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Hyperbaric pressure - 211 entries found

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CIS 85-1435 O'Kelly F.J., Liou N.C.
Medical surveillance of compressed air work support service personnel
A retrospective study of medical examination results connected with workers exposed to compressed air during the building of the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway. Of the 1030 people who underwent an initial examination, 217 were unfit for such work. During subsequent monthly examinations, 105 workers were found unfit. Radiological surveys of major joints established the cause of unfitness to be bone disease in 31 of those initially found unfit, and in 22 cases later. It is recommended that for compressed air work an initial medical examination is essential, but after that it is sufficient to do routine periodic examinations once a year only.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1984, Vol.34, No.4, p.124-126.

CIS 85-1434 Susbielle G., Le Pechon J.C.
Diving and compressed-air work
Le travail en plongée et en air comprimé [in French]
Comprehensive analysis of the work of divers and other workers under hyperbaric conditions. Possible accident causes are described: mechanical effects due to the direct action of high pressure; accidents due to the toxic effects of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide); and decompression accidents. Preventive measures: medical supervision of divers, with reference to French legislation in the matter; technical measures of prevention. Treatment of acute decompression accidents is based on therapeutic recompression, different types of which are described. Special attention is paid to the hyperbaric oxygen therapy of Goodman and Workman, a method requiring minimal recompression. Medical and legal aspects of various accidents are given.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1984, 16p. 68 ref.

CIS 84-1736 McCallum R.I., Petrie A.
Optimum weights for commercial divers
Obesity is a factor in the risk of decompression sickness in divers. Excess weight by more than 20% is suggested as being unacceptable. Published tables of standard heights and weights for men are unsuitable for divers. Analysis of weight measurements of 1520 divers suggests that divers as a group are significantly heavier than the corresponding general population. A table derived from US data of 1935-1953 can be used as a guide, producing a rejection rate due to obesity of 13.6%. Research into current reference standards is suggested.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1984, Vol.41, No.2, p.275-278. 8 ref.


CIS 97-1688 Edel P.O., Melton H.E.
Safe decompression schedules for caisson workers
This report describes the development and testing of a new decompression schedule for compressed-air tunnel workers. The schedule comprises a set of air decompression tables and a set of decompression tables for intermittent oxygen breathing. The tables were tested on human subjects to determine their safety with regard to decompression sickness and aseptic necrosis of the bone. The report includes instructions and procedures for tunnel workers using oxygen decompression.
Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, St. Luke's Hospital, Milwaukee, WI, USA, Dec. 1983. 122p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 87-962 Guidebook for MRT contractors
A safety guide written for contractors for the Singapore underground railway (subway) construction project. It includes provisions for notification, site management, safety training, site safety measures, specific hazards (shafts and hoists, communications, electricity, rail haulage, diesel engines, hydraulic plant, fires, flooding), welfare facilities, health guidelines for conventional tunnelling (permissible exposure limits for about 40 chemical substances and types of dust, ventilation), safety and health guidelines for compressed air works. A sample identification badge is shown in English and Chinese. The appendices contain various forms, questionnaires and medical record forms of importance.
National Productivity Board, Singapore, 1983. 42p.

CIS 86-59 Wells A.M., Giampaoli E., Zidan L.N.
Physical hazards
Riscos físicos [in Portuguese]
This textbook covers the basics of the measurement, hazards and control of: noise and vibrations (including ultrasound and medical uses); extreme temperatures; electromagnetic radiations (ionising and non-ionising radiation and visible light); abnormal pressures (including Brazilian legislation).
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente, 710 - CEP 05409 - São Paulo (SP), Brazil, 1983. 112p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 84-1515
Health and Safety Executive
Fire precautions in pressurised workings
Contents: planning for fire safety in pressurised environments; fire prevention (limitations on combustible material, potential sources of ignition); special problems of hot cutting, welding or brazing; fire fighting equipment; fire warning systems; evacuation plans; rescue plans.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, Apr. 1983. 8p. Illus. Price: £1.00

CIS 84-1078 Chaouat Y.
Occupational joint diseases
Les arthroses professionnelles [in French]
A review of compensable occupational diseases in France that cause joint problems (barotraumatic arthrosis, vibration disease, fluorine poisoning). Analysis of localised conditions of the musculoskeletal system in connection with work-related body movements: hips, knees, feet, hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, the cervical, thoracic and lumbar column. Role of the industrial physician in diagnosing and monitoring these health problems, and in vocational orientation at the beginning of employment. Research into predisposing factors (genetic or occupational). Preventive measures and transfer to other work.
Gazette médicale de France, Jan. 1983, Vol.90, No.4, p.267-277.

