Psychology of work organization - 534 entries found
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- Psychology of work organization
Svensen E., Arnetz B.B., Ursin H., Eriksen H.R.
Health complaints and satisfied with the job? A cross-sectional study on work environment, job satisfaction, and subjective health complaints
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) among satisfied and dissatisfied workers. The second aim was to evaluate whether any SHC differences were attributable directly to the work environment or mediated by the perception of the environment (satisfactory or not). Work environment, job satisfaction and SHC were evaluated in 458 employees (56% women) of five enterprises and administrations in Norway. Satisfied workers reported an average of five to six subjective health complaints, whose prevalences corresponded to those of Norwegian general population. It is concluded that SHCs are common among satisfied workers, and work environment has only a limited influence on this state of health indicator.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.568-573. 43 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Testing the effectiveness of the streamlined national well being programme at managing work-related stress in schools
The HSE have identified six main factors of work organization that, if not properly managed, are associated with poor health and wellbeing: demands, control, support, relationships, role and change. HSE's Management Standards for Work-Related Stress represent a set of conditions that reflect high levels of health, wellbeing and organisational performance in each of these areas. Following these standards helps employers to identify the gap between their current performance and these conditions, and to develop their own solutions to close this gap. This study evaluated the effectiveness of these standards in managing work-related stress in schools. It involved collecting data from participating local authorities and schools. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 81p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr588.pdf [in English]
Poxon B., Coupar W., Findlay J., Luckhurst D., Stevens R., Webster J.
Health and Safety Executive
Using soft people skills to improve worker involvement in health and safety
The involvement of workers is central to the achievement of improved enterprise performance across many dimensions, including that of effective safety and health management. Many organizations claim that worker involvement in their decision-making and management has resulted in quantifiable benefits, such as improved change management, more responsive customer service provision, better dispute resolution, reduced labour turnover, and reduced sickness absence and accident rate. The objective of this study was to investigate organizational cultures which create the capacity for effective employee involvement in safety and health. It involved studying ten organizations with widely differing organizational cultures. It was concluded that the most decisive factor in this process was the creation, support and sustenance of a dialogue culture within the organizations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 33p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr580.pdf [in English]
Ramos A., Silva Filho J.F., Jardim S.R.
Sociodemographic data and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents at a public university in Rio de Janeiro
Dados sociodemográficos e condições de trabalho de pintores expostos a solventes em uma universidade pública da cidade do Rio de Janeiro [in Portuguese]
This cross-sectional study presents the socio-demographic profile and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents. Data on demographic factors and working conditions were collected from 55 painters employed by a public university in Rio de Janeiro by means of interviews. It was found that 58.2% of the painters reported never wearing individual protection equipment; 52.73% were unaware of the internal occupational accident prevention committee; 92.73% performed some kind of repetitive movement; 60% had another source of income (mostly as freelancers); 87.3% rated relationships at work as being good and 45.45% had already worked as painters before being hired by their present employers. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.38-49. Illus. 60 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Dados%20sóciodemograficos.pdf [in Portuguese]
The persistence of the notion of the unsafe act and the construction of blame: narratives on work accidents in a metalworking plant
A persistência da noção de ato inseguro e a construção da culpa: os discursos sobre os acidentes de trabalho em uma indústria metalúrgica [in Portuguese]
Various conceptions based on personal or psychological factors have been developed to explain occupational accidents. This study was an attempt to investigate these conceptions in the workers' discursive practices. It was based on observations, informal conversations, document evaluations and interviews with twenty workers in a metalworking shop. A pervasive presence of Heinrich's domino theory was observed in the patterns of understanding occupational accidents. Unsafe acts are mainly explained by naturalization of risks and by institutionalized transmission practices. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2007, Vol.32, No.115, p.19-27. 21 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20115%20Persistencia%20da%20noção%20de%20ato%20inseguro.pdf [in Portuguese]
Lansdown T.C., Deighan C, Brotherton C.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in the small to medium-sized enterprise: Psychosocial opportunities for intervention
The aim of this project was to identify psychosocial factors which are effective in the maintenance and improvement of safety and health in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It involved a literature review, a questionnaire survey and phone interviews with stakeholders. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Overall, SMEs showed a low level of safety and health activity. Important psychosocial factors were found to be the level of available resources, relationships with suppliers and decision-making latitude by junior and middle-level staff. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 67p. Illus. 61 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr578.pdf [in English]
Wang P.C., Rempel D.M., Harrison R.J., Chan J., Ritz B.R.
