Psychology of work organization - 534 entries found
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- Psychology of work organization
van Daalen G., Willemsen T.M., Sanders K., van Veldhoven M.J.P.M.
Emotional exhaustion and mental health problems among employees doing "people work": The impact of job demands, job resources and family-to-work conflict
This study investigated the relationship between various job characteristics and family-to-work conflict, and emotional exhaustion and mental health problems. Multiple regression analyses were performed using data from 1,008 employees of ten Dutch mental care institutions. It was found that different job characteristics as well as family-to-work conflict were associated with emotional exhaustion and mental health problems in each job type. The relationship between family-to-work conflict and emotional exhaustion was furthermore mitigated by social support from colleagues for those who worked in low patient interaction jobs. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.291-303. 65 ref.
Wang F.W., Chiu Y.W., Tu M.S., Chou M.Y., Wang C.L., Chuang H.Y.
Chronic fatigue of the small enterprise workers participating in an occupational health checkup center in Southern Taiwan
This study examined the association between psychosocial job characteristics and chronic fatigue among workers of small enterprises in Taiwan. A questionnaire was administered to workers receiving regular health examinations, including demographic information and data on working conditions, state of health, lifestyle, psychosocial job characteristics, fatigue and psychological distress. Probable chronic fatigue was found in 34.6% of the sample of 647 workers. Chronic fatigue was found by multiple logistic regressions to be associated with the lack of exercise, working in shifts, depression score and lack of social support at the workplace. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.819-825. 35 ref.
Cohidon C., Morisseau P., Derriennic F., Goldberg M., Imbernon E.
Psychosocial factors at work and perceived health among agricultural meat industry workers in France
The objective of this study was to describe the perceived health status of meat and poultry industry employees, and its relation to their organizational and psychosocial constraints at work. It was carried out in the form of a postal questionnaire survey of all 3,000 employees of the meat industry (beef, pork and poultry) in Brittany, France. Questions addressed social and demographic data, as well as information pertaining to the job and work organization. Overall, there was a high prevalence of poor health, worse among women and increasing regularly with age. Psychosocial risk factors included high quantitative and qualitative demands, inadequate resources for good work and to a lesser extent, inadequate prospects for promotion.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.807-818. 33 ref.
Charbotel B., Croidieu S., Vohito M., Guerin A.C., Renaud L., Jaussaud J., Bourboul C., Imbard I., Ardiet D., Bergeret A.
Working conditions in call centers, the impact on employee health: A transversal study. Part II
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of telephone call centre employees' working conditions on health. Data on working conditions had already been collected in an earlier study. Data on personal factors, state of health, symptoms, sickness absenteeism and drug use were collected by means of questionnaires from 2130 call centre operators. During the previous 12 months, 60% of the participants had taken sick leave. A significant association was found between psychological distress and the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.747-756. 22 ref.
Sinokki M., Hinkka K., Ahola K,, Koskinen S., Klaukka T., Kivimäki M., Puukka P., Lönnqvist J., Virtanen M.
The association between team climate at work and mental health in the Finnish Health 2000 study
This study investigated whether team climate at work was associated with DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication in a random sample of 3347 Finnish employees aged 30-64 years. Data on team climate and depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were collected during interviews. Data on the use of antidepressant medication in a three-year follow-up period were collected from the national social insurance register. Poor team climate at work was significantly associated with depressive disorders (odds ratio (OR) 1.61) but not with alcohol use. Poor team climate also predicted antidepressant medication (OR 1.53), but not anxiety after adjustment for job demands and control.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.523-528. 51 ref.
Ahola K., Gould R., Virtanen M., Honkonen T., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Occupational burnout as a predictor of disability pension: A population-based cohort study
The aim of this study was to investigate whether burnout predicts new disability pension. It involved a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3125 employees in Finland. The data collection in 2000-2001 comprised an interview, a clinical health examination including a standardised mental health interview, and a questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Disability pensions and their causes until December 2004 were extracted from national pension records. The association between burnout and new disability pension was analysed with logistic regression models. Findings are discussed. Burnout predicts permanent work disability and could therefore be used as a risk marker of chronic health-related work stress.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.284-290. 50 ref.
Nyberg A., Alfredsson L., Theorell T., Westerlund H., Vahtera J., Kivimäki M.