CIS 84-547 Ledoux P., Pittaco M., Narcy P.
Present state of barotitis among commercial air crews in civil aviation
Actualité des otites baro-traumatiques chez le personnel navigant commercial de l'aéronautique civile [in French]
In spite of the widespread pressurisation of commercial aircraft, the frequency of barotitis has increased over recent years. This study covers 412 cases declared as occupational diseases between 1979 and 1982 in a short-haul air transport company. A review of the physiology of the ear is followed by a summary of diagnostic criteria. It is important that the eardrum be examined in anyone reporting blockage of the Eustachian tubes. The aetiology of barotitis has technological (equipment, altitudes, flight paths) and personal (unperceived tubular inflammation, allergic reactions of the mucosae, reactions to dry air) components. Diagnosis is important in determining aptitude for flying, in assessing recovery from barotitis, and in prevention and treatment of the condition. Air crews themselves must be informed and advised.
Médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 1983, Vol.22, No.85, p.25-29. 8 ref.

CIS 84-537 Silbiger A., Halpern P., Melamed Y., Bursztein S.
Saturation recompression therapy in a diving accident
A case of cerebral air embolism caused by pulmonary barotrauma in a diver is reported. Severe neurological symptoms, deterioration during decompression, and a prolonged, complicated, initial pressure profile indicated the need for saturation recompression therapy (SRT), which is described. SRT is an effective alternative for the management of complicated and persistent accidents involving intravascular bubbles.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1983, Vol.54, No.10, p.932-933. 5 ref.

CIS 84-535 Bühlmann A.A.
Decompression - decompression sickness
Dekompression - Dekompressionskrankheit [in German]
This book presents a decompression method developed in Zurich (Switzerland) between 1961 and 1981 and tested for both overpressure and low atmospheric pressure (high altitude) conditions. It explains the physical and biological principles involved, analyses the behaviour of various body organs during changes in the ambient pressure, and during the absorption and desorption of inert gases. Decompression tables are presented, and the differences between nitrogen and helium are shown. Tissue tolerances are explained, using molecular weights and the solubility coefficients of inhaled gases. The calculation of low-risk decompression is presented, with examples supporting the idea of overpressure exposure to air, helium, and helium-nitrogen mixture. Practical advice is given for the recognition and treatment of decompression sickness.
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, 1983. 83p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: DM. 36.00.

CIS 83-2034 Press H., Nieding G.von
Study of the production and effect of harmful substances during welding and cutting under hyperbaric conditions
Untersuchung über die Entstehung und Wirkung gefährdender Stoffe beim Schweissen und Schneiden in Druckluft [in German]
To prevent penetration of ground water into the workings during underground work, it is necessary to carry out operations under atmospheric pressures as high as 3bar. To model the conditions under which welders may be exposed to welding fumes, the smoke and gas concentrations produced by several electrodes were measured in a pressure chamber at 1.5 and 3bar, and healthy volunteers were exposed to welding fumes in the pressure chamber. Concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone produced were relatively insignificant; smoke was the major air contaminant. Medical examination showed that one-time exposure of the volunteers to the smoke produced no significant change in the respiratory parameters measured.
Deutscher Verlag für Schweisstechnik, Postfach 2725, 4000 Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 49p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: DM.10.50.


CIS 84-919
(Ministério do trabalho)
Occupational safety and health regulations relating to caisson work
Regulamento de higiene e segurança do trabalho nos caixões de ar comprimido [in Portuguese]
Full text of Portuguese Decree No.49/82, relating to working conditions in caissons. Aspects covered are: general requirements (dimensions, locks and exits, ballast, pressure and temperature monitoring, emergency measures, links with the outside); recompression and medical facilities; medical requirement for work under hyperbaric conditions; conditions of hyperbaric work (time limits, pressure limits, prohibition of hyperbaric work to workers suffering from certain health problems, prohibition of smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages). In the appendix are found sample medical and occupational history cards for hyperbaric workers, decompression tables.
Serviço de Informação Científica e Técnica, Praça de Londres 2, Lisboa, Portugal, 1982. 46p. Also in: Diário da República, 18 Feb. 1982, I.série, No.41, p.352-366.

