Psychology of work organization - 534 entries found
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Macciocu L., Nardella C., Rossi I., Stella M., Brizio L.
Workers' active participation in the prevention of psychosocial hazards in the credit sector: A key priority for becoming a socially responsible business
La partecipazione attiva del lavoratore nella prevenzione dei rischi psicosociali nel settore del credito: elemento prioritario per l'attuazione di un'impresa socialmente responsabile [in Italian]
The aim of this study was to examine the level of employee participation in safety and health in the banking sector in Italy, focusing primarily on issues related to well-being, work organization and the worker-organization interface. Data were collected from 2100 banking sector employees across Italy, by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis revealed a working environment that does not facilitate worker participation. Three out of four workers clearly affirmed that they were not in a position to actively contribute to the promotion of safety and well-being in their workplace. Other findings are discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.17-40. Illus. 33 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_1_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_1_en.pdf [in English]
Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment in employees in a Norwegian municipality: A cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to validate a Norwegian version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI-Q). A total of 1803 employees in a medium-sized Norwegian municipality replied to the ERI-Q, and health-related variables such as self-reported general health, psychological distress, musculoskeletal complaints, and work-related burnout were examined. Findings are discussed. Satisfactory psychometric properties were found for most of the latent factors in the ERI-Q. The findings also indicate that it may be fruitful to explore health conditions among employees with different combinations of effort-reward and overcommitment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Apr. 2008, Vol.3, No.9, 11p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2405796/pdf/1745-6673-3-9.pdf [in English]
Kivistö M., Härmä M., Sallinen M., Kalimo R.
Work-related factors, sleep debt and insomnia in IT professionals
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of sleep debt, insomnia and long working hours among Finnish IT professionals and to analyse which specific work-related factors are associated with shortened sleep. A total of 2334 IT professionals responded to a questionnaire survey. Thirty-seven per cent reported sleep debt of at least 1h and 6% of at least 2h, while 16% reported insomnia. Twenty-seven per cent worked for a minimum of 50h per week. Hierarchical regression analyses were applied to investigate risk factors of sleep debt and insomnia. The most important factors associated with both sleep debt and insomnia were work-related demands requiring long hours, mental stamina, problem solving and positive perceptions of work, such as job control and importance of the respondents' own work in their life.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.138-140. 9 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/138 [in English]
Roelen C.A.M., Schreuder K.J., Koopmans P.C., Groothoff J.W.
Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether perceived (physical and mental) workload and specific job demands are associated with self-reported health complaints. A random sample of 983 male employees working in manufacturing industry in the Netherlands responded to the Basic Occupational Health Questionnaire. The main findings were that perceived physical job demands matched with self-reported musculoskeletal complaints, whereas perceived mental job demands were unrelated to specific complaints. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.58-63. 27 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/58 [in English]
Del Prado-Lu J.L.
Organizational work factors among workers and supervisors in export processing zones which support global markets
The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between organizational and management factors at work for both front-line workers and supervisors in the Philippines' manufacturing sector. A survey was carried out in a sample of 23 establishments, 630 workers, and 47 supervisors, while ten focus group discussions for workers and five for supervisors were also held. Workers and supervisors alike reported illnesses and job dissatisfaction. The most prevalent issues among workers were insufficient skills, being pressured in doing work, fast paced work, repetitive work, and that work is both physically and mentally tiring. On the other hand, supervisors described their work as challenging, needing regular upgrading of skills and needing literacy on information technology. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.435-442. 23 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_435.pdf [in English]
When introducing change in the workplace, it is essential to focus on the motivation and engagement of workers, and not just on systems and processes. This article describes three models that occupational safety and health managers can use to gain commitment of staff: the management of complex change model, the DREC (denial, resistance, exploration and commitment) model, and force field analysis.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Dec. 2008, Vol.26, No.12, p.39-40. Illus. 4 ref.
Zhou Q., Fang D., Wang X.