Managerial leadership and ischaemic heart disease among employees: The Swedish WOLF study
To investigate the association between managerial leadership and ischaemic heart disease (IHD), data on 3122 Swedish male employees were drawn from a prospective cohort study. Baseline screening was carried out in 1992-1995. Managerial leadership quality was rated by subordinates. Records of employee hospital admissions with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina and deaths from IHD or cardiac arrest to the end of 2003 were used to ascertain IHD. Cox proportional-hazards analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios for IHD. Higher leadership scores were associated with lower IHD risk, with the inverse association stronger for long time spent in the same workplace. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.51-55. 43 ref.
Elovainio M., Ferrie J.E., Singh-Manoux A., Gimeno D., De Vogli R., Shipley M.J., Vahtera J., Brunner E.J., Marmot M.G., Kivimäki M.
Cumulative exposure to high-strain and active jobs as predictors of cognitive function: The Whitehall II study
A high-strain job (a combination of high job demands and low job control) is expected to increase the risk of health problems, whereas an active job (high demands and high control) can be hypothesised to be associated with a greater capacity to learn. This study tested associations between high-strain and active jobs and cognitive function using data on 4146 civil servants (2989 men and 1157 women) in the United Kingdom, aged 35-55 years at baseline. Cumulative exposure to both high-strain and active jobs was assessed at various points in time (1985-1988, 1989-1990 and 1991-1993). Cognitive performance was assessed in 1997-1999 and 2003-2004 using several tests. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that associations between high-strain or active jobs and cognition are mostly explained by socioeconomic position.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.32-37. 36 ref.
De Raeve L., Jansen N.W.H., van den Brandt P.A., Vasse R., Kant I.J.
Interpersonal conflicts at work as a predictor of self-reported health outcomes and occupational mobility
To examine the relationship between interpersonal conflicts at work and self-reported health outcomes and occupational mobility, data on male workers from the Maastricht Cohort Study on fatigue at work were used. Interpersonal conflict was assessed at baseline and after one year. Health outcomes were studied every four months during a second year of follow-up. Conflicts with co-workers occurred in 7.2% of the study population, while conflicts with supervisors occurred in 9.5%. Co-worker conflict was a statistically significant risk factor for an elevated need for recovery, prolonged fatigue, poor general health and external occupational mobility (change of employment). Supervisor conflict was a significant risk factor for an elevated need for recovery, prolonged fatigue, external occupational mobility, and internal occupational mobility (reassignment within the enterprise).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.16-22. Illus. 47 ref.
Pejtersen J.H., Kristensen T.S.
The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005
The aim of the study was to evaluate trends in the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997-2005. The analyses were based on two national questionnaire surveys of randomly-selected employees who completed the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Quality of leadership and social support from supervisors were the only dimensions that saw improvements. The negative developments were: higher work pace; less work control; less possibilities for development; less meaning of work; more role conflicts; decreased role clarity; reduced sense of community; less social support from colleagues; increased conflicts at work; more threats of violence; more slander and gossip.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.4, p.284-293. 49 ref.
Berset M., Semmer N.K., Elfering A., Amstad F.T., Jacobshagen N.
Work characteristics as predictors of physiological recovery on weekends
This study investigated whether work characteristics predict physiological recovery on a rest day. Some researchers have indeed hypothesized that high demands and low control at work would lead to higher cortisol values and thus poor recovery on a rest day. A total of 69 individuals participated in this study. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and analyses of salivary cortisol on two workdays and on a subsequent Sunday (rest day). Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. It was found that individuals with less job control had higher cortisol levels and consequently poorer recovery on the rest day than those with more control. Neither job demands nor the interaction of demands and control predicted a change in cortisol levels from workday to rest day. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.3, p.188-192. 28 ref.
Siegrist J., Wege N., Pühlhofer F., Wahrendorf M.
A short generic measure of work stress in the era of globalization: Effort-reward imbalance
This study evaluates the psychometric properties of a short version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. It was tested on a representative sample of 10,698 employed men and women in Germany. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression analysis were applied. In addition to satisfactory internal consistency of scales, a model representing the theoretical structure of the scales provided the best data fit in a competitive test. Scoring high on the ERI scales was associated with elevated risks of poor self-rated health. This short version of the ERI questionnaire reveals satisfactory psychometric properties, and can be recommended for further use in research and practice.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.1005-1013. Illus. 38 ref.
Magnusson Hanson L.L., Theorell T., Bech P., Rugulies R., Burr H., Hyde M., Oxenstierna G., Westerlund H.
Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees
To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women, a representative sample of 5985 gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age was surveyed by means of a questionnaire on work demands, decision authority, and support and conflicts. Depressive symptoms were recorded by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Data were subjected to linear regression analyses. Depressive symptoms were found to be associated with conflicts with fellow workers among men. Other important associations included decision authority in both men and women, job demands in men and support from fellow workers in women.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.951-960. 52 ref.
Tsutsumi A., Nagami M., Yoshikawa T., Kogi K., Kawakami N.
Participatory intervention for workplace improvements on mental health and job performance among blue-collar workers: A cluster randomized controlled trial
To explore the effect of participatory intervention for workplace improvement on mental health and job performance, 11 assembly lines were randomly allocated to six intervention and five control lines (47 and 50 workers, respectively). Participants were surveyed by means of questionnaires at baseline and at the end of the intervention. General Health Questionnaire scores significantly deteriorated in the control group, whereas the score remained at the same level in the intervention group. Health and Work Performance Questionnaire scores increased in the intervention group, but decreased in the control group. Participatory intervention for workplace improvement appears effective against deterioration in mental health and for improving job performance.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.554-563. Illus. 46 ref.
Rugulies R., Aust B., Siegrist J., von dem Knesebeck O., Bültmann U., Bjorner J.B., Burr H.
Distribution of effort-reward imbalance in Denmark and its prospective association with a decline in self-rated health
To analyze the distribution of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and to investigate its impact on self-rated health in a representative sample of the Danish workforce, a group of 4977 employees were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in 2000, and 3470 responded to a follow-up survey in 2005. The highest (most unfavorable) ERI ratio was found among executives in the public sector, social workers, managing clerks in the public sector and medical secretaries. A one standard deviation increase of the ERI ratio predicted a 12% decline in self-rated health after adjustment for all covariates.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.870-878. Illus. 42 ref.
Peretti-Watel P., Constance J., Seror V., Beck F.
Working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among French clerks and manual workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between working conditions, job dissatisfaction and smoking behaviours among clerks and manual workers in France. Data were collected by means of a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted among a random sample of 4825 full-time workers. Manual workers and clerks who reported strong dissatisfaction toward unhealthy working conditions also reported more frequent current smoking, tobacco addiction, potential alcohol dependence and perceived stress. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, perceived working conditions and job dissatisfaction remained correlated with smoking and tobacco dependence.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.343-350. 47 ref.
Lee M.S., Paek D., Eum K.D., Siegrist J., Li J., Lee H.E., Cho S.I.
Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy
The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. In the chronically stressed group, delayed TTP was associated with an elevated imbalance between effort and reward (OR 0.47). A similar but somewhat weaker effect was found for the overall group (OR 0.67).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.209-216. Illus. 53 ref.
Munch-Hansen T., Wieclaw J., Agerbo E., Westergaard-Nielsen N., Rosenkilde M., Bonde J.P.
Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence. Participants were 13,437 public services employees in a region of Denmark. Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 to 10. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions. Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year). It is concluded that satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has a strong and independent impact on sickness absence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.52, No.2, p.153-161. Illus. 32 ref.
Marín A.J., Grzywacz J.G., Arcury T.A., Carrillo L., Coates M.L., Quandt S.A.
Evidence of organizational injustice in poultry processing plants: Possible effects on occupational health and safety among Latino workers in North Carolina
Over 250,000 workers are employed in poultry processing in the United States. These jobs are increasingly held by immigrant workers who frequently lack knowledge of workers' rights to workplace safety or who are reluctant to pursue their rights. This situation creates the potential for organizational injustice, made visible through abusive supervisory practices, and leads to situations in which occupational illnesses and injuries are likely to occur. This article draws on data collected during the research phases of a community-based participation and social justice project. Two hundred survey interviews and 26 in-depth interviews were collected among a representative sample of workers in a community of North Carolina. Analyses describe associations between one aspect of organizational injustice, abusive supervision, and worker injuries. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.52, No.1, p.37-48. 50 ref.
Lohela M., Björklund C., Vingård E., Hagberg J., Jensen I.
Does a change in psychosocial work factors lead to a change in employee health?