CIS 83-558 Lorent P.
Hyperbaric work and conditions in civil engineering
Les travaux et conditions hyperbares dans la construction [in French]
Study on the specific hazards of work under increased atmospheric pressure. Covered are: 1. description of processes using compressed air in underground construction work, below the level of groundwater where workers are exposed to the hazards of hyperbaric pressure; 2. critical review of foreign decompression tables and the relevant Belgian legislation (differences between standards in different countries and need for international harmonisation); 3. analysis of the factors which condition oxygen consumption, heart rate and pulmonary ventilation under hyperbaric conditions. A study based on standardised effort testing under normal and increased atmospheric conditions demonstrates the importance of adequate ventilation, air purity and temperature in determining the workload and the worker's recovery after effort.
Comité national d'action pour la sécurité et l'hygiène dans la construction, Belgium, June 1982. 90p. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 83-214 Kindwall E.P., Nellen J.R., Spiegelhoff D.R.
Aseptic necrosis in compressed air tunnel workers using current OSHA decompression schedules
Report of findings of aseptic necrosis (dysbaric osteonecrosis) in 2 compressed-air tunnel workers who had complied with current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) decompression tables for compressed-air tunnelling at pressures >2.45kg/cm2. A roentgenographic study (including bone scanning) was made of 21 men who had worked at pressures up to 2.93kg/cm2 using the OSHA schedules; 7 (33%) had aseptic necrosis involving the shoulders, hips or distal femoral shafts and proximal tibia. Current OSHA schedules cause not only an unacceptable incidence of decompression sickness but also aseptic necrosis at pressures over 2.45kg/cm2. Reference is made to the development of new interim decompression tables that are more conservative.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1982, Vol.24, No.10, p.741-745. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 83-1296 Koščeev V.S., Razran M.A., Ter-Akopjan G.G.
Evaluation of natural convection under hyperbaric conditions
Ocenka estestvennoj konvekcii v giperbaričeskih uslovijah [in Russian]
A method was developed for direct measurement of heat loss from the human body under conditions of natural convection, and measuring apparatus was constructed. The method and apparatus enabled determination of the mobility of the gaseous contents and the heat transfer properties of a closed volume under elevated pressure. Thermograms were used to determine the intensity of heat exchange and to evaluate the reaction of the body to the thermal properties of the medium. Raising ambient pressure to 0.4-0.5 MPa increased convective heat loss by an average of 23% in the absence of clothing and by about 1/3 in the case of clothed persons. The method is applicable to the design of personal protective equipment for use at pressures up to 1 MPa.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1981, No.8, p.20-22. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 82-1999 Mielle F.
Work at high altitudes and underground or underwater: Clinical physiopathology and practical deductions
Altitude et profondeur: physiopathologie clinique et déductions pratiques [in French]
Physiological and pathological effects of altitude: hypoxia, physical factors, dynamic conditions, space flight; major pathological syndromes due to altitude. Contraindications (flight crews; periods spent at high altitudes). Physiopathology of underground work: minework, speleology. General considerations on hyperbaric physiopathology (physiology, decompression tables). Free diving, compressed-air and compressed-gas diving. Basic information on treatment of diving accidents. Contraindications for diving.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th quarter 1981, Vol.21, No.84, p.25-63. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 82-1748 Introna F., Altamura B.M.
Statutory requirements for safety of work under water
Le norme di legge sulla tutela delle attività subacquee [in Italian]
A review of Italian legislation (including the draft Act of 9 February 1980) on the safety of underwater workers. Individual sections are devoted to provisions concerning; caisson workers, suppplied-air drivers, skin divers working inshore, professional underwater fishermen, sporting skin divers, deep-water skin divers. Proposals made by the European Community on the safety and health of divers are discussed.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.401-414. 4 ref.

CIS 82-784 Greenstein A., Sherman D., Melamed Y.
Chokes - favourable response to delayed recompression therapy: A case report
A case of respiratory chokes syndrome after diving which persisted untreated for 72h and responded to recompression is described. The possible physiological mechanisms and the late response to therapy are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1981, Vol.52, No.9, p.559-560. 20 ref.

CIS 82-783 Leitch D.R.
A study of unusual incidents in a well-documented series of dives
Environmental factors were analysed in 43 incidences of unexplained loss of consciousness in working divers in a series of 1303 well-documented dives. Rapid compression may handicap divers if adequate time for recovery is not allowed in those adversely affected. Air diving deeper than 48m is unduly hazardous. The incidents studied may result from an interaction between the physiological effects of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide, especially in periods of hard work. Pressure may adversely lower acute O2 toxicity thresholds. Diving with O2 pressure (PO2) <1.3 bar prevents acute O2 toxicity while a PO2 >1.6 bar is potentially hazardous.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1981, Vol.52, No.10, p.618-624. 13 ref.