Work-organisational and personal factors associated with upper body musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between occupational and personal factors and the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among garment workers in Los Angeles. It involved 520 sewing machine operators from 13 garment industry sewing shops. Detailed information on organizational factors, personal factors and musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained in interviews. Data were analysed using unconditional logistic regression models. The prevalences of moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulder region the distal upper extremity were 24% and 16% respectively. Risk factors included an age of less than 30 years, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, being single, working more than 10 years as a sewing machine operator, working in large shops, higher work-rest ratios, high physical exertion, high physical isometric loads, high job demand and low job satisfaction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.64, No.12, p.806-813. Illus. 37 ref.
Nakao M., Nishikitani M., Shima S., Yano E.
A 2-year cohort study on the impact of an employee assistance program (EAP) on depression and suicidal thoughts in male Japanese workers
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) on depression and suicide-related behaviours in the workplace. It involved 283 male Japanese employees aged 22-38 years at a Japanese information technology company introducing an EAP. Controls consisted of 22 men working at an affiliated company without the EAP. All participants completed the Hamilton Depression Scale questionnaire (HAM-D) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) before the EAP was introduced and two years after its introduction. In the EAP group, the total HAM-D scores significantly decreased after the two-year study period, while no significant changes were observed in the reference group. The JCQ scores were not significantly different between the baseline and after the two-year study period in both groups. EAPs may be a promising strategy for maintaining the good mental health of workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2007, Vol.81, No.2, p.151-157. 30 ref.
Hayasaka Y., Nakamura K., Yamamoto M., Sasaki S.
Work environment and mental health status assessed by the general health questionnaire in female Japanese doctors
This study aimed to determine factors in the work environment influencing mental health status among female doctors in Japan. An anonymous survey questionnaire was mailed to 587 female doctors, and 367 (62.5%) responded. The survey included questions on their age and marital status, together with work-related information on their speciality, affiliated medical facility, position, type of employment, work schedule and night duty. The thirty-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) was used to examine psychological distress. A total of 169 (46.1%) subjects met criteria for having psychological distress. Bivariate analysis showed that age, marital status, medical facility, position, working time and working at night were associated with the GHQ-30 score. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.781-786. Illus. 29 ref.
Brun E., Milczarek M.
Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This report presents the findings of an expert group on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts. A summary of the report is also available as a factsheet (CIS 08-250).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007.127p. Illus. 277 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/7807118 [in English]
Violence, harassment and discrimination in the workplace
Ch. 4 in the Fourth European Working
Conditions Survey. It identified the extent of the violence and harassment across Europe in 2005. Around 5% of workers reported having experienced violence, bullying or harassment at work. In 2002, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions conducted a comparative analysis to map the patterns and trends of harassment and violence at work in the European Union and to clarify the concepts involved. This report analyses how the concepts of violence, harassment and bullying have evolved with regard to the working environment and identifies some of the differences in cultural perspectives regarding these issues. It also surveys the variety of legislative and non-legislative measures that have emerged to combat the problem at national and EU level, as well as positive examples of preventative good practice.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2007. viii, 134p. (This chapter: p.35-40). Illus.
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2006/98/en/2/ef0698en.pdf [in English]
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/docs/ewco/4EWCS/ef0698/chapter4.pdf ((Ch.4)) [in English]
Bauer J., Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Seibt R., Scheuch K., Wirsching M.
Working conditions, adverse events and mental health problems in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore the workload of teachers, to analyse the extent of negative or threatening school-related events teachers are confronted with and to evaluate mental health strain. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying a questionnaire covering different aspects of the occupational burden and threatening events, and the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 42% had faced verbal insults, almost 7% deliberate damage to personal property and 4.4% threats of violence by pupils during the past 12 months. When applying the GHQ-12, 29.8% reported significant mental health problems. Teachers in middle schools indicated more of such problems than those of high schools. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.442-449. 37 ref.
Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Scheuch K., Seibt R., Wirsching M., Bauer J.
Burnout and effort-reward imbalance in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore teacher burnout and the relationship between their efforts and their rewards. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Inventory (ERI). Compared with studies investigating burnout in other occupations, high rates of symptoms such as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment were found. Male teachers showed significantly lower personal accomplishment and more depersonalization than female teachers. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.433-441. 42 ref.
Houtman I., Jettinghoff K., Cedillo L.
Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries
In developing countries, the focus of occupational safety and health initiatives has until now essentially been on chemical, biological and physical exposures, while the psychosocial risks at work are still largely neglected. This booklet aims at raising awareness among employers and worker representatives of work-related stress in developing countries. Topics addressed: effects of globalization and the changing nature of work; definition of work-related stress; step-by-step approach to managing work-related stress; role of employers' and workers' representatives.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. 44p. Illus. 42 ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/occupational_health/publications/raisingawarenessofstress.pdf [in English]
Managing stress and conflict in libraries
Tackling conflict and stress effectively is a legal responsibility for management. This book defines what constitutes a healthy and safe library working environment. It describes the reporting procedures leading to conflict resolution, enabling both the employee and the manager to decide whether or not there is a case for making a risk assessment that may lead to formal mediation. Topics addressed: current safety and health concerns; risk assessment procedure; the business case; taking action to solve interpersonal conflict; communication skills and training; support to be expected from the organization. Also included are case studies, a glossary of health and safety terms, and sources of further information, including relevant United Kingdom legislation.