A method to identify strategies for the improvement of human safety behavior by considering safety climate and personal experience
A Bayesian network (BN) model for studying safety climate in the construction sector in China is proposed as well as a methodology to identify potential strategies for safety improvement. A survey of 4700 employees was conducted at a large construction firm in China. BN analyses demonstrated that the safety climate factors had a more significant influence on an employee's safety behaviour than personal experience factors. It was found that a simple strategy could be effective when safety climate factors were properly controlled. In addition, a strategy involving controlling multiple factors (or joint strategies) could further improve safety behaviour. The analysis suggested that a joint control of both safety climate factors and personal experience factors worked most effectively. Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Dec. 2008, Vol.46, No.10, p.1406-1419. Illus. 39 ref.
Phakthongsuk P., Apakupakul N.
Psychometric properties of the Thai version of the 22-item and 45-item Karasek job content questionnaire
The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 22-item and 45-item Thai versions of the job content questionnaire (TJCQ). The study encompassed 10,450 employees in Songkhla province, Thailand. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Factor validation was tested using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Both 22-item and 45-item versions demonstrated acceptable internal consistency in nearly all scales. The study provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the TJCQ among Thai employees.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.4, p.331-344. 43 ref.
The role of school organizational climate in occupational stress among secondary school teachers in Tehran
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of school organizational climate on the occupational stress of teachers. The study population consisted of a random sample of 220 secondary schools teachers in Tehran, Iran. Data on organizational climate and occupational stress were collected by means of questionnaires and subjected to statistical regression analysis. Moderate or high occupational stress was reported by 40% of the subjects. The rate of occupational stress among teachers could be predicted using the scores on the school organizational climate.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.4, p.319-329. 34 ref.
Lodde B., Jegaden D., Lucas D., Feraud M., Eusen Y., Dewitte J.D.
Stress in seamen and non seamen employed by the same company
The aim of this survey was to compare the level of occupational stress among 74 crew members working on French oceanographic vessels to that of 74 technicians and engineers from the oceanographic institute, who board the ships to operate special equipment during missions at sea. Both groups consisted of males of comparable age, who responded to questionnaires. The results showed that while there were no significant differences in strain at work and social support, there were significant differences in decision latitude which was much lower among seamen. The occupation of seaman was found to include specific elements regarded by Karasek as susceptible to lead to stress.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.53-60. 14 ref.
Boya F.O., Demiral Y., Ergör A., Akvardar Y., De Witte H.
Effects of perceived job insecurity on perceived anxiety and depression in nurses
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of perceived job insecurity on depression and anxiety among nurses working in the private health sector in Izmir, Turkey. A total of 462 nurses from 16 hospitals participated. Perceived quantitative and qualitative job insecurity were measured by means of structured questionnaires. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Job strain was assessed by the demand-control-support questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Anxiety (odds ratio OR 2.2) and depression (OR 2.5) were significantly associated with qualitative job insecurity. Similarly, quantitative job insecurity was associated with anxiety (OR 3.4) and depression (OR 2.2).
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.613-619. 26 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_613.pdf [in English]
Snyder L.A., Krauss A.D., Chen P.Y., Finlinson S., Huang Y.H.
Occupational safety: Application of the job demand-control-support model
The utility of the job demand-control-support (JDCS) model for explaining psychological and physical well-being has been documented in a variety of settings. The current study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of the JDCS model for predicting occupational injuries based on data for blue-collar workers from two regions of the United States. Risk factors were evaluated using hierarchical linear modeling. Significant interactions were found between situational constraints and safety control to predict workplace injuries. However, there were no significant three-way interactions between situational constraints, safety control and safety climate on workplace injuries. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2008, Vol.40, No.5, p.1713-1723. Illus. 47 ref.
Phan Chan Thé E.
Identifying a suicide crisis and suicide prevention at the place of work
Repérage de la crise suicidaire et prévention du suicide au travail [in French]
Contents of this review article on the prevention of suicide risk at the place of work: general aspects; definition of suicide risk; identifying persons with suicidal intentions; recommendations with respect to behaviour aimed at work colleagues; evaluation of the risk and urgency; list of suicide risk factors proposed by the WHO; suicide prevention strategies at the place of work.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.84-88. Illus.
Paturel D., Champion I.
Organization and bullying - Occupational safety and health challenges
Organisation et harcèlement moral - Les enjeux de la prévention [in French]
This review article on bullying discusses the specific aspects of French legislation. It includes accounts of victims and analyses the causes of bullying as well as the psychological profiles of victims and perpetrators. It suggests that a central cause of bullying is dysfunctional human relations within the enterprise.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2008, No.98, p.81-87. Illus. 17 ref.