CIS 82-782 Torbati D., Simon A.J., Ranade A.
Frequency analysis of EEG in rats during the preconvulsive period of O2 poisoning
The characteristics of preconvulsive electrocorticogram in awake, unrestrained rats exposed to 3, 4 and 5 atmospheres oxygen were determined. The time interval of rectified voltage of the individual Δ (0.5-4c/s), θ (4-8c/s), α (8-13c/s), β1 (13-20c/s), and β2 (20-30c/s) bands were plotted against time. An elevation in Δ and a temporary reduction in α activity before the onset of the first electrical discharge (FED) was observed. Continuous reduction in β1 and β2l frequency bands occurred during the entire pre-electrical discharge period. The activity of θ and α frequency bands was significantly elevated about 1min before the onset of FED, and of β1l and β2l during appearance of the FED. Pathological effects of hyperbaric oxygenation are discussed in relation to these changes.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1981, Vol.52, No.10, p.598-603. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 82-522 Ubirajara Tannuri F.
Health engineering methods used in caissons during construction of the São Paulo Metro
Prevenção técnica em tubulão sob ar comprimido no Metrô de São Paulo [in Portuguese]
Health engineering technology used for caisson work during construction of an underground railway was described. A "safety bell" (modified diving bell) was used to avoid caisson disease and to improve working conditions. The metro company had used the shield system on its previously-constructed North-South line, but the "safety bell" method was more satisfactory. List of specific rules developed for caisson work. Aspects considered include: hyperbaric conditions; installation of worksite; installation, positioning and erection of the "safety bell"; construction materials for the bell; medical aspects; procedure in case of accident.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-May-June 1981, Vol.9, No.34, p.7-12. Illus.

CIS 82-521 Vroege D.
Decompression sickness in caisson work - Some physiological aspects
Decompressieziekte bij caissonarbeid - Enige fysiologische aspecten [in Dutch]
The relation is described between pre-employment examinations and decompression sickness during compressed-air work for the construction of a pillar for a bridge. The majority of the compressed-air workers were professional divers with valid diving certificates. The overall rate for decompression sickness was 1,2%(6/504 decompressions) for professional divers, as against 2,8%(6/218) for other workers. Alcohol consumption and obesity aggravated the development of decompression sickness. A relation seems to exist between delay in coming for treatment to the recompression chamber and human circadian rhythms which have a strong influence on a large number of physiological and psychological reactions (delayed symptoms).
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 27 May 1981, Vol.59, No.11, p.374-377. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 82-447 Gilman S.C., Biersner R.J., Mooney L.W.
A noninvasive technique for monitoring blood urea in humans during hyperbaric exposure
9 male divers were exposed in groups of 3 each to hyperbaric air for 8 days in a chamber at a saturation depth 18.8msw (2.8ata). Daily 8-h excursions were made to 31.3msw (4.0ata). The daily schedule included numerous physiological and behavioural tests. Parotid and blood samples were taken from each subject on 3 occasions during the predive period, 4 during the dive, including one during decompression, and 1 and 3 days postdive. Regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation between parotid and serum urea levels across the predive, dive and postdive periods. Parotid urea sampling is suggested as a means of monitoring blood urea levels during hyperbaric exposure.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1981, Vol.52, No.7, p.392-393. 7 ref.

CIS 81-1681 Halpern P., Greenstein A.
Cardiac decompression sickness: Report and discussion of a case
A case of first degree atrio-ventricular block, probably representing cardiac involvement by decompression sickness (DCS), is presented. The condition occurred after 2 dives to 6m with bounce dives to 9m all involving heavy physical work in water at 16°C. The diver then returned to his home at 450m above sea level. The conduction defect resolved spontaneously 36h after the decompression and was not accompanied by any other cardiovascular changes. The contribution of a recompression treatment, which alleviated accompanying Type I DCS symptoms, to the resolution of cardiac DCS is not certain. An electrocardiogram should form part of the basic evaluation of suspected DCS and of the initial workup of candidates for diving. A flow diagram for management of cardiac DCS is proposed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1981, Vol.52, No.6, .350-353. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 81-1638 Demar E.A., Harper R.
Use of tympanometry in an airline medical service.
Tympanometry, a procedure in otologic medicine which enables an examiner to evaluate the mobility and potency of the eardrum, the functional condition of the middle ear, and to ascertain the ventilation capability of the Eustachian tube, has been used as an effective adjunct in the diagnosis and management of middle ear disease in commercial air crew. The tympanometer varies the air pressure in the closed ear canal and simultaneously emits a low-frequency sound. The compliance or mobility of the eardrum is then recorded on a graph. Tympanograms have been used to screen flight applicants and to establish normal and abnormal conditions in air crew recovering from aerotitis media.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1981, Vol.52, No.3, p.181-184. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 82-189 Holthaus J.
Physiology and hazards of compressed-air diving (occupational health problems of diving)
Physiologie und Gefahren des Drucklufttauchens (tauchmedizinische Probleme) [in German]
Review of the physiological parameters and mechanisms in a man immersed vertically in water up to the neck (lung pressure, renal excretion, cardiovascular performance) and just above the head (slown-down in heart beat reflex), followed by a study of heat and humidity adaptation mechanisms, a review of measures to be taken in the event of hypothermia, the effects of increased pressure on the body and on respiratory gases (oxygen and nitrogen poisoning, decompression accidents).
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Dec. 1980, Vol.92, No.12, p.1025-1028.