The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors at work that promote positive changes in employee health and factors that prevent negative changes in employee health. Data for psychosocial work factors and self rated health were collected by means of questionnaires from 1212 employees of four Swedish enterprises in 2000 and 2003. A modified Poisson regression was used to find factors of relevance for positive and negative changes in health. A negative change in leadership, organizational commitment and job strain increased the risk for negative change in health. Improved leadership and social climate increased the chance for positive changes in health.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.195-203. 36 ref.
László K.D., Kopp M.S.
Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment at work are associated with painful menstruation: Results from the Hungarostudy epidemiological panel 2006
The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between work stress, defined according to the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model, and painful menstruation. Data on 821 pre-menopausal and non-pregnant working women from a Hungarian epidemiological cohort were analysed. The association between work stress and dysmenorrhoea was investigated using logistic regression. After controlling for age, occupational class, education, marital status, parity, unsuccessfully trying to conceive for at least one year, previous miscarriage, smoking, body-mass index, physical activity and depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were associated with an increased risk of menstrual pain (odds ratios 1.42 and 1.07 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.157-163. 48 ref.
Impact of globalization on human work
This article addresses the phenomenon of globalization in its impact on the nature of work. The factors of the globalization processes which affect most strongly the work of different employment categories, namely management, production workers and knowledge workers, are identified. The organizational consequences of globalization are analyzed with reference to significant changes to workplaces and psychological demands. The concluding section considers the political aspects of globalization.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.727-732. 29 ref.
Otsuka Y., Sasaki T., Iwasaki K., Mori I.
Working hours, coping skills, and psychological health in Japanese daytime workers
This study examined the relationships between coping skills, working hours, and psychological health among Japanese daytime workers. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a randomly-selected sample of 2000 workers, among whom 1821 responded (a response rate of 91.1%). Data were subjected to covariance analyses. Results revealed that working hours were significantly associated with fatigue and concentration levels. High levels of social support and positive reframing were significantly associated with low levels of negative emotions, fatigue and concentration difficulty levels. These findings suggest that improving coping skills such as using social support or positive reframing may mitigate the adverse health effects of long working hours.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.22-32. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_1_22.pdf [in English]
Warming S., Precht D.H., Suadicani P., Ebbehøj N.E.
Musculoskeletal complaints among nurses related to patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors - Based on logbook registrations
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of self-recording musculoskeletal symptoms, patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors by nurses as a means of understanding the complex interaction between these factors. Logbooks were filled for three consecutive days by 148 nurses at a university hospital in Denmark, recording the incidence of low back pain (LBP), neck/shoulder pain (NSP), knee pain (KP), psychosocial factors (time pressure, stress, conscience of the quality of work) and patient transfers and care tasks. The numbers of nurses reporting musculoskeletal symptoms and the level of pain increased significantly during the three working days and decreased on the day off. Stress and transfer tasks were associated to low back pain and transfer tasks with knee pain. Results show that logbooks can be a useful means of understanding the complex interaction between working conditions and musculoskeletal symptoms.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2009, Vol.40, No.4, p.569-576. Illus. 46 ref.
Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-4-4.pdf [in English]
Håvold J.I, Nesset E.
From safety culture to safety orientation: Validation and simplification of a safety orientation scale using a sample of seafarers working for Norwegian ship owners
Measuring safety performance is becoming increasingly important in high-risk sectors. Based on the safety orientation model and a review of items and scales used in surveys of safety climate and safety culture, a safety orientation scale (SOM) was developed and refined through the use of multivariate statistics. It was then applied in this study with a sample of seafarers sailing on Norwegian-owned vessels. A total of 2558 questionnaires were returned from 141 vessels and 16 shipping companies, giving a calculated response rate of 70%. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.3, p.305-326. Illus. 87 ref.
Torp S., Grøgaard J.B.
The influence of individual and contextual work factors on workers' compliance with health and safety routines
This study investigated the relationships between workers' compliance with occupational safety and health (OSH) rules adopted within the enterprise and psychological demands, decision authority, social support, management support, unionization and the OSH management system. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among 1051 workers and the managers of 102 small- and medium-sized motor vehicle repair shops in Norway. Multilevel modeling was performed to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. At the worker level, high compliance with OSH rules correlated significantly with both social support and OSH-related management support. At the garage level, management support and a well-developed OSH management system correlated significantly with high workers' compliance. Other findings are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar.2009, Vol.40, No.2, p.185-193. Illus. 53 ref.
Dellve L., Skagert K., Eklöf M.