Facet Publishing, 7 Ridgemount Street, London WC1E 7AE, United Kingdom, 2007. vii, 140p. 129 ref. Index. Price: GBP 29.95.
Cox T., Karanika M., Griffiths A., Houdmont J.
Evaluating organizational-level work stress interventions: Beyond traditional methods
This literature survey considers some of the philosophical and methodological issues in relation to enterprise-level interventions for work-related stress. Starting from the complex and continually changing realities of work organization, the authors argue in favour of a more broadly conceived framework for evaluation that acknowledges the limitations of traditional approaches. The study concludes by offering an outline framework for this broader approach to the evaluation of interventions.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2007, Vol.21, No.4, p.348-362. 60 ref.
Sun J., Wang S., Zhang J.Q., Li W.
Assessing the cumulative effects of stress: The association between job stress and allostatic load in a large sample of Chinese employees
Allostatic load (AL) is an index that is derived from a set of biological measures for assessing chronic stress. In this study, a 13-parameter index was used to examine the relationship between job strain and AL. Participants were 1219 healthy Chinese employees. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, and AL was assessed by various stress responses, including blood pressure, cholesterol, indicators of glucose metabolism, and hormone and inflammation markers. AL in the high job strain group differed sharply from that in the low job strain group. AL was positively associated with age and educational level. Analyses indicated that decision latitude and job demands were significantly related to AL. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2007, Vol.21, No.4, p.333-347. Illus. 53 ref.
"Your stress manager" - An interactive medium for better handling of personal stress
"Ihr Stressmanager" - Ein interactives Medium zum besseren Umgang mit persönlichem Stress [in German]
Within the European Union, 28% of workers claim to suffer from stress-related health problems and a United Kingdom study has shown that 54% of absenteeism is due to stress-related impairment. This article describes an interactive DVD on stress management aimed at enterprises, which can be used on a single PC or installed for multi-user access through the enterprise Intranet. It consists of several modules: definition of stress; stress inventory; relaxation techniques; problem-solving methods; time management; hobbies, pleasurable pastimes, sports and nutrition; stress management objectives and action plan; quality control; addresses and contacts. This concept aims to achieve stress prevention by acting at three levels: primary (preserving mental health); secondary (early recognition of problems and effective intervention); tertiary (improving health and well-being after an illness or rehabilitation measures).
Kompass, Sep.-Oct. 2007, Vol.117, No.9/10, p.4-9. Illus.
Chouanière D., Langevin V., Guibert A.
Occupational stress - Steps of a prevention approach
Stress au travail - Les étapes d'une démarche de prévention [in French]
This guide on stress in occupational settings is aimed at all persons responsible for occupational safety and health within the enterprise. It proposes a six-step prevention approach: pre-diagnosis; putting together a project team; comprehensive diagnosis; communication of the findings; developing and implementing an action plan; follow-up. For each of the steps, it includes examples and comments from users.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July 2007. 31p. Illus. Price: EUR 6.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/20A95EE4C784D534C125732300436E60/$FILE/ed6011.pdf [in French]
Lehto A.M, Pärnänen A.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Violence, bullying and harassment in the workplace
Incidence rates of physical violence, bullying and sexual harassment have increased, according to the European Working Conditions Survey and national surveys. This study examines the manner in which these issues have been studied in the national surveys of seven European countries. It is difficult to say how much of the increase is due to raised awareness, but the heightened levels of experience reported must be regarded as real. It also became apparent in the study that physical violence, bullying and sexual harassment are very different and cannot be regarded in the same way. This means that the preventive measures implemented at the workplace must be tailored to fit each problem.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2007. 21p. Illus. 17 ref.
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/reports/TN0406TR01/TN0406TR01.pdf [in English]
Hughes E.L., Parkes K.R.
Work hours and well-being: The roles of work-time control and work-family interference
This study examined the relationship between work hours and well-being. Questionnaire data from 292 female employees in two United Kingdom public sector organizations were analysed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for demographic variables, neuroticism and job demands, work-family interference mediated the effect of work hours on family satisfaction. It was also found that work-time control moderated the relationship between work hours and work-family interference. These findings show that longer work hours are not necessarily associated with higher work-family interference, and hence with poor recovery and impaired well-being. Instead, having a degree of control over work hours moderates the first causal link in this process. Thus, the provision by employers of some flexibility and control over work hours may help to reduce the potential negative impact of long work hours on employees.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2007, Vol.21, No.3, p.264-278. Illus. 49 ref.