CIS 80-1971 Gerstenbrand F., Lorenzoni E., Seemann K.
Medical aspects of diving
Tauchmedizin [in German]
Text of 38 papers presented at a symposium (University of Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany, 17-18 Nov. 1978), on the following themes: morphological and experimental studies; respiratory and haemodynamic problems; deep diving problems; aptitude for diving; decompression sickness; clinical aspects of decompression sickness; barotrauma; therapy, first aid and rescue; insurance problems.
Schlütersche Verlagsanstalt und Druckerei, Georgswall 4, 3000 Hannover 1, Federal Republic of Germamy, 1980. 259p. Illus. Price: DM.39.80.


CIS 80-934 Addenda to safety standard for pressure vessels for human occupancy.
Addenda to the principal standard (CIS 78-1237), which provides minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, inspection, testing and stamping of pressure vessels for human occupancy, supplementing the provisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (CIS 74-348). These addenda concern the design and dimensions of windows and viewports and their testing and quality control inspection.
ANSI/ASME PVHO 1a - 1979, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 15 Sep. 1979. 13p. Illus. 50 ref. Price: US$5.00.

CIS 80-541 Lemaire C.
Psychosensory performance efficiency in hyperbaric environment
Capacité de travail psychosensoriel en ambiance hyperbare. [in French]
Report of psychomotor tests (manual dexterity, visual reaction time for number choice and rearrangement) in 182 professional divers. The first test was under normal surface-air conditions; the second during a compressed-air dive, to a depth of 27-61m, an oxyhelium dive (34-400m) and when breathing a hypoxic mixture (12% oxygen). Performance deteriorated significantly at depths lower than 40m with compressed air equipment, and below 200m with synthetic oxyhelium breathing. Learning ability seems to be inhibited at depths below 200m; the adaptation of the subjects seems to be improved by a slow rate of compression and the addition of nitrogen to the oxyhelium breathing mixture.
Travail humain, 1979, Vol.42, No.1, p.13-28. Illus. 34 ref.


CIS 79-825 Blanc-Garin J., Bonnel A.M., Hugon M., Seki K.
An adaptation of the signal detection theory (SDT) in perceptual task experiments in hyperbaric conditions
Une adaptation de la théorie de la détection des signaux (SDT) dans une expérience perceptive en hyperbarie. [in French]
The deteriorations in perception, in temporal, visual and tactile resolution tasks, observed in men during simulated hyperbaric dives in a caisson (3 days' saturation at 300m) were analysed. The experimental procedure was based on a constant stimulus method (presentation of sets of 6 stimuli, in random order), though data were analysed according to the SDT model and 2 indices were extracted from psychophysical curves: curve slope (as sensory sensitivity); and mean of the curve (as response bias). Results show that these 2 indices vary independently; the sensory index is related to dive profile; alterations of bias response seem to express individual factors.
Travail humain, 1978, Vol.41, No.1, p.11-27. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 79-544
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, May 1978.
Information sheet on the treatment of conditions due to work in pressurised atmosphere (work in compressed air, diving)
Merkblatt für die Behandlung von Erkrankungen durch Arbeiten in Überdruck (Arbeiten in Druckluft, Taucherarbeiten) [in German]
Guidance note for practitioners and for medical and safety personnel, concerning preparation for work in pressurised atmosphere and treatment in case of caisson disease and lung distention: recompression, recompression with oxygen administration, relapse, transfer to another compression chamber, tables indicating treatment, waiting period after emergency decompression treatment.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 14p. Price: DM.1.00.

