1975. 566p. Illus. 2,000 ref. Price: £18.00.
Experimental studies on the effects on the blood picture of a prolonged sojourn in compressed air
Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur Frage der Auswirkungen eines längerdauernden Druckluftaufenthaltes auf die korpuskuläre Zusammensetzung des Blutes [in German]
Methods and results of studies in 30 rabbits kept for 4 weeks in a tunnel in the process of construction under the River Elbe at Hamburg. The air pressure varied from 0.9 to 1.25kg/cm2; some of the animals were in a part of the tunnel with normal pressure. Parameters measured: bodyweight, haemoglobin, red and white blood cell, platelet, and differential blood counts. Findings were related to the influence of air pressure on haemoglobin and red blood cells; "tunnel effect" on bodyweight and the white blood cell count in animals not exposed to overpressure.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Oct. 1975, Vol.25, No.10, p.293-298. Illus. 9 ref.
The problem of hyperbaric rescue in the North Sea and its possible solutions.
Divers working in the North Sea often have to live in an ambient pressure equivalent to the working depth (up to 200m), and decompression may take as long as a week. This pamphlet considers the problems arising in the event of accident or illness under these circumstances. Consideration is given to the factors influencing the doctor's decision, on his arrival on the rig, whether to decompress the patient, perform surgery in the pressure chamber, or transfer him ashore under pressure. Requirements for the portable pressure chamber used for transfer, a suitable helicopter, the onshore hyperbaric complex, and the doctor and medical attendant ("rig medic"), are dealt with. Of the 3 options, early transfer of the injured diver to shore may often be best, and it is this aspect that is treated in the greatest detail.
Society of Underwater Technology, 1 Birdcage Walk, London S.W.1H 9JJ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1975. 3p.
Portable one-man recompression chamber.
Description of this new piece of equipment, designed by Battelle for the U.S. Navy for transport by small craft with limited space. The chamber may be operated employing an open or a semi-closed circuit, both of which are described. Other points dealt with are: CO2 removal, chemical scrubbing operations, considerations governing the choice of power for atmosphere circulation (gas ejector), and configuration of the chamber. The advantages and disadvantages of compressors, pressurised containers, cryogenically stored gas, and chemically generated gases as sources of gas are briefly discussed. As built, the system permits pressurisation to 50m and 2-h operation with two 2.5m3 SCUBA bottles, and 5 more hours' operation with a second pair of bottles. In view of the short period of occupancy, no medical lock is provided.
Mechanical Engineering, Dec. 1975, Vol.97, No.12, p.26-31. Illus. 14 ref.
Aseptic bone necrosis survey in compressed air workers.
Follow-up X-ray examinations were carried out in 86 tunnel workers who had been employed for more than 100 shifts of 4h or more at pressures above 1,2kg/cm2, and the results compared with those of their pre-employment (1963-1966) and successive periodic medical examinations. These workers accounted for 85% of the recompression treatments. The findings are presented and briefly discussed in this progress report.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1975, Vol.17, No.10, p.666-667. 2 ref.
Workers under the sea
Des travailleurs sous la mer. [in French]
Interview with 2 specialists in underwater work to clarify the following points: possible depth of diving with 'demand' pressure reducing valves; organic effects of breathing pressurised gases (oxygen, nitrogen, helium); latent period for appearance of hyperoxic attacks; decompression problems; heat regulation in deep-sea diving and need to warm up the gases breathed and the diving suit; psychic problems of work in confined spaces and atmospheres. Review of the French legislation on diving work. Hazards for civil engineering personnel working in caissons or with shields.
Travail et sécurité, May 1975, No.5, p.266-283. Illus.
Frattali V., Robertson R.
Effect of hyperbaric helium on vitamin uptake and utilization by micro-organisms.
This study was an attempt to assess metabolic demand and nutritional requirements for man during exposure to high pressures of inert gases. Growth response was measured of procaryotic microorganisms to thiamine, riboflavine, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and biotin under hyperbaric helium and helium-oxygen (80-20), and helium-oxygen mixtures as well as air at atmospheric pressure. For all vitamins except folic acid, no difference in response was noted. With folic acid, growth was repressed, but the decrease was insufficient to allow definite conclusions as to the cause.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1975, Vol.46, No.7, p.898-901. Illus. 15 ref.
Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn.
Guideline for decompression with oxygen after work under pressure
Richtlinie für das Ausschleusen mit Sauerstoff nach Arbeiten in Druckluft [in German]
The aim of decompression with inhalation of oxygen is to prevent caisson disease while shortening the duration of the decompression process. The result is obtained by exchanging the dissolved nitrogen in the body for oxygen. Oxygen inhaled at a relative pressure of more than 0.9kg/cm2 is dangerous and therefore prohibited. The article outlines legal liability and technical responsibility and specifies a number of rules for design and use of the oxygen decompression unit: mandatory demand regulator, condition and use of oxygen masks, maintenance, record keeping, workers' behaviour, testing the unit.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1975, Vol.87, No.2, p.79-80.
Hülse M., Partsch C.J.
Difference between noise-induced hearing loss in mining and "classic" hearing loss in the metal trades
Der Unterschied zwischen der Lärmschwerhörigkeit im Bergbau und der "klassischen" Lärmschwerhörigkeit in der metallverarbeitenden Industrie [in German]
Otoscopic and audiometric examination of 92 miners with noise-induced hearing loss revealed a whitish, thickened eardrum and hearing damage perceptible from 125Hz, interfering with speech perception. Damage to the eardrum is considered to be a typical miner's hazard due, perhaps, to barotrauma from violent pressure changes in travelling between surface and underground landings, as well as to the varying composition of the noise spectrum in mines.
Zeitschrift für Laryngologie, Rhinologie, Otologie und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1975, Vol.54, p.398-403. Illus. 8 ref.
Problems of caisson disease and new compressed air regulations
Probleme der Caissonkrankheit und die neue Druckluftverordnung [in German]
Based on the author's experience as a practitioner specialising in caisson disease, this article analyses the principal provisions of the regulations on work in compressed air, which entered into force in 1973 in the Fed. Rep. of Germany: modifications of decompression technique, health conditions at the workpost, pre-employment medical examinations and periodical health check-ups. The author criticises some of these provisions and suggests improvements.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, June 1975, Vol.25, No.6, p.161-167. 25 ref.
Susbielle G., Jullien G.
Work in compressed air
Le travail en atmosphère comprimée. [in French]
This article, which takes stock of current knowledge in this field, contains sections devoted to: definition of pressure, units and principles of pressure balance; survey of individual (light and heavy diving outfits) and group (shields, caissons) diving equipment; study of the phenomena of life under pressure, its physical and biochemical laws, and the biological effects of dissolved gases; clinical study of accidents and injury (mechanically caused or due to toxic or biophysical phenomena) which may occur during or after remaining in compressed air; medical and technical prevention of these incidents (decompression tables); treatment of acute cases; compensation.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Maladies - Agents physiques, Fascicule 16500 A10, 1-1975, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France, 12p. Illus. 45 ref.
Walder D.N., Evans A.
In vivo nuclear fission in the aetiology of decompression sickness.
This paper presents and discusses the hypothesis that gas micronuclei are created by spontaneous nuclear fission of 238U in man, and that these microbubbles act as nuclei for the nitrogen bubbles causing decompression sickness. In tests investigating the hypothesis, nuclear fragments liberated by spontaneous fission of 238U appeared to nucleate bubbles in this way. Man has an average of 110µg 238U in his body, and it is calculated that a disintegration occurs once every 3 weeks. The calculated incidence of bends that this would cause (2.2%) corresponds well with actual statistics.
Nature, 20-27 Dec. 1974, Vol.252, No.5485, p.696-697. 28 ref.
Hazards of welding due to oxygen changes in the ambient air
Gefahren beim Schweissen durch Sauerstoffveränderung in der Raumluft [in German]
After a fundamental study of the respiratory oxygen requirements, the upper and lower limits of the oxygen content of the air, and respiration with low and high oxygen partial pressure, the author outlines the German regulations for work in compressed air (admissible pressure, maximal work time, provision of adequate fresh air, fire protection) and deals with combustion and ignition (especially of textiles) in enriched oxygen atmospheres and under elevated pressure. Conclusions are drawn on protective clothing of welders and safety measures (oxygen monitoring apparatus, odorisation of oxygen) in respect of caisson work.
Heft 18, Moderne Unfallverhütung, Vulkan-Verlag, Haus der Technik, 43 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974, p.44-50. Illus. 75 ref.