Brun J.P., Biron C., Ivers H.
Strategic approach to the prevention of occupational mental health problems
Démarche stratégique de prévention des problèmes de santé mentale au travail [in French]
The growing number of injuries related to stress, burnout or other psychological factors result from the rapid increase in occupational mental health problems in the last few years. However, most organizations lack a strategic risk prevention tool to address this important issue. This report presents the results of a research project involving the evaluation of organizational interventions for the prevention of work-related stress, for the purpose of developing a diagnostic tool for use by enterprises. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and observations in three organizations: an educational institution, a hospital and a forestry enterprise.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. viii, 65p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: CAD 8.48. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-514.pdf [in French]
Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Ganem Y., Lafon D., Siano B., Bijaoui A., Krivochiev M., Peltre-Fleuriet B.
Stress at work, a reality - What kind of prevention, which participants and what tools?
Le stress au travail, une réalité - Quelle prévention, quels acteurs et quels outils? [in French]
Report on a conference on the prevention of occupational stress held in Nancy, France, 1-2 February 2007. The many papers presented described and illustrated the approaches, the participants and the tools involved in the prevention of occupational stress. The objectives of the conference were to refine the definitions of stress, and more broadly of psychosocial hazards, to distinguish between sources of stress (constraints and organizational factors), effects on health (state of chronic stress, proven health problems) and effects on the enterprise. The need for a preventive approach and concerted actions was emphasized.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.97-116. Illus.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_CR%2012/$File/cr12.pdf [in French]
Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Bijaoui A., Ganem Y., Krivochiev M., Lafon D., Peltre-Fleuriet B., Siano B.
Stress at work, a fact - What preventive measures, which participants and what tools?
Le stress au travail, une réalité - Quelle prévention, quels acteurs et quels outils? [in French]
Review article on a symposium on occupational stress held in Nancy, France, on 1-2 February 2007. Papers were presented on the following topics: highlighting stress problems within the enterprise; convincing management to act; putting together a specific group of persons assigned with the task of following-up stress prevention programmes; carrying out a group diagnosis and defining an action plan for reducing the sources of stress; evaluating the effectiveness of the actions implemented; institutional resources available for implementing an occupational stress prevention programme; views of an enterprise manager and an expert in this field.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.199-223. Illus.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TD%20155/$File/TD155.pdf [in French]
Five steps for eliminating unhealthy stress at the workplace
Cinq étapes pour réduire le mauvais stress au travail [in French]
The world of work has witnessed profound changes during the last two decades. Some of these changes have proven to be relatively detrimental to occupational health, as can be observed by the dramatic increases in morbidity related to mental health and absenteeism. This article presents a five-step approach that can be adopted when faced with risk factors of occupational stress: defining one's work-life balance; setting objectives; ensuring that the objectives are met by one's self and respected by others; working with dedication and efficiency; knowing when to rest and recover.
Travail et santé, June 2007, Vol.23, No.2, p.10-13. Illus.
Hermoso de Mendoza Urrizoa J.
Absenteeism associated with burnout syndrome - Economic costs of occupational stress among health care staff in a hospital
Ausentismo asociado al síndrome de burnout - Costo económico del estrés laboral asistencial en un hospital [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between burnout and sickness absenteeism among health care staff in a Spanish hospital. It was carried out by means of a questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) addressed to 582 women workers employed in various units of a 410-bed hospital. A total of 402 valid responses were analysed. Results indicate an association between the level of emotional exhaustion and absenteeism. Other findings are discussed.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 2nd Quarter, 2007, Vol.14, No.52, p.14-20. Illus. 8 ref.
Rodríguez I., González-Morales M.G., Carbonell S.
The AMIGO model and the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL methodology - Contributions and challenges in the prevention of psychosocial hazards
El modelo AMIGO y la metodología PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL - Aportaciones y retos en la prevención de los riesgos psicosociales [in Spanish]
Changes taking place in the world of work are causing the emergence of new psychosocial hazards and psychosomatic diseases. To address these risks, it is necessary to intervene at the organizational level. In turn, this implies being able to rely on a theoretical model such as the AMIGO model, which contrary to existing models, considers the various components of the organizational system as facets of a system which can only be approached holistically. The model served as the basis for the development of the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL diagnosis methodology, which is described in this article.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Apr. 2007, No.42, p.18-25. Illus. 32 ref.
Terelak J. F.