The impact of systematic occupational health and safety management for occupational disorders and long-term work attendance
The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of systematic occupational health and safety management (SOHSM), considering structured routines and participation processes, for the incidence of occupational disorders and the prevalence of long-term work attendance among home care workers (HCWs). Municipal human service organizations were compared concerning their structured routines and participation processes for SOHSM and their five-year incidence of occupational disorders and prevalence of absenteeism among HCWs. National register-based data from the whole population of HCWs were linked to register-data of occupational disorders and prevalence of long-term work attendance. The top managers and safety representatives in selected high- and low-incidence organizations answered a questionnaire about structure and participation process of SOHSM. The results showed that prevalence of long-term work attendance was higher where structure and routines for SOHSM (policy, goals and plans for action) were well organized. Highly structured SOHSM and human resource management were also related to high organizational incidence of reported occupational disorders. Allocated budget and routines related to HCWs' influence in decisions concerning performance of care were also related to long-term work attendance. The participation processes had a weak effect on occupational disorders and work attendance among HCWs.
Social Science and Medicine, 2008, Vol.67, p.965-970. 23 ref.
The_impact.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Implementation of Worklife Support's Well-Being Programme in the local authority-controlled education sector
The broad aims of this project were to introduce an approach for the management of work-related stress in the education sector and to demonstrate how this approach could have an impact on organizational well-being. It was conducted in public sector schools of two regions of the United Kingdom. The programme was shown to offer an effective risk assessment for stress. According to the end-of-programme school evaluation questionnaire, it has raised awareness of the HSE Management Standards; raised awareness of factors that affect staff well-being; supported staff to take personal responsibility for their own well-being; encouraged an atmosphere in which staff groups feel able to contribute to the promotion of well being.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 73p. Illus.
HSE_Research_Report_652.pdf [in English]
Wada K., Sakata Y., Theriault G., Aratake Y., Shimizu M., Tsutsumi A., Tanaka K., Aizawa Y.
Effort-reward imbalance and social support are associated with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan
The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of effort-reward imbalance and social support with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan. A total of 104 men and 42 women at 14 teaching hospitals participated in this study. Data on chronic fatigue, effort, reward, overcommitment and social support were collected by means of questionnaires. Sleeping hours for the last 30 days were estimated based on the number of overnight shifts worked, the average number of sleeping hours, and the number of hours of napping during overnight work. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between these variables and chronic fatigue. In both men and women, effort-reward imbalance was positively associated, and higher social support was negatively associated with chronic fatigue. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.331-336. Illus. 29 ref.
Eriksen W., Bjorvatn B., Bruusgaard D., Knardahl S.
Work factors as predictors of poor sleep in nurses' aides
The aim was to identify work factors that predict poor sleep in assistant nurses. The study was based on questionnaire responses of a randomly selected sample of over 5000 Norwegian assistant nurses, as well as responses to a second questionnaire three months later. A wide spectrum of work factors was assessed at baseline by questions from the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social factors at Work. Subjective sleep quality during the previous three months was measured at baseline and follow-up by a question from the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Medium and high demands, a high demand-control ratio, frequent exposure to role conflicts, and frequent exposure to threats and violence at work were associated with increased odds of poor sleep during the successive three months, after adjustments for sleep quality during the three months before baseline, other work factors and background factors. High support from immediate superior, frequent rewards for well-done work and a high level of control were associated with reduced odds of poor sleep.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.301-310. 42 ref.
Leka S., Cox T.
Istituto Superiore Prevenzione e Sicurezza sul Lavoro (ISPESL), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, World Health Organization (WHO), eds.
PRIMA-EF - Guidance on the European framework for psychosocial risk assessment
This document provides guidance on the European Framework for psychological risk management (PRIMA-EF) and addresses the issue of the management of psychosocial risks at the workplace, aiming at the prevention of work-related stress, workplace violence and workplace bullying. Such a framework, bringing together a number of key issues in the area and providing related guidance was hitherto lacking and considered necessary to address the issues of concern. Also available in Dutch, Finnish, German, Italian and Polish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2008, 52p. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/PRIMA-EF%20Guidance_9.pdf [in English]
Stansfeld S.A,, Clark C., Caldwell T., Rodgers B., Power C.