Beckman E.L., Elliott D.H., Smith E.M.
Dysbarism-related osteonecrosis - A symposium.
This symposium, organised by the Marine Biomedical Institute of the University of Texas and sponsored by NIOSH, was held in Galveston, Texas, in February 1972. Medical, legal and economic aspects of dysbaric osteonecrosis are covered in 31 papers and 12 discussion sessions under the following heads: osteonecrosis in compressed-air workers, divers, and aviators; U.S. experience in compressed-air work; pathophysiology of osteonecrosis; osteonecrosis associated with other diseases; experimental studies; diagnosis; case management and treatment; value and function of a medical registry; additional implications (medicolegal, etc.); recommendations for future research. A subject index is appended.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-153, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, USA, 1974. 276p. Illus. 370 ref + 70 annotated ref.
Elliott D.H., Hallenbeck J.M., Bove A.A.
Acute decompression sickness.
Broad literature survey of the aetiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute decompression sickness, with a critical discussion of terminology. Attention is paid to recent theories that surface activity at the blood/gas interface of the intravascular bubble plays a role in the pathology of the more serious manifestations of this condition.
Lancet, 16 Nov. 1974, Vol.2, No.7890, p.1193-1199. 92 ref.
Conti V., Sciarli R.
Bone damage due to SCUBA diving
Lésions osseuses chez le plongeur autonome. [in French]
In the course of pre-employment examinations 84 divers with no past history of decompression sickness were examined radiologically. 19 of them showed structural anomalies in the form of necrotic bone condensations localised at the head of the femur or humerus, which would appear to denote latent lesions, probably scar tissue. Aetiology and pathogenesis. The authors draw certain conclusions concerning the aptitude of these persons for SCUBA-diving and their medical supervision. In addition to a radiological examination, in view of the frequenct occurrence of hyperlipidaemia in the course of necrosis of the hip, every pre-employment medical examination should include: blood levels of lipids, uric acid, nitrogen, sugar; blood picture; differential blood count; erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Maroc médical, Aug.-Sep. 1974, Vol.54, No.582, p.496-497. 8 ref.
Wünsche O., Scheele G.
Present-day diagnostic methods - Radiological bone and joint examinations in compressed air workers
Aktuelle Diagnostik - Röntgenuntersuchungen der Knochen und Gelenke bei Druckluftarbeitern [in German]
Together with the occupational history, radiological examination plays a major role in the detection and evaluation of the osteoarticular lesions encountered in caisson disease. Its importance is confirmed by the results obtained in 100 compressed air workworkers. Comparison with findings in 10 divers and 65 miners; notes on differential diagnosis. Examinations revealed that 8% of exposed workers presented pathological manifestations. The authors conclude that periodical radiography should be instituted in this category of workers.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Nov. 1974, No.11, p.325-331. Illus. 43 ref.
Wünsche O., Scheele G.
Radiological screening of compressed air workers to determine skeletal changes resulting from exposure to high pressure
Röntgen-Reihenuntersuchungen an Druckluftarbeitern zur Feststellung von Skelettveränderungen als Folge der Überdruckexposition [in German]
Report on radiological screening examinations in 100 compressed air workers and, for comparison, in 10 divers and 65 miners: X-ray technique, differential diagnosis, radiological findings in tunnel and caisson workers, comparative findings in deep-sea divers, control studies in miners. Pathological bone findings were definitely present in 8% of the compressed air workers. These radiological studies and reports in the literature represent unequivocal evidence of specific bone changes with secondary joint deformation. This conclusion has been confirmed by numerous animal experiments. Conclusions for preventive and screening examinations are drawn.
Forschungsbericht Nr.125, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Martener Strasse 435, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974. 134p. Illus. 294 ref. Price: DM.5.00.
Work in compressed air
Travaux dans l'air comprimé. [in French]
Survey of the chief elements of prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in pressurised atmospheres and a sketch of the studies that preceded and followed the promulgation of the French Decree of 31 Aug. 1959, which prescribes safety and health measures applicable to work sites in compressed air, some inadequacies of which are pointed out. The author refers to the report of a French specialist working group regarding equipment for work in compressed air and compares French legislation with foreign standards. Comparison of the decompression tables employed in the United States, the Netherlands, Germany (Fed.Rep.) and France; working pressures; decompression by pure oxygen at low-pressure; critical analysis of the 1959 French tables; divers; first aid to victims of bends; equipment and installations; various medical requirements.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1974, No.2, p.55-69. Illus.