Occupational stress: Psychological characteristics of selected stressful occupations
Stres zawodowy: charakterystyka psychologiczna wybranych zawodów stresowych [in Polish]
The findings of several empirical studies aimed at identifying the causes of occupational stress and psychological determinants of effective coping with stress are presented. The following occupations were studied: local government administration, theatre actors, customs officers, brokers, computer scientists, call centre operators, air traffic controllers, physicians, sailors, managers, teachers, nurses, military pilots, policemen, stewardesses, firemen and military men. For each of these occupations, the psychological characteristics of the job and the sources of stress are discussed.
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, ul. Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warszawa, Poland, 2007. 637p. Illus. Approx 1000 ref.
Obadia I.J., Vidal M.C.R., E Melo P.F.F:F.
An adaptive management system for hazardous technology organizations
This article presents a safety management system developed and implemented at a Brazilian nuclear research and development facility. It comprises a day-to-day based organizational framework which treats safety as one of the organizational strategic objectives and provides a continuous adaptation of the complex causal inter-relationships which occur between the implementation of new management practices and the organizational safety culture. The system was found to be effective in making safety culture enhancement and continuous organizational improvement possible.
Safety Science, Mar. 2007, Vol.45, No.3, p.373-396. Illus. 30 ref.
Stave C., Törner M.
Exploring the organisational preconditions for occupational accidents in food industry: A qualitative approach
The continuing high frequency of occupational accidents in the Swedish food industry calls for new approaches to better understand the underlying factors. In the present study, 54 accidents involving hand injuries were investigated from the operators' perspective, to explore the organizational factors. In-depth interviews were conducted with operators and their supervisors, and 24 of these interviews were qualitatively analysed. Underlying factors were found to be deficiencies in the work environment and work organization, insufficient communication and learning, a high level of responsibility in combination with low control, conflicting goals and a gap between procedures and practice. These factors result in risk acceptance, resignation towards improved safety and normalization of risk.
Safety Science, Mar. 2007, Vol.45, No.3, p.355-371. Illus. 31 ref.
Behaviour observation systems in occupational safety and health (OSH)
A safety and health behaviour observation system (BOS) is an important facet of a successful occupational accident prevention programme. This article explains why companies need a BOS, together with the steps involved in its implementation, namely: assessing cultural maturity or readiness for BOS; gaining support and ownership; behaviour safety training; specifying safety behaviours; establishing a baseline; observation and feedback process.
On Guard, June 2007, Vol.14, No.2, p.3-9. Illus.
Tominaga M., Asakura T., Akiyama T.
The effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment of computer professionals' subjective health status and productive behavior in Japan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on the subjective health status and productive behaviour of computer professionals in Japan. It was carried out in the form of a web-based questionnaire survey. Respondents included 871 computer engineers. The results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed the micro stressor "quantitative and qualitative work overload" had the strongest influence on both the subjective health status and intentions to leave. The macro stressor "career and future ambiguity" was the most important predictor of the subjective health status, and "insufficient evaluation systems" and "poor supervisor's support" were important predictors of poor productive behaviour. These findings suggest that improving not only micro stressors but also macro stressors can enhance the subjective health status and increase the productive behaviour of computer professionals.
Industrial Health, June 2007, Vol.45, No.3, p.474-486. 34 ref.
Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health (OSH)
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite psihosocialni riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZR) [in Bulgarian]
Expertprognos om nya arbetsrelaterade psykosociala risker [in Swedish]
Ekpertvarsling om psykosociale risici i fremvækst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljø [in Danish]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden psychosozialen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous psuhokoinōnikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [in Greek]
Previsiones de los expertos sobre la aparición de riesgos psicosociales en relación con la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Eksperdiprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiuga seotud psühhosotsiaalsete riskide kohta [in Estonian]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat esiin nousevia työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä psykososiaalisia riskejä [in Finnish]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques psychosociaux émergents liés à la sécurité et la santé au travail (SST) [in French]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló pszichoszociális kockázatokról [in Hungarian]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi psicosociali emergenti relativi alla sicurezza e alla salute sul lavoro [in Italian]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujų kylančių psichosocialinės rizikos veiksnių darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [in Lithuanian]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem psihosociāliem riskiem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [in Latvian]
Previżjoni ta' l-esperti fuq ir-riskji psikosoċjali emerġenti relatati mas-saħħa u s-sigurtà fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [in Maltese]
Prognoses van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde psychosociale risico¿s in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca powstających zagrożeń psychospołecznych związanych z bezpieczeństwem i higieną pracy (BHP) [in Polish]