Comparing the Job Strain and Job Demand-Control-Support models in direct-care disability workers: Support for support
This study evaluated the relationship of physiological indices of stress (cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A) to the job strain and the job demand-control-support models. A sample of 98 direct-care disability workers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Job Content Questionnaire. In addition, participants' morning saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol and immunoglobulin A concentration levels. The job strain and job demand-control-support models were tested using structural equation modelling. The job demand-control-support model successfully fitted with the data and was able to predict physiological outcomes; the job strain model did not. Salivary immunoglobulin A levels were predicted more successfully than the cortisol levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.316-323. Illus. 40 ref.
Osinubi O.Y.O., Gandhi S.K., Ohman-Strickland P., Boglarsky C., Fiedler N., Kipen H., Robson M.
Organizational factors and office workers' health after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks: Long-term physical symptoms, psychological distress, and work productivity
To assess if organizational factors were predictors of workers' health and productivity after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 750 workers, comparing those that had direct exposures to the WTC attacks (south of Canal Street workers) with those less directly exposed (north of Canal Street workers). South of Canal Street workers reported headache and cough more frequently than north of Canal Street workers. Organizational culture was an independent predictor of cough and job stress, and job stress was an independent predictor of on-the-job productivity losses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.112-125. 45 ref.
Waldenström K., Ahlberg G., Bergman P., Forsell Y., Stoetzer U., Waldenström M., Lundberg I.
Externally assessed psychosocial work characteristics and diagnoses of anxiety and depression
Interpretations of relationships between work characteristics and psychiatric disorders may be biased by over-reporting of unfavourable work characteristics among those with psychiatric disorders. This study attempts to account for this bias. The sample consisted of 672 employed men and women in different occupations. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed in an interview and psychiatric diagnoses were established according to DSM-IV. Data on current work characteristics and work characteristics three years ago were also obtained through interviews. Odds ratios (OR) for depression included lack of support from colleagues and supervisors (OR 6.4) and deterioration in work characteristics during the study period (OR 2.8). Findings for anxiety were similar but not statistically significant.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.90-97. Illus. 41 ref.
West C., Bernard B., Mueller C., Kitt M., Driscoll R., Tak S.
Mental health outcomes in police personnel after hurricane Katrina
This cross-sectional study examined symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) personnel who provided law enforcement and relief services to affected communities following Hurricane Katrina. Mental health outcomes related to personal and work-related exposures of police personnel eight weeks after the hurricane were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. Of the 912 police personnel who completed the questionnaire, 26% reported symptoms consistent with depression and 19% reported symptoms consistent with PTSD. For PTSD, risk factors included recovery of bodies, crowd control, assault and injury to a family member. Depressive symptoms were associated with rare family contact, uninhabitable home, isolation from the NOPD, assault and injury to a family member.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.689-695. 39 ref.
Kleppa E., Sanne B., Tell G.S.
Working overtime is associated with anxiety and depression: The Hordaland health study
The objective of this case-control study was to examine whether long work hours are associated with increased prevalences of anxiety and depression. A total of 1350 overtime workers was compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle and somatic health was included. Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.658-666. Illus. 22 ref.
Using routinely collected data to augment the management of health and productivity loss
The objective of this study was to test models of productivity loss developed from data collected using a health risk appraisal including the broader context of work, mental health, well-being, and the demands of organizational and family life. It involved the secondary analyses of 17,821 responses to a questionnaire on work limiting factors. Structural equation techniques were used to develop a series of models featuring 38 measures and a four-step hypothesized sequence. The tests confirmed the presence of two distinct but interrelated components driven by health issues, namely presenteeism (impaired performance at work) and absenteeism (time away from work) to describe productivity loss. The tests also documented the predictive power of eight categories of measures in accounting for the phenomenon.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.615-632. Illus. 21 ref.
Integrated management of depression: Improving system quality and creating effective interfaces
Depression is a chronic recurrent condition and is a leading cause of work disability. Improving occupational outcomes for depression will require an integrated approach that incorporates best practices from the clinical, community and workplace systems. After a brief review of quality improvement initiatives and promising practices in each system, an integrated chronic care model for depression is presented.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.482-491. Illus. 53 ref.