Rubissow G.J., Mackay R.S.
Decompression study and control using ultrasonics.
An interface between a gas and tissue or blood is an excellent reflector of sound and thus small bubbles interact strongly with ultrasonic beams and are readily noticed. By direct ultrasonic observation on intact human and animal subjects, it was demonstrated that bubbles are involved in decompression sickness and these may appear at the site of discomfort rather than being only central. Recompression bubble showers were seen. Silent bubbles were demonstrated and also safe ascent rate using ultrasonically controlled decompression to limit bubble size to a threshold value. Overpressure can be measured in individual tissues by adjusting ambient pressure so that bubbles neither decay nor grow.
Aerospace Medicine, May 1974, Vol.45, No.5, p.473-478. Illus. 26 ref.
Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 4 Oct. 1972.
Ordinance on work in compressed air
Décret sur le travail dans l'air comprimé. [in French]
French translation of: Verordnung über Arbeiten in Druckluft (Druckluftverordnung). Die Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, München, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1972, Vol.84, No.11, p.543-549 and 552-558. This ordinance, which entered into force on 1 Apr. 1973, applies to industrial work in compressed air with the exception of diving and work in diving bells. Compressed air is defined as air at a pressure of more than 0.1kg/cm2; workers must not be employed in air at pressures exceeding 3kg/cm2. In addition to provisions concerning the reporting of compressed-air working and the testing of installations, particular requirements are specified for medical care, the maintenance of a medical register; rescue and first-aid equipment; and designation of supervisors; etc. Appendices contain: information about working chambers and airlocks, their equipment and use, and decompression tables for air or oxygen atmospheres. Instructions for airlock attendants.
Translation INRS 8 A-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 39p.
Wünsche O., Scheele G.
Bone and joint diseases after work in compressed air followed by decompression
Knochen- und Gelenkveränderungen nach Dekompression aus Überdruck [in German]
Review of present knowledge and literature survey concerning the pathology and pathogenesis of compressed-air disease. Recommendations for pre-employment and periodic medical examinations. Animal experiments provide information on the early stages of the disease which cannot be obtained by radiology or by histological examination in the case of fatal decompression accidents.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1974, Vol.9, No.3, p.45-47. Illus. 24 ref.
Ministry of Labour (Ministère du travail), Paris.
Decree No.74-657 of 9 July 1974 concerning special safety and health measures applicable in work sites where work in compressed air is carried on
Décret n°74-657 du 9 juillet 1974 relatif aux mesures particulières de protection et de salubrité applicables dans les chantiers de travaux dans l'air comprimé. [in French]
The provisions of this decree apply to the equipment of caissons and shields, personnel airlocks and compressed-air work chambers, means of access, auxiliary installations, lighting, conditions of work (compression and decompression), medical supervision of personnel and testing and inspection of equipment.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.419-424.
Bone necrosis in divers.
As the number of decompression accidents among divers is increasing, especially in the field of offshore petroleum drilling, this paper provides bibliographical informatin on the question of dysbaric osteonecrosis among divers, emphasising the frequently symptomless onset of this disease. To arrest the present trend, it is recommended that case history files should be pooled and curent knowledge on the subject disseminated.
Lancet, 3 Aug. 1974, Vol.2, No.7875, p.263-264. 22 ref.
Contribution to the radiological diagnosis of the effects of decompression on bones
Beitrag zur Röntgendiagnose von Dekompressionsfolgen am Skelett [in German]
Description of bone and joint injuries resulting from decompression sickness. Evaluation and interpretation of radiographs. Several cases are mentioned in which the effects of decompression on bones were disclosed by positive radiographs of the acromioclavicular area.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1974, Vol.9, No.1, p.14-16. Illus. 7 ref.
Bennett P.B., Blenkarn G.D.
Arterial blood gases in man during inert gas narcosis.