CIS 79-277 Berghage T.E., Dyson C.V., McCracken T.M.
Gas elimination during a single-stage decompression.
The relation between hydrostatic pressure and gas-exchange symmetry was studied by exposing 895 rats to pressures of 20, 30 and 40ata until equilibrium. A 2-step, single-stage decompression was conducted to a point where 50% of the animals displayed signs of decompression sickness. By varying the time of the single decompression stop, the time necessary for the animals to reestablish equilibrium following the initial decompression was determined. Gas uptake is much faster than gas elimination during decompression. In addition, it is suggested that gas elimination is an inverse function of saturation exposure pressure. There may be an optimum time to spend at a decompression stop for maximising the rate of gas elimination.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1978, Vol.49, No.10, p.1168-1172. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 79-159 Susbielle G.
New aspects of decompression osteonecrosis in professional divers
Nouveaux aspects de l'ostéonécrose dysbarique chez les plongeurs professionnels. [in French]
Proceedings of the French Society of Physicians Treating Decompression Diseases (Société française de médecine practicienne du travail subaquatique). A brief roundup of pathogenesis and clinical aspects is followed by a commentary on French Decrees No. 74-657 of 9 July 1974 (CIS 75-221) and No. 74-725 of 11 July 1974 (CIS 75-1454) which prescribe for caisson workers and professional divers a mandatory annual X-ray of the shoulders, hip joints and knees for early detection of bone damage. The author emphasises the difficulty of interpreting the radiographs and reproduces the classificatton of radiological aspects of decompression osteonecrosis established in the United Kingdom by the Medical Research Council Panel on Decompression Sickness. Reference is made to other provisions of the Decree of 9 July 1974 concerning preventive medicine and medical supervision, and to the Order of 4 Oct. 1974 (CIS 75-1454) containing detailed recommendations for practitioners. The article concludes with considerations on the significance to be attached to diaphyseal and metaphyseal localisations of femoral and tibial osteonecrosis in the region of the knee.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1978, Vol.39, No.6, p.378-383.

CIS 78-2036 Goto Y.
Studies on decompression bubbles in men exposed to high pressure atmospheres.
Decompression bubbles were detected by ultrasonic Doppler recorder in men exposed to high pressure atmospheres. The results were: (1) bubble quantities were generally larger after than during decompression; (2) subjects showing a gradual increase in bubble quantities in the decompression process appeared susceptible to decompression sickness, in contrast to those who showed decreasing bubble quantities; (3) the appearance of bubbles varied according to the decompression schedule and the effectiveness of decompression schedules may be evaluated by detection of decompression bubbles; (4) individual differences were noted in the appearance of the bubble patterns. Bubbles appeared frequently and their quantities were larger in older workers.
Journal of the Ochanomizu Medical Association, Dec. 1977, Vol.25, No.4, p.187-193. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 78-1729 Miller J.N., Fagraeus L., Bennett P.B., Elliott D.H., Shields T.G., Grimstad J.
Nitrogen-oxygen saturation therapy in serious cases of compressed-air decompression sickness.
In serious cases, conventional recompression procedures may not allow sufficient time at depth for complete recovery because of the need to avoid pulmonary oxygen toxicity associated with prolonged breathing of compressed air. Treatment by nitrogen-oxygen saturation at a pressure equivalent to 30m sea water is proposed. Based on the success of this procedure in 3 refractory cases, recommendations are made for conversion of standard compressed-air chambers into an emergency saturation mode for therapy.
Lancet, 22 July 1978, Vol.2, No.8082, p.169-171. 9 ref.

CIS 78-1726 Caisson disease - Report on an unusual course
Zur Problematik der Caissonkrankheit - Bericht über eine ungewöhnliche Verlaufsform [in German]
Review of the physiopathological processes and symptoms corresponding to the 3 phases of caisson disease: compression, isocompression, decompression. Description of a case characterised by myocardial infarction, severe dehydration and shock: course of the compression, decompression and recompression phases, clinical symptoms, treatment. Differential diagnosis is discussed. The danger of disturbing the water and electrolyte balance during recompression is stressed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, May 1978, p.136-139. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 78-1141 Mano Y., D'Arrigo J.S.
Relationship between CO2 levels and decompression sickness: Implications for disease prevention.
A report of the clinical findings obtained from 84 caisson workers engaged in foundation work for the construction of a blast furnace on reclaimed ground in Tokyo Bay. The maximum depth reached by the caisson was 56.3m from the surface, the workers being exposed to 5 different ranges of pressure and totalling 12,586 exposures in 5 months' work. There were no cases of decompression sickness at caisson pressures 1.8-2.7ata; at 2.7-3.9ata the overall incidence was 1.64%. When the bottom pressure was 3.0-3.2ata, and the man lock contained 1.8-2.3% carbon dioxide during decompression, the incidence of sickness was 3.05%. On reducing the CO2 to 0.3-0.8%, the incidence was 0.96%, even at 3.2-3.4ata. Based on the nature of muscular activity required of the workers just prior to decompression, their most common site of the disease was in the region where the highest amounts of CO2 would be expected during decompression.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1978, Vol.49, No.2, p.349-355. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 92-371 Ordinance on Safety and Health of Work under High Pressure [Japan]
English translation of the Ordinance of 30 Sep. 1972 (for the original see CIS 75-826), as reissued under a new title on 19 Mar. 1977 and amended till 1986. Contents: general provisions; facilities for work in compressed air; equipment for diving operations; management of diving operations; medical examinations; recompressing locks; licensing and notification requirements. Detailed decompression tables in the appendix.
In: Industrial Safety and Health Law and related legislation of Japan, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, 1991, p.638-687.