Psychosocial work characteristics and anxiety and depressive disorders in midlife: The effects of prior psychological distress
This study examines the extent to which the association between work stressors and adult psychiatric diagnoses is explained by earlier psychological distress. It involved the follow-up at 45 years of age of 8243 participants in paid employment from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. It was found that childhood and early adulthood psychological distress predict work characteristics in mid-adulthood but do not explain the associations of work characteristics with depressive episode and generalised anxiety disorder in midlife.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.634-642. 42 ref.
Ertel K.A., Koenen K.C., Berkman L.F.
Incorporating home demands into models of job strain: Findings from the work, family, and health network
The purpose of this study was to integrate home demands into the demand-control-support model to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child younger than 18 years in the household signified home demands. The presence of depressive symptoms was determined based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household. There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Job strain may therefore be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1244-1252. Illus. 39 ref.
Kuoppala J., Lamminpää A., Liira J., Vainio H.
Leadership, job well-being, and health effects - A systematic review and meta-analysis
The aim of this systematic literature analysis was to study the associations between leadership, well-being at work and work-related health. Altogether, 109 articles were analyzed, with conclusions being based on the 27 articles providing the best evidence. Although there is an overall lack of well-founded prospective studies targeting the association between leadership and employee health, the few available good studies suggest an important role of leadership on employee job satisfaction, job well-being, sickness absences, and disability pensions. The relationship between leadership and job performance remains unclear.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.904-915. Illus. 134 ref.
Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., Levy D., David S., Degioanni S., Theorell T.
Study of the validity of a job-exposure matrix for psychosocial work factors: Results from the French SUMER survey
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for psychosocial work factors defined by Karasek's model using national representative data of the French working population. The sample consisted of 24,486 men and women who filled in the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Job title was defined by both occupation and economic activity coded according to detailed national classifications. The JEM was built using the individual scores of demands, latitude and support for each job title. When compared to individual measures, analyses showed a lower validity of JEM measures for psychological demands and social support, and a relatively higher validity for decision latitude. It is concluded that JEM measures for decision latitude may be used as a complementary method of exposure assessment.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.87-97. 46 ref.
Croidieu S., Charbotel B., Vohito M., Renaud L., Jaussaud J., Bourboul C., Ardiet D., Imbard I., Guerin A.C., Bergeret A.
Call-handlers' working conditions and their subjective experience at work: A transversal study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe call-centre working conditions and call-handlers' subjective experience of their work. It was carried out by means of interviewer-administered questionnaires by 47 occupational physicians during routine occupational medicine examinations. Psychosocial risk factors were explored by three dimensions of the Karasek questionnaire, decision latitude, psychological demands and social support. The sample consisted of 2,130 call-handlers from around 100 different companies. The population was 71.9% female, with a mean age of 32.4 years. Findings are discussed. This study confirmed the high rate of psychosocial constraints for call-handlers and identified work situations that may lead to risk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.67-77. Illus. 27 ref.
Wada K., Arimatsu M., Yoshikawa T., Oda S., Taniguchi H., Higashi T., Aizawa Y.
Factors on working conditions and prolonged fatigue among physicians in Japan
The objective of this study was to determine the working condition factors associated with prolonged fatigue among physicians in Japan. A questionnaire on working conditions and fatigue was mailed to 478 physicians (377 men and 101 women) with more than three years of experience in clinical practice. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the multivariate relationship between the variables and prolonged fatigue. High workload was positively associated and better career satisfaction was negatively associated with prolonged fatigue. Prolonged fatigue was negatively associated with better relationships with other physicians and staff for male physicians. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.59-66. Illus. 40 ref.
Cho J.J., Kim J.Y., Chang S.J., Fiedler N., Koh S.B., Crabtree B.F., Kang D.M., Kim Y.K., Choi Y.H.
Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine which components of occupational stress or job characteristics were associated with depression among Korean workers. It involved a nationwide sample of 8522 workers, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographics, job characteristics, depressive symptoms and occupational stress. Multivariate analyses show that inadequate social support (odds ratio (OR) 1.58) and discomfort in occupational climate (OR 1.25) were more important risk factors for depression than organizational injustice, job demand and job control. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.47-57. 63 ref.
Buddeberg-Fischer B., Klaghofer R., Stamm M., Siegrist J., Buddeberg C.
Work stress and reduced health in young physicians: Prospective evidence from Swiss residents
This study on young physicians investigated their perceived job stress, its association with the amount of working hours and its impact on self-reported health and overall satisfaction during residency. A cohort of Swiss medical school graduates was followed up from 2001. In their second and fourth years of residency, 433 physicians assessed their effort-reward balance, overcommitment, physical and mental well-being and overall satisfaction. Findings are discussed. Stress at work in young physicians, especially when being experienced over a longer period in postgraduate training, has to be a matter of concern because of its negative impact on health and overall satisfaction and the risk of developing symptoms of burnout in the long run.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.31-38. 47 ref.