4 men alternately breathed air of heliox (20/80 oxygen-helium mixture) at 9.6 and 6.7 ata while measurements were made of PaCO2, PaO2 and pH in arterial blood. Between measurements, multiplication arithmetic and the Wechsler-Bellevue Digit Symbol test, indicated at 9.6 ata decrements of 34.5% and 11.9% respectively when breathing air but no difference from controls when breathing heliox. At 6.7 ata the narcosis was less. All subjects at both simulated depths manifested hypocapnia, alkalosis, a positive base excess and hyperoxaemia. It is concluded that compressed air narcosis is caused by the raised nitrogen pressure rather than by hyperoxaemia and hypercarbia. Prior addition of 25% nitrogen to the heliox prevented counterdiffusion problems on changing from heliox to air.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Jan 1974, Vol.36, No.1, p.45-48. 29 ref.
Edmonds C., Freeman P., Thomas R., Tonkin J., Blackwood F.A.
Otological aspects of diving.
This book is addressed to medical practitioners generally who are associated with divers, and not specifically to otologists. Contents: anatomy and physiology of the ear; the Eustachian tube and nasal function; diving physics; infections of the ear; decompression sickness; aural barotrauma; hearing loss in divers; vertigo and disorientation in diving; exostoses and external, middle and inner ear injuries; otological standards for diving.
Australasian Medical Publishing Company Ltd., 71-79 Arundel Street, Glebe, N.S.W. 2037, Australia, 1973. 101p. Illus. 49 ref.
Lemaire C., Monod H.
Static work capacity and electromyography in hyperbaric environment and hyperoxia
Capacité de travail statique et electromyographie en hyperbarie et hyperoxie. [in French]
A systematic study to discover the mechanisms of muscular fatigability and the limitation of work in hyperbaric environment. Experimental procedure: measurement of the maximum duration of isometric contraction in 4 subjects performing static work at 300 m below sea level. Discussion of the results, which are compared with those of subsequent experiments in conditions of normobaric environment with normal oxygen, on the one hand, and normobaric environment with hyperoxia, on the other. In simulated diving, the muscle retains its working capacity at the above depth; however, this capacity is reduced in actual diving on account of the resistance offered by the water.
Maroc médical, May 1973, Vol.53, No.568, p.306-308. 10 ref.
Cabarrou P., Susbielle G.
Work in compressed air - Critical study of the Decree of 31.8.1959 issuing regulations for work in compressed air
Le travail dans l'air comprimé - Etude critique du décret du 31.8.1959 qui réglemente le travail dans l'air comprimé. [in French]
After referring to some cases of occupational accidents and diseases, the authors make the following criticisms concerning the 1959 Decree: the rate of decompression is uniform, whereas (according to Haldane) it should be carried out at a decreasing speed; no provision is made for decompression after work at less than 1.4 relative atmosphere, or for successive exposures or exposures of short duration; no directives are laid down for dealing with accidents. The article proposes a decompression table based on USA data (decreasing decompression rate). Under the sponsorship of the Centre national français d'exploitation des océans, a table of durations of exposure to compressed air has been calculated and is currently the subject of experimentation.
Revue de la sécurité, Sep. 1973, Vol.9, No.94, p.62-68. Illus.
Federal Ministry for Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für soziale Verwaltung), Wien, 25 July 1973.
Ordinance concerning diving and work in compressed air
Druckluft- und Taucherarbeiten-Verordnung [in German]
The provisions concerning work in compressed air cover the following points: technical and medical surveillance, employment and aptitude of workers, caissons and locks, electric and pneumatic equipment, methods of work, compression and decompression. The provisions respecting diving cover helmet diving outfits with air hose, aptitudes of divers, signalling, preparatory work, descent and ascent, work with compressed-air diving outfits (aqualung), special work. Part 3 contains general provisions. Data sheets on work in compressed air and for those responsible for the operation of locks, as well as decompression and diving tables, are appended.
Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, 11 Oct. 1973, No.118, p.2535-2573.
Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Panel, London.
A medical code of practice for work in compressed air.
Recommendations are made concerning: air supply; man locks; lock attendants and their duties; entrance to and exit from the working chamber; temperature in the working chamber; persons without previous experience; medical supervision, including radiological examinations; health facilities; medical lock; personal labels; notification to hospitals, etc.; supply of food and hot drinks; duty to submit to medical examination; alcohol; compression and decompression procedures; decanting; flying. Appendices include the new decompression (Blackpool) tables and other proposed and existing working documents. An annex compares the existing British statutory instruments with this code.