CIS 78-1725 Barthélémy L., Michaud A.
Decompression accidents, decompression disease
Accidents de décompression et maladie de décompression. [in French]
The classic concept of decompression accidents is outlined, with the modern physiopathological distinction between phenomena related to bubble formation (gas emboli), and others (hypovolaemia, oedema, sludging, disseminated intravascular coagulation). The various clinical aspects of the condition are reviewed: skin (intense itching, oedematous form), neurological effects, osteo-arthro-muscular (bends), cardiorespiratory (chokes), cochlear and placental accidents. Specific and non-specific treatment is discussed: measures on the appearance of disseminated intravascular coagulation, transportation to special centre with hyperbaric unit. Prevention is based essentially on the use of decompression tables.
Ouest médical, 1977, Vol.30, No.24, p.1741-1750. 42 ref.

CIS 78-1237 Safety standard for pressure vessels for human occupancy.
This standard provides minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, inspection, testing and stamping of pressure vessels for human occupancy, except nuclear reactor containments. The rules are intended to supplement the provisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (CIS 74-348). Contents: materials; design and fabrication; inspection and tests; stamping and reports; pressure relief devices. Appendices: design of viewports; reference codes, standards and specifications.
ANSI/ASME PVHO 1-1977, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 15 Oct. 1977. 67p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: US-$10.00.

CIS 78-1144 Pearson R.
Early diagnosis of decompression sickness.
Proceedings of the 12th Undersea Medical Society workshop, held in Toronto, Canada, on 12 May 1977, with 17 participants from Canada, France, Japan, USA and United Kingdom. Papers read dealt with: Doppler ultrasonic detection (DUD) of venous gas emboli; problem areas in DUD of decompression bubbles; limiting factors in ultrasonic bubble detection in vivo; ultrasonic imaging of bubble formation from sub-lethal decompressions; early detection of decompression bubbles; adaptive detection during decompression; advantages of DUD of moving bubbles produced in the hyperbaric environment; silent bubbles after open-ocean air diving; DUD of blood bubbles in caisson work; physiological significance of Doppler-detected bubbles; concepts of ascent criteria; early blood and lipid changes; early diagnosis of dysbaric osteonecrosis; use of radioisotopes.
Report No.UMS:7-30-77, Undersea Medical Society, Inc., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20014, USA, 1977. 309p. Illus. 208 ref. Price: US-$11.00.

CIS 78-1143 Shilling C.W., Werts M.F.
Physical methods of bubble detection in blood and tissues - An annotated bibliography with preliminary analysis.
This bibliography lists 151 scientific papers, each with an abstract, dealing with the various aspects of physical methods of bubble detection. The great majority are from the USA, the remainder from the United Kingdom, France, Japan, USSR, Scandinavia, Canada, and West Germany. The classification is preceded by an analysis of: Doppler indices; radio-isotopic lung scanning; ultrasonic imaging; acoustic-optic imaging; and other methods of bubble detection.
Report No.UMS:7-30-77-A, Undersea Medical Society, Inc., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20014, USA, 1977. 85p. Price: US-$4.00.

CIS 78-1182 Kirillov V.F., Bokerija L.A., Malikov V.E., Orlova A.A., Snegova G.V.
Vocational selection of medical personnel for work in hyperbaric operating theatres
O professional'nom otbore medicinskogo personala dlja raboty v barooperacionnoj [in Russian]
Basic principles and a provisional list of 27 contraindications for this type of work are given on the basis of data from the literature and the authors' experience.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1977, No.9, p.28-31. 15 ref.

CIS 78-756 Leichnitz K.
Use of detector tubes under extreme conditions (humidity, pressure, temperature).
The disturbing effects of these factors on detector tubes are described. Humidity has no influence on tubes of modern design. The effects of air pressure and temperature on the indicated values can be, in general, corrected by simple arithmetic. When temperatures are <0°C or >40°C, techniques must be used to bring the tube temperature into these limits during the measurements. Examples of the specific cases studied. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1977, Vol.38, No.12, p.707-711. Illus.