Mehlum I.S., Kristensen P., Kjuus H., Wergeland E.
Are occupational factors important determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in musculoskeletal pain?
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and low-back pain, neck-shoulder pain and arm pain in the general working population in Oslo, Norway, and to examine the impact of job characteristics on these disorders. Subjects were 7239 economically active persons aged between 30 and 45 years who attended the Oslo health study in 2000-2001. Occupational class was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status. There was a clear relationship between socioeconomic status and musculoskeletal pain, more pronounced for men than for women. The prevalence ratios were larger for low-back pain and arm pain than for neck-shoulder pain. Physical job demands explained a substantial proportion of the occupational class inequalities in low-back pain, while job autonomy was more important in explaining the inequalities in neck-shoulder pain and arm pain. Other findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.34, No.4, p.250-259. 61 ref.
Work, stress research update
This article summarizes the findings of two recent surveys on occupational stress among Canadian workers. Overall, workplace stress and related mental problems seem to be on the rise. However, executives seem to be in better health than in earlier surveys conducted in 1997 and 2002. Other findings are discussed.
Accident Prevention, Aug.-Sep. 2008, Vol.55, No.3, p.19-20.
Faurie I., Fraccaroli F., Le Blanc A.
Age and working: From studies on ageing at work to a psychosocial approach to the end of working life
Âge et travail: des études sur le vieillissement au travail à une approche psychosociale de la fin de la carrière professionnelle [in French]
The long-predicted problem of pension funding, together with the issue of workforce ageing, have given rise to many studies analysing psychological and social processes marking the later stages of occupational activity. In this framework, the objectives of this article are firstly to conduct a critical review of the main studies on ageing within organizations and, more generally, on the relationships between age and work, and secondly to provide evidence on the relevance of a psychosocial approach to the issue of older workers, which cannot simply be limited to ageing at work. This approach involves an analysis of socialization and identity restructuring processes that characterise the transition during the final years of occupational activity.
Travail humain, Apr. 2008, Vol.71, No.2, p.137-172. Approx 150 ref.
Psychosocial factors at work and risk of depression: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence
Major depression is a leading cause of psychiatric morbidity. Psychosocial factors at the workplace may influence the occurrence of this disorder, but evidence so far remains circumstantial. This literature survey reviews studies addressing the risk of major depression and depressive symptoms relative to psychosocial stressors in the working environment. Sixteen company or population-based studies including some 63,000 employees were identified. Despite the methodological limitations of several studies, there are consistent findings indicating that perceived adverse psychosocial factors at the workplace are related to elevated risks of subsequent onset of depressive symptoms or a major depressive episode.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.438-445. Illus. 41 ref.
Clarke S., Flitcroft C.
Effects of transformational leadership on perceived safety climate: A longitudinal study
Transformational leadership consists of leading by example and motivating employees. Previous research has emphasised the importance of transformational leadership style in relation to occupational safety. However, much existing empirical evidence has been drawn from cross-sectional data, which does not allow causal interpretation of this relationship. The longitudinal study reported in this article involved a sample of 14 SMEs in North West England. Data were collected by means of questionnaires before and after a five-month safety training intervention. A significant lagged effect of transformational leadership style on employees' perceived safety climate was observed. In particular, the importance of motivation is highlighted. Practical implications for the design of safety interventions are discussed, and avenues for further research are proposed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2008, Vol.24, No.3, p.237-247. 46 ref.
Bentley T., Tappin D.
Qualitative evaluation of a framework for understanding the development of organizational safety culture
This article presents findings of a study aimed at understanding factors contributing towards safety culture in New Zealand, based on the case of a specific enterprise. An attempt was made to qualitatively determine the level of a number of safety culture parameters and to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently-published framework for understanding safety culture. Methods included a qualitative survey involving two focus groups and semi-structured interviews with management, employee and contractor respondents. Key findings included low levels of employee involvement in OHS, shortcomings in communication in all aspects of OHS and a poor reporting culture. The framework was found to be an excellent tool for analysing safety culture.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2008, Vol.24, No.3, p.213-220. 16 ref.