Report 44, Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), London, United Kingdom, Feb. 1973. 92 p. 4 ref.
Pirnay F., Maréchal R., Dujardin R., Lamy M., Deroanne R., Petit J.M.
Exercise during hyperoxia and hyperbaric oxygenation.
Maximum oxygen consumption is reduced when persons breathe an O2-poor gas mixture or exercise at high altitude. Conversely, an improvement in muscle performance should be expected when arterial blood contains additional O2. Physiological reactions during exercise were tested in 6 persons on a treadmill and a bicycle ergometer under hyperoxic and hyperbaric conditions. Methods and results are described. These results, particularly those obtained under hyperbaric conditions, demonstrate that there are certain biochemical limits to oxidative muscular reactions.
Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie einschliesslich Arbeitsphysiologie, 20 July 1973, Vol.31, No.4, p.259-268. Illus. 38 ref.
Commentary on the new ordinance on work in compressed air
Erläuterungen zur neuen Verordnung über Arbeiten in Druckluft [in German]
Discusses the safety engineering techniques and know-how required to ensure safe working conditions, testing of equipment by experts and in particular the preventive measures to be taken, from the occupational health and work organisation viewpoints: restrictions on employment (age, etc.), medical aspects of prevention, health facilities, trained personnel, staff training, decompression and hours of work. (For the Ordinance on work in compressed air, see CIS 1188-1973, Bbg Jwan (610-1)).
Arbeitsschutz, Mar. 1973, No.3, p.117-123.
Fire protection for a hyperbaric chamber.
Describes the testing of an automatic fire protection system with infrared detectors. The reponse time of the detectors is less than 1 s. Water is delivered to the chamber in less than 1.6 s after the appearance of a simulated flame.
Fire Technology, May 1973, Vol.9, No.2, p.85-90. Illus. 2 ref.
Industrial Safety and Health Division, Ministry of Labour, Tokyo.
Ordinance No.40 of 1972 concerning occupational hazards in pressurised atmospheres.
Ordinance under the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Act 1972, to prescribe measures to safeguard against accidents of health injuries due to work in pressurised atmospheres. Provisions are laid down concerning: equipment of pressurised cabins; diving equipment; supervision of diving operations and work in caissons; training of supervisory personnel; medical examinations; prohibition of admission to employment of persons not fulfilling prescribed health standards; decompression chambers; licence required for this type of operation, etc.
Collection of regulations and ordinances concerning occupational health, Japanese Industrial Safety Association, 35-1, 5-Chome, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 1972. p.326-366.
Experiments in human work capabilities under pressure, now being conducted at the Royal Naval Physiological Laboratory.
The Royal Naval Physiological Laboratory is engaged in research into the complex problems of deep diving. The pressure vessels required to simulate a wide range of diving conditions are described in detail. The nature and objectives of the experiments carried out are given, together with accounts of the intensive physiological measurements made and the data obtained on human performance under varying conditions.
Industrial Medicine and Surgery, Dec. 1972, Vol.41, No.12, p.10-20. Illus.
Hills B.A., Straley R.
Aseptic osteonecrosis: A study of tibial blood flow under various environmental conditions.
Blood flow in the tibiae of rabbits and dogs was monitored at various stages of exposure to compressed air and various breathing mixtures at normal atmospheric pressure. The duration and extent of the bone ischaemia induced were not considered sufficient to initiate aseptic necrosis of bone commonly found in compressed workers. Delayed ischaemic reaction to compression and the role of gas-induced osmosis in the aetiology of the disease are discussed.
Aerospace Medicine, July 1972, Vol.43, No.7, p.724-728. 29 ref.
Problems associated with fire service operations in pressurised atmospheres
This bulletin describes the effects of working in pressurised atmospheres when wearing breathing apparatus and recommends different types of breathing equipment for different pressures. Individual sections are devoted to: the effects of increased pressures on the body; the release of pressurised gases in the body; the effects of wearing breathing apparatus; the provision of special breathing apparatus; types of apparatus; spare cylinders; airline equipment; special breathing apparatus for pressures above 0.82atm gauge; effects of increased pressure on the operation of low-cylinder-pressure warning devices.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1 9NH, United Kingdom, Jan. 1972. 9p.
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