CIS 78-841 Hong S.K., Smith R.M., Webb P., Matsuda M., Troutman S.J., Frattali V., Dressendorfer R.H., Dwyer J., Moore T.O., Morlock J.F., Ohta Y., Claybaugh J.R., Johnson R., Kurata F., McDonough A.A., Paganelli C.V., Hayashi E., Yelverton C., Pegg J., Respicio B., O'Reilly J.P.
Hana Kai II: A 17-day dry saturation dive at 18.6 ATA.
The experimental dive (Hana Kai II) reported in these 7 articles was designed to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to a dry helium-oxygen hyperbaric environment on man: I. Objectives, design and scope (p.211); II. Energy balance (p.221); III. Body fluid balance (p.247); IV. Cardiopulmonary functions (p.267); V. Maximal oxygen uptake (p.283); VI. Cognitive performance, reaction time and personality changes (p.297); VII. Auditory, visual and gustatory sensations (p.307).
Undersea Biomedical Research, Sep. 1977, Vol.4, No.3, p.211-314. 171 ref.

CIS 78-536 Gotoh Y., Nashimoto I.
Decompression bubbles in caisson workers.
152 tests to detect precordial decompression bubbles were performed with the Doppler ultrasonic bubble detector in 91 caisson workers. The results were: most of the bubble signals appeared and reached a maximum within 60 minutes after decompression; appearance of or increase in blood bubbles was stimulated by clenching the fist or raising the arms above shoulder height; bubble signals were heard in 88 (58%) of tests, including the 16 cases of decompression sickness requiring treatment; 48 cases with bubble signals were asymptomatic; occurrence and grade of decompression bubble signals in successive operations seemed to depend on decompression schedules.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Occupational Hygiene, 30 Oct. 1977, Vol.32, No.4, p.529-533. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 78-213 Brauer R.W., Beaver R.W., Lahser S., Mansfield W.M., Sheehan M.E.
Time, rate, and temperature factors in the onset of high-pressure convulsions.
Experiments in mice with an interrupted compression schedule permitting variation of the time and pressure parameters separately, are described. The possibility that the compression rate effect on high-pressure convulsions is an artifact due to body temperature changes is also considered. Concepts for the design of compression schedules for divers working at depths were convulsions are a hazard are derived. It is suggested that time-pressure profiles should carry divers to the greatest tolerable depths fairly rapidly, and then proceed to the final descent at as rapid a rate as is compatible with the subject's comfort. There may be a limit to the protection that can be obtained by the manipulation of compression profiles.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Aug. 1977, Vol.43, No.2, p.173-182. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 77-1724 Seki K., Hugon M.
Subjective fatigue and diminished performance in a hyperbaric saturation environment
Fatigue subjective et dégradations de performance en environnement hyperbare à saturation. [in French]
Simulated helium-oxygen dive studies (saturation at 40ata) in 3 professional divers lasting 16 days are decribed. Statistical analysis of data obtained before the dive, during helium-oxygen confinement at 1.8ata, compression, sojourn at 40-47ata saturation, decompression, and after return to normal pressure, showed: a subjective decrease in vigilance and changes in body functions, greater severity of changes during compression and saturation, no significant differences between morning and evening, an inverse correlation of critical flicker frequency with pressure. Conclusion: hyperbaric fatigue is a heterogeneous syndrome of which the main features are decreased vigilance and altered body functions.
Ergonomics, Mar. 1977, Vol.20, No.2, p.103-119. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 77-1723 Farmer J.C.
Diving injuries to the inner ear.
This literature survey sets out to clarify the causes and treatment of inner-ear injuries in diving. Aspects dealt with include: transient inner-ear disturbances without alteration of cochlear function (middle- and low-frequency hearing loss, vertigo of various origins), persistent cochlear and vestibular damage during compression, at stable deep depths, and during decompression, injuries related to high background noise during diving.
Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Jan.-Feb. 1977, Supplement 36, Vol.86, No.1, 20p. Illus. 89 ref.


CIS 93-365 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Work in Compressed Air) Regulations [Hong Kong]
Regulations effective 1 Apr. 1976 and issued under the authority of the 1955 Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (see CIS 89-6). The Regulations concern: safety of compressed air operations; man-locks and working chambers; decant locks; medical locks; medical supervision of workers; miscellaneous (notification of work in compressed air, employment of inexperienced workers, advisory leaflets, personal labels, alcohol consumption, smoking, duty to follow instruction of lock attendants, fire safety). Schedules provide details on: purity of compressed air; compression and decompression procedures; decompression tables (in function of length of working period); official forms (in English and Chinese) used for registers, records, medical cards and notifications; advisory leaflet (in English and Chinese) to be given to compressed air workers.
Government Printer, Hong Kong, 1991. 21p. Price: HKD 30.00.

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