Previsão dos peritos sobre os riscos psicossociais emergentes relacionados com a segurança e saúde no trabalho (SST) [in Portuguese]
Previziunile experţilor privind riscurile psihosociale emergente legate de securitatea @si sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [in Romanian]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich psychosociálnych rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia pri práci [in Slovak]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih psihosocialnih tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [in Slovenian]
Odborná prognóza o vznikajících psychosociálních rizicích souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [in Czech]
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This fact sheet summarizes the results of the expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/et/publications/factsheets/74 [in Estonian]
http://osha.europa.eu/es/publications/factsheets/74 [in Spanish]
http://osha.europa.eu/fr/publications/factsheets/74 [in French]
http://osha.europa.eu/hu/publications/factsheets/74 [in Hungarian]
http://osha.europa.eu/it/publications/factsheets/74 [in Italian]
http://osha.europa.eu/lt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Lithuanian]
http://osha.europa.eu/lv/publications/factsheets/74 [in Latvian]
http://osha.europa.eu/mt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Maltese]
http://osha.europa.eu/nl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Dutch]
http://osha.europa.eu/pl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Polish]
http://osha.europa.eu/pt/publications/factsheets/74 [in Portuguese]
http://osha.europa.eu/ro/publications/factsheets/74 [in Romanian]
http://osha.europa.eu/sk/publications/factsheets/74 [in Slovak]
http://osha.europa.eu/sl/publications/factsheets/74 [in Slovenian]
http://osha.europa.eu/sv/publications/factsheets/74 [in Swedish]
http://osha.europa.eu/bg/publications/factsheets/74 [in Bulgarian]
http://osha.europa.eu/cs/publications/factsheets/74 [in Czech]
http://osha.europa.eu/da/publications/factsheets/74 [in Danish]
http://osha.europa.eu/de/publications/factsheets/74 [in German]
http://osha.europa.eu/el/publications/factsheets/74 [in Greek]
http://osha.europa.eu/publications/factsheets/74 [in English]
http://osha.europa.eu/fi/publications/factsheets/74 [in Finnish]
Romera Romero J.
Causality of human error in occupational accidents ("Swiss cheese" psychological model)
Causalidad del error humano en los accidentes laborales (Modelo psicológico "Queso suizo") [in Spanish]
Various psychological theories have been developed to try to explain the causes of occupational accidents. This article describes the "Swiss cheese" model. It is based on an analysis of the various types of human error that could occur in a given system, followed by the development of protective obstacles for each of them, thereby ensuring safety.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2007, No.43, p.10-18. Illus. 10 ref.
Safety and health culture
La cultura de la prevención [in Spanish]
Topics addressed in this literature survey on safety culture: organizational culture; origins of the safety culture concept; definitions; characteristics of safety culture; basic aspects of various models of safety culture; evaluation of various methods aimed at improving occupational safety and health; possibility of measuring safety culture and its cost efficiency with respect to occupational safety and health.
Estudios de la Seguridad Social, 2007, No.99, p.9-79. 74 ref.
Kouvonen A., Kivimäki M., Väänänen A., Heponiemi T., Elovainio M., Ala-Mursula L., Virtanen M., Pentti J., Linna A., Vahtera J.
Job strain and adverse health behaviors: The Finnish public sector study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between job strain and smoking, heavy drinking, obesity and physical inactivity. Subjects included 34,058 female and 8154 male public sector employees in Finland. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaires. Regression models showed that high job strain and passive jobs were associated with 1.3 to 1.4 times higher odds of having three or more adverse health behaviours. Among men, low job control was associated with a 1.3-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse health behaviours, while among women active jobs were associated with a 1.2-fold likelihood of having three or more adverse behaviours. High demands were associated with a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of one to two adverse behaviours among women. It is concluded that adverse job conditions may increase the likelihood of co-occurring health risk behaviours. Reducing work stress by increasing job control and decreasing psychological demands might help efforts to promote healthy lifestyles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.49, No.1, p.68-74. 31 ref.
Multiple interactions of hazard exposures, role stressors and situational factors, and burnout among nurses
This cross-sectional study investigated the interaction between situational factors, role stressors, hazard exposure and personal factors among 135 nurses in a hospital in the Philippines. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents reported being ill due to work in the past year, and 59.3% missed work because of an illness. Regression analysis showed that factors associated with burnout were role stress, hazard exposure, self-efficacy, age, number of working years, illness in the past 12 months, migraine, dizziness, sleep disorder, cough and colds, and diarrhoea. After multiple regression analysis, organizational role stress, migraine, age and illness in the past 12 months were found to be significant predictors of burnout.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.73-82. 34 ref.
Behavioural safety - Kicking bad habits
It is estimated that employees' behaviour, in the form of acts or omissions, is a contributing factor in up to 80 per cent of work-related accidents. There are many reasons why employees engage in risky behaviour at work. These include cutting corners to save time, ergonomic factors, accepted practice, misunderstanding of risky behaviour and instinctive risk-taking behaviour. This guide outlines key considerations in setting up a behaviour-based safety programme. It includes the example of a behaviour-based programme implemented among ground handling staff of an airline at a major airport.