Safety culture: Snapshot of a developing concept
This article reviews some of the key issues to be considered in literature surveys on safety culture, particularly with respect to selecting scientifically sound articles. Topics addressed: disciplines contributing to safety culture literature; sectors studied; determining the relative impact of safety culture publications; peer-review of articles; multi-author articles; authors' countries of origin.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2008, Vol.24, No.3, p.179-189. Illus. 26 ref.
Norman K., Wigaeus Tornqvist E., Toomingas A.
Working conditions in a selected sample of call centre companies in Sweden
The purpose of this study was to describe working conditions in call centres in Sweden. A questionnaire was answered by 1183 operators (848 women and 335 men) from 28 call centres. Items included background factors, conditions of employment, working hours, remuneration, duties, computer work and workplace design. It was found that operators at external companies and operators with low-complexity work tasks were generally younger, employed by the hour and working varying shifts. There were furthermore differences in working conditions between internal and external call centres. Finally it was found that certain aspects of supervision style and work organization, particularly at external call centres, cause stress and a lack of well being among the staff.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.2, p.177-194. 50 ref.
Burton A.K., Kendall N.A.S., Pearce B.G., Birrell L.N., Bainbridge L.C.
Health and Safety Executive
Management of upper limb disorders and the biopsychosocial model
This review examined management strategies for the prevention of work-related upper limb disorders and established the extent to which the biopsychosocial model can be applied. Information from articles was extracted into evidence tables. The main results are presented in thematic sections covering classification and diagnosis, epidemiology, associations and risks, and management and treatment, focusing on return to work. It was found that while biological considerations should not be ignored, it is primarily the psychosocial factors that are important for determining return-to-work outcomes. Interventions that address the full range of psychosocial issues require a cultural shift in the way the relationship between upper limb complaints and work factors is conceived and handled.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 115p. Illus. Approx. 220 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr596.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Social support and musculoskeletal disorders: Literature review and data analysis
This study of the role of work-related social support as a risk factor for musculoskeletal diseases (MSD) involved a literature survey and a statistical analysis of data sets from published studies concerning civil servants and the offshore oil industry. The analyses showed that high supervisor support was associated with lower rates of MSD problems, lower pain severity and fewer MSD-related absences. The findings for co-worker support were less clear. Analyses revealed that high partner support was a significant risk factor for MSD-related absenteeism, after correction for various confounding factors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. iv, 58p. Illus. 23 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr594.pdf [in English]
van Rhenen W., van Dijk F.J.H., Schaufeli W.B., Blonk R.W.B.
Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population
The objective of this study was to establish an optimal cutoff point for distress measured with the 50-item four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ), using the prediction of sickness absence as a criterion. The cutoff point should allow a reliable evaluation of the risk of sickness absence in occupational health practice and be useful for future studies on distress and mental disorders. The questionnaire was given to workers with and without sickness absence due to distress. Sensitivity and specificity were compared for various potential cutoff points. A distress cutoff point of ≥11 appears reliably indicative of a distress level at which an employee is presumably at risk of sick leave on psychological grounds.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.3, 8p. Illus. 56 ref.
Shirom A., Toker S., Berliner S., Shapira I.
The Job Demand-Control-Support model and stress-related low-grade inflammatory responses among healthy employees: A longitudinal study
This study investigated the direct (additive) and interactive effects of the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDC-S) model's components on subsequent changes in three indicators of stress-induced inflammation in the body: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and white blood cell concentrations. Subject included 738 healthy male and 383 healthy female employees who underwent periodic health examinations twice at an 18-month interval. Few direct or indirect effects were found, and none were supportive of the JDC-S model. It is concluded that the physiological mechanism linking the JDC-S model with cardiovascular morbidity probably does not involve inflammatory processes.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.138-152. Illus. 58 ref.
Willis T.A., O'Connor D.B., Smith L.
Investigating effort-reward imbalance and work-family conflict in relation to morningness-eveningness and shift work
The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) has been found to be a strong predictor of both psychological and physiological outcomes. A sample of 112 police employees in the United Kingdom completed a baseline questionnaire that contained the ERI model and a measure of "morningness or eveningness" (M-E) chronotype. Two months later, participants completed a second questionnaire, including this time measures of work-family conflict and burnout. Regression analyses confirmed that ERI was a significant predictor of psychological adjustment to shift work. Moreover, M-E was found to make a unique contribution to the prediction of work-family conflict, such that evening types reported greater levels of maladjustment. The results indicate that adjustment to shift work and attendant effects on work-family conflict can be affected by an individual's morning-evening typology. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.125-137. 45 ref.