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire, LE18 1NN, United Kingdom, Apr. 2006. 11p. Illus. 20 ref.
Behavioural_safety_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (inqua.de)
Healthy health care practices in pensioners' homes
Gesund Pflegen in der Altenpflege [in German]
This report presents an analysis of work organization and workload among workers of two pensioners' homes. A survey of the workers subsequently enabled implementing measures aimed at reducing their workload.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 96p. 55 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.
http://www.inqa.de/Inqa/Redaktion/TIKs/Gesund-Pflegen/PDF/inqa-bericht-16-iso,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]
Klein B,, Gaugisch P.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (inqua.de)
Good work organization in pensioners' homes
Gute Arbeitsgestaltung in der Altenpflege [in German]
This booklet presents the results of a project aimed at using a self-appraisal system for improving working conditions in the sector of care to the elderly. It also shows how it is possible to obtain workers' participation in improving their working conditions.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 70p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.
http://www.inqa.de/Inqa/Redaktion/Projekt-Datenbank/PDF/selbstbewertung-als-partizipationsorientierte-und-nachhaltige-methode-abschlussbericht,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]
Gamperiene M., Nygård J.F., Sandanger I., Wærsted M., Bruusgaard D.
The impact of psychosocial and organizational working conditions on the mental health of female cleaning personnel in Norway
This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff from seven cleaning organizations in various locations across the country. The response rate was 64%. The questionnaires assessed socio-demographic information, employment history, work organization and psychosocial working conditions. Mental health was assessed using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25). The proportion of cleaning women scoring a HSCL-25 ≥1.75 was 17.5%, which is higher than the prevalence of mental health problems among all working Norwegian women (8.4%). Quality of supervision, collaboration with co-workers and ethnicity were significantly associated with mental health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2006, Vol.1, No.24, 10p. 55 ref.
Berg A.M., Hem E., Lau B., Ekeberg Ø.
An exploration of job stress and health in the Norwegian police service: A cross sectional study
The objective of cross-sectional study was to explore the physical and mental health of Norwegian police, and their associations to job stress. A detailed questionnaire was addressed to 3272 members of the Norwegian police at all hierarchical levels. It was found that job pressure and lack of support were the main causes of physical and mental health problems. Women showed higher anxiety symptoms than men, while men showed higher depressive symptoms than women. Police reported more subjective health complaints and depersonalization, but less anxiety and depressive symptoms than the general population. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Dec. 2006, Vol.1, No.26, 9p. 34 ref.
Rochefort T., Rouilleault H., Pelletier J., Sarasin B., Nicot A.M., Xirau D., Dumalin F., Bugand L.
Leading successful organizational change
Conduire et réussir le changement d'organisation [in French]
Collection of articles on organizational changes within the enterprise. Topics addressed: redefining priorities within the enterprise; opinions of enterprise managers and research scientists on organizational changes within the enterprise; approaches adopted by a textile product retailer, a restaurant voucher settlement office, a heavy vehicle manufacturer and an automobile manufacturer; main points to consider with respect to organizational changes within the enterprise; review of a publication on the sociology of organizational changes within the enterprise; further reading.
Travail & changement, May-June 2006, No.308, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC308.pdf [in French]
Cameron I., Hare B., Duff R., Maloney B.
Health and Safety Executive
An investigation of approaches to worker engagement
This study describes approaches to worker engagement in the construction industry. The study involved an extensive literature review of methods used to engage construction workers in relation to the management of safety and health on site, followed by industry consultation via workshops before developing four intervention strategies to test on several sites. Surveys among workers combined with qualitative interviews found that three approaches successfully improve workers perceptions of worker engagement and the health and safety performance of management. The main findings are that informal methods of engagement were more successful than written approaches, and that investment in formal safety and health training resulted in more meaningful discussions. Further research is required to develop tools to measure worker engagement and the impact of the lack of fluency in English by an important proportion of workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xvi, 77p. Illus. 65 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr516.pdf [in English]
Anderson G.M., Lorber R.L.
Safety 24/7 - Building an incident-free culture
Safety 24/7 - Construyendo una cultura sin incidentes [in Spanish]
Bezopasnost' 2477 - Sozdanie kul'tury bez incidentov [in Russian]
Safety 24/7 - Construire une culture zéro incident [in French]
According to the ILO, more than two million lives are lost each year in job- related accidents and illnesses, and another 268 million lost-time accidents occur globally. Aimed at managers who wish to build a strong culture of safety throughout their organization and supervisors who need to motivate teams to work safely, this manual presents a step-by-step approach to reduce incidents and injuries by building a behavior-based safety culture where individuals take personal responsibility for safety. It is presented in the form of a fictional story of a manager in an organization plagued with fatalities and injuries who is given 120 days to create a culture of safety. The English translation is available under ISN 111080.
Results in Learning, 201 Energy Parkway, Suite 240, Lafayette, LA 90508, USA, 2006. 134p. Illus. Price: USD 14.95.
Ferguson E., Cassaday H.J., Ward J., Weyman A.
Health and Safety Executive
Triggers for non-specific symptoms in the workplace: Individual differences, stress and environmental (odour and sound) factors
Non-specific symptoms are not related to any given disease and include fatigue, weakness, sleep difficulties, headache and muscle aches. They have a high reported incidence and result in high rates of sickness absenteeism. The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the work environment, characteristics of individual workers, external factors and physiological factors that contribute to reporting non-specific symptoms. It was carried out in the form of a survey of a cross-sectional sample of 711 volunteer participants, who answered questionnaires on their symptoms and work environment. A sub-group of volunteers furthermore submitted daily diary entries and saliva samples, which were analysed for cortisol and immunoglobulin-A secretion. Key findings are that non-specific symptoms are related to odour perceptions, the time of day, individual differences, particularly with respect to anxiety, perceived stress and job demand/control imbalance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 110p. Illus. Approx 120 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr501.pdf [in English]
Zarola A., Leather P.
Health and Safety Executive
Violence and aggression management training for trainers and managers
Workplace violence management training programmes in the health care sector constitutes a central part of the strategy for combating work-related violence and aggression. The objective of this research was to directly assess the usefulness of violence management training. The report includes various evaluation tools, cases studies and guidance documents in the field of violence management training. Based on the conclusions of this report, a second document gives guidance on good practice in the content and delivery of such training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xii, 83p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr440.pdf [in English]
Bond F.W., Flaxman P.E., Loivette S.
Health and Safety Executive
A business case for the Management Standards for stress
This aim of this literature survey was to determine the extent to which the effective management of some or all of the six key factors of occupational stress is associated with beneficial business outcomes. These six stressors are demands, control, support, relationships, role and change. Findings lead to the conclusion that there is evidence of a business case for each stressor area, greatest for control and weakest for demands. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 37p. 77 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr431.pdf [in English]
Correa Carrasco M., Fernández Garrido J., García Rodríguez B., Gómez Abelleira F.J., Martínez Moreno C., Molina Navarrete C., Olarte Encabo S., Pedrosa Alquezar S.I., Rodríguez Copé M.L.
Bullying at work - Concepts, prevention, legal protection and compensation
Acoso moral en el trabajo - Concepto, prevención, tutela procesal y reparación de daños [in Spanish]
This manual on bullying at work reviews the problem from various angles, including legal aspects. It is aimed at employers, workers and their representatives, human resources managers and the legal profession. Topics addressed: legal definition of bullying; prevention practices at the enterprise level; compensation; role of the Spanish social security administration; liability of employers; legal procedures.
Editorial Aranzadi SA, Camino de Galar 15, 31190 Cizur Menor, Spain, 2006. 272p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 35.33.
Walker A., Hutton D.M.
The application of the psychological contract to workplace safety
Psychological contracts of safety are conceptualized as the beliefs of individuals about reciprocal safety obligations between employers and employees inferred from implicit or explicit promises. The objective of this study was to identify psychological contracts in the conversations of employees about safety. The participants were 131 employees attending safety training sessions in retail and manufacturing organizations. Non-participant observation was used to collect the data during safety training sessions. Content analysis was used to analyse and code the data. This enabled the compilation of comprehensive lists of perceived employer and employee safety obligations as a measure of psychological contracts of safety. A sample of 33 safety personnel was used to validate the safety obligations. Implications of these findings for safety and psychological contract research are discussed.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.5, p.433-441. 54 ref.
Ahola K., Honkonen T., Kivimäki M., Virtanen M., Isometsä E., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Contribution of burnout to the association between job strain and depression: The Health 2000 study
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of burnout to the association between job strain and depression. A representative sample of 3270 Finnish employees aged 30 to 64 years responded to the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey and the Beck Depression Inventory and participated in an interview based on the Composite International Diagnostic Questionnaire. High strain compared with low strain was associated with 7.4 times higher odds of burnout, 3.8 times higher odds of depressive symptoms and 1.7 times higher odds of depressive disorders. The risk for depressive symptoms and for depressive disorders of high strain was reduced by 69% or more after adjusting for burnout. Burnout is strongly related to job strain and may in part mediate the association between job strain and depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.48, No.10, p.1023-1030. 57 ref.
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