Kessler S.R., Spector P.E., Chang C.H., Parr A.D.
Organizational violence and aggression: Development of the three-factor Violence Climate Survey
Violence climate, a concept derived from the safety climate literature, may affect violence and aggression at work. Using a newly-developed instrument for measuring violence climate, this study consisted of a survey of a sample of 216 employees from a variety of sectors in the United States. It showed that violence climate is significantly related to exposure to physical violence and verbal aggression, physical strains and psychological strains, including job dissatisfaction and negative emotion at work. Exposure to both violence and aggression was associated with all strains. Multiple regression analyses suggested that it was primarily policies and pressure that was associated with verbal aggression, whereas mainly practices was related to physical violence.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.108-124. Illus. 55 ref.
Edwards J.A., Webster S., Van Laar D., Easton S.
Psychometric analysis of the UK Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards work-related stress Indicator Tool
In the United Kingdom, the HSE's Management Standards Indicator Tool is increasingly used by enterprises to monitor working conditions that can lead to stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of this tool. Data were collected from 26,382 employees at 39 enterprises in the United Kingdom and used to perform a first-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the original 35-item seven-factor measurement scale. The results showed an acceptable fit to the data for the instrument. A second-order CFA was also performed to test if the tool contained a higher order one-dimensional measure of work-related stress. These findings also revealed an acceptable fit to the data, suggesting that it may be possible to derive a single measure of work-related stress. Normative data comprising tables of percentiles from the organizational data are provided to enable employers to compare their averages against national benchmarks.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.96-107. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposure to stress: Occupational hazards in hospitals
Various studies show that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job stress. In addition to psychological distress, other outcomes of job stress include burnout, absenteeism, employee intent to leave, reduced patient satisfaction, and diagnosis and treatment errors. The purpose of this booklet is to explain the sources of occupational stress, to identify the adverse health effects of occupational stress and to recommend work practices to reduce occupational stress. Short descriptions of two hospital stress prevention programmes are included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. iii, 13p. 28 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-136/pdfs/2008-136.pdf [in English]
Edimansyah B.A., Rusli B.N., Naing L., Mohamed Rusli B.A., Winn T., Tengku Mohamed Ariff B.R.H.
Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychological job factors in male automotive assembly workers
This cross-sectional study explores the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors among automotive industry workers in Malaysia. A total of 728 workers, all male, responded to Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous working conditions were positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress, while supervisor support was inversely associated with depression and stress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.90-100. 40 ref.
Morin E., Aranha F.
Meaning of work, mental health and organizational commitment
Sens du travail, santé mentale et engagement organisationnel [in French]
The objective of this survey was to demonstrate that characteristics such as the usefulness and moral rectitude of the work, the learning and development opportunities, autonomy, recognition and the quality of human relations were linked to the meaning that people give to their work. Data were collected from the personnel of four organizations: a hospital, a health and social services centre, a research centre and an engineering consulting firm by means of questionnaires. Jobs perceived as being useful for society and that allow knowledge to be acquired were considered positive factors. Other hypotheses relating to the positive or negative impact of the meaning given to the work on psychological well-being or distress also emerged. Based on these findings, a theoretical model was developed that presents work organization as a determinant of employees' health, attitudes and performance. The report contains recommendations regarding the prevention of symptoms of psychological distress and the reduction of stress.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. iii, 54p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-543.pdf [in French]
Houtman I., Jettinghoff K., Cedillo L.
Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries - A modern hazard in a traditional working environment
Hatten-doshō-koku ni okeru rōdō sutoresu no ninshiki o kōjō saseru [in Japanese]
Sensibilisation au stress professionnel dans les pays en développement: Un risque actuel dans un environnement de travail traditionnel [in French]
Sensibilizando sobre el estrés laboral en los países en desarrollo - Un riesgo moderno en un ambiente de trabajo tradicional [in Spanish]
Work-related stress is an issue of growing concern in developing countries due to processes of globalization and the changing nature of work. In these countries, the focus of occupational safety and health initiatives has until now essentially been on chemical, biological and physical exposures, while the psychosocial risks at work are still largely neglected and their causes and consequences still insufficiently understood. This booklet raises awareness of the issue for employers and workers' representatives. Contents: introduction to the problem; effects of globalization and the changing nature of work; definition of work- related stress; model on work-related stress; managing work-related stress; acting at the local level; roles of employers' and workers' representatives.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2008. 44p. Illus. 41 ref.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789243591650_spa.pdf [in Spanish]
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789242591651_fre.pdf [in French]
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/924159165X_jpn.pdf [in Japanese]
http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/raisingawarenessofstress.pdf [in English]
Hansson A.S., Vingård E., Arnetz B.B., Anderzén I.
Organizational change, health, and sick leave among health care employees: A longitudinal study measuring stress markers, individual, and work site factors
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of organizational changes in health care services on employees' self-reported health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion, stress and sick leave. The initial population consisted of 226 Swedish workers engaged in the care of older people, reduced to 198 one year later. They were divided between a study group affected by organizational changes and a reference group not affected by them. Self-rated health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion and hormones associated with stress were analyzed using a two-factor variance analysis design. Findings showed no significant differences in self-rated health, work satisfaction and work-related exhaustion. However, significant changes were found across time and between groups for the recovery hormone DHEA-S. Other findings are discussed. The study highlights the importance of considering the impact of organizational change on employee well-being from a number of perspectives, such as self-reported health parameters, registered sick-leave data and biological stress markers.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.69-80. 35 ref.
Beckers D.G.J., van der Linden D., Smulders P.G.W., Kompier M.A.J., Taris T.W., Geurts S.E.A.
Voluntary or involuntary? Control over overtime and rewards for overtime in relation to fatigue and work satisfaction
This study aimed to examine whether the relationship between overtime and well-being is influenced by the voluntary vs. involuntary (i.e. compulsory) nature of overtime work and by the presence or absence of rewards for overtime. It also explored the prevalence of these types of overtime and how they were related to work and personal characteristics. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of 1612 full-time employees in the Netherlands. Variance analysis was used to compare rewarded and unrewarded, voluntary and involuntary overtime workers on personal and work characteristics, fatigue and work satisfaction. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that control over overtime and rewards for overtime are important for well-being. Moderate overtime work may not be a problem if it is done voluntarily. Moreover, the negative effects of compulsory overtime work may be partly offset by fair compensation.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.33-50. Illus. 47 ref.
Bond M.A., Kalaja A., Markkanen P., Cazeca D, Daniel S., Tsurikova L., Punnett L.
Expanding our understanding of the psychosocial work environment: A compendium of measures of discrimination, harassment and work-family issues
There is broad recognition that the psychosocial environment at work can affect physical and mental health as well as enterprise performance outcomes such as efficiency and productivity. Past research across several disciplines has revealed that gender- and race-related factors such as values, biases, harassment, discrimination, lack of support and work-family balance issues can affect physical and mental health. However, these features of the work environment have rarely been included simultaneously with the study of other workplace conditions. The objective of this project was to provide practical tools to occupational safety and health researchers interested in evaluating the role of discrimination, bias and work-family issues in occupational injuries and illness. A literature survey enabled the compiling of inventories, check lists, questionnaires and scenarios in the form of a catalogue of 46 measures that will be useful for investigating the psychosocial work environment.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Feb. 2008. vi, 275p. Approx. 120 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-104/pdfs/2008-104.pdf [in English]
d'Errico A., Punnett L., Gold J.E., Gore R.
JCQ scale reliability and responsiveness to changes in manufacturing process
The job content questionnaire (JCQ) was administered to automobile manufacturing workers in two surveys, taken five years apart. Between the two interviews, the company introduced substantial changes in production technology in some production areas. The aims of this study were to describe the impact of these changes on self-reported psychosocial exposures and to examine the reliability of the JCQ scales, taking into account possible changes in job assignment. The study population included 790 subjects at the first and 519 at the second survey, of whom 387 participated in both. The introduction of more automated technology produced an overall increase in job control but did not decrease psychological demand. The reliability of the control scale was low overall but increased to an acceptable level among workers who had not changed job. The demand scale had high reliability only among workers whose physical ergonomic exposures were similar on both survey occasions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.138-147. 53 ref.
Work-related stress: A review of developments in the UK
The United Kingdom Health and safety Executive (HSE) developed stress management standards that were published in 2005. This article focusses on the potential significance of these standards for Australia.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.373-381. 31 ref
Work-related_stress_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Averting violence - Work, violence and health
Conjurer la violence - Travail, violence et santé [in French]
There is a worsening of violence in many settings, including within the enterprise. This document highlights the extent to which work organization is involved in the root causes of violence at the place of work and proposes pathways for preventive action, both inside and outside the enterprise.
Editions Payot & Rivages, 106, boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France, 2007. 316p. 71 ref. Price: EUR 23.00.
Suominen S., Vahtera J., Korkeila K., Helenius H., Kivimäki M., Koskenvuo M.
Job strain, life events, and sickness absence: A longitudinal cohort study in a random population sample
To examine job strain, adverse life events, and their co-occurrence as predictors of sickness absence, data were collected by means of questionnaires in a random sample of 1806 Finns in gainful employment and linked to sickness absence records from national health registers. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and health behaviour, job strain (rate ratio RR 1.73), but not life events, independently predicted increased rate of sickness absence among men. The opposite was true for women (RR for life events 1.39). No statistically significant interaction between job strain and life events was detected.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.990-996. 26 ref.
Ahola K., Honkonen T., Virtanen M., Kivimäki M., Isometsä E., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Interventions in relation to occupational burnout: The population-based health 2000 study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation in burnout prevention interventions. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, structured interviews and the Finnish national register of psychopharmacological prescriptions in a representative sample of 3276 employees. When compared with employees free of burnout, the odds ratio of severe burnout for participation in occupational interventions was 0.41 and in individual-focused interventions 5.36. Antidepressant prescriptions were 2.53 times more common among those with severe burnout than among those without burnout after adjustment for depressive and anxiety disorders.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.943-952. 60 ref.
Campo G., Fattorini E.
Human resource management in organizational change and the issue of mobbing: An Italian experience
La gestione delle risorse umane nelle organizzazioni che cambiano e la problematica del mobbing: un'esperienza italiana [in Italian]
Staff redundancies that often result from mergers and organizational changes in the business world are difficult to implement in public sector companies, where such changes often lead to mobbing. The objective of this survey of the power sector, which in recent years has been affected by considerable organizational changes, was to determine the frequency and risk factors of mobbing. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Findings show a working environment that tends to isolate and alienate a significant number of workers, one out of three, who explicitly claimed that they felt victims of psychological violence and also felt useless and little appreciated in performing a meaningless job. On the whole, women and older workers tend to be the most exposed to psychological abuse. The older were not old enough to benefit from early retirement schemes and who, like women, were unable to return to the labour market with confidence after years of harassment and humiliation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2007, Vol.3, No.2, p.37-45. Illus. 13 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_02_2_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_02_2_en.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Managing the causes of work-related stress - A step-by-step approach using the Management Standards
Work-related stress is a major cause of occupational ill health. This can result in sickness absence, high staff turnover and poor work performance. HSE Management Standards are aimed at helping employers, employees and their representatives manage the issue sensibly and minimize the impact of work-related stress on businesses. They represent a set of conditions that reflect high levels of health, well-being and organizational performance. Following the advice in this guide will help employers identify and close the gap between current performance levels and these conditions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Nov. 2007. iv, 56p. Illus. 13 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: GBP 10.95.
Svensen E., Arnetz B.B., Ursin H., Eriksen H.R.
Health complaints and satisfied with the job? A cross-sectional study on work environment, job satisfaction, and subjective health complaints
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) among satisfied and dissatisfied workers. The second aim was to evaluate whether any SHC differences were attributable directly to the work environment or mediated by the perception of the environment (satisfactory or not). Work environment, job satisfaction and SHC were evaluated in 458 employees (56% women) of five enterprises and administrations in Norway. Satisfied workers reported an average of five to six subjective health complaints, whose prevalences corresponded to those of Norwegian general population. It is concluded that SHCs are common among satisfied workers, and work environment has only a limited influence on this state of health indicator.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.568-573. 43 ref.
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