Tabanelli M.C., Depolo M., Cooke R.M.T., Sarchielli G., Bonfiglioli R., Mattioli S., Violante F.S.
Available instruments for measurement of psychosocial factors in the work environment
The objective of this literature survey was to provide an overview of the variety of instruments available for the evaluation of work-related psychosocial factors. A total of 33 instruments were identified (26 questionnaires, 7 observational), many (11 questionnaires, 5 observational) linked to national institutions or initiatives. The accessibility of relevant information (on the internet or elsewhere) regarding the instruments varied widely.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.1-12. 55 ref.
Widerszal-Bazyl M., Warszewska-Makuch M.
Employee direct participation in organizational decisions and workplace safety
Managers from 192 Polish enterprises filled out a questionnaire measuring employees' direct participation in organizational decisions. Workplace safety was expressed by the number of accidents, the number of employees working in hazardous conditions, accident absenteeism and sickness absence. Results showed that the two latter indicators were significantly related to some parameters of direct participation. Companies that used face-to-face individual consultation had lower accident absenteeism than ones that did not. Similar effects were observed for group consultation and group delegation. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.367-378. 20 ref.
Aptel M., Cail F., Gerling A., Louis O.
Proposal of parameters to implement a workstation rotation system to protect against MSDs
Workstation rotation has a positive impact on psychosocial factors, but is often ineffective in relation to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention, notably on account of the intensity of the biomechanical demands. The design of a workstation rotation system intended to prevent MSDs must take into account the characteristics of the population concerned, its work experience and biomechanical demands. A logic diagram is proposed which can assist in designing an improved workstation rotation system. It is based on four complementary dimensions: ergonomic study of the context; integration of scientific knowledge; mastery of the implementation of the rotation system; evaluation and follow-up of the results.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.38, p.900-909. Illus. 34 ref.
Van den Broeck A., Vansteenkiste M., De Witte H., Lens W.
Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.277-294. Illus. 71 ref.
Sonnentag S., Mojza E.J., Binnewies C., Scholl A.
Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect
Although work engagement is associated with positive outcomes for the employee and the organization, this article suggests that employees also need time periods for temporarily disengaging from work. It is hypothesized that psychological detachment from work during off-job time is particularly important when work engagement is high. Over the course of four working weeks, 159 employees from five German organizations from various industries completed surveys twice a week. Hierarchical linear modelling showed that work engagement moderated the relationship between psychological detachment and positive affect. These findings suggest that both engagement when being at work and disengagement when being away from work are most beneficial for employees' affective states.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.257-276. Illus. 72 ref.
Hakanen J.J., Schaufeli W.B., Ahola K.
The job demands-resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement
The objective of this study was to test the motivational and health impairment processes of the job demands-resources model. Subjects consisted of a representative sample of 2555 Finnish dentists, who responded to two questionnaires at a three-year interval. Findings supported both the motivational process and the health impairment process. Job resources influenced future work engagement, which, in turn, predicted organizational commitment, whereas job demands predicted burnout, which, in turn predicted later depression. Non-occupational demands and resources did not influence the motivational or health impairment process over time.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.224-241. Illus. 57 ref.
Bakker A.B., Schaufeli W.B., Leiter M.P., Taris T.W.
Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupation health psychology
This review article presents the emerging concept of work engagement: a positive and fulfilling state of work-related well-being that is characterized by vigour, dedication and absorption. Although there are different views of work engagement, most scholars agree that engaged employees have high levels of energy and identify strongly with their work. The most often used instrument to measure engagement is the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, a self-report instrument that has been validated in many countries across the world.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.187-200. 72 ref.
Väänänen A., Koskinen A., Joensuu M., Kivimäki M., Vahtera J., Kouvonen A., Jäppinen P.
Lack of predictability at work and risk of acute myocardial infarction: An 18-year prospective study of industrial employees
This study examined whether job autonomy and predictability were related to subsequent acute myocardial infarction (MI) events in a population of initially heart disease-free industrial employees. During an 18-year follow-up, 56 fatal and 316 nonfatal events of acute MI were documented among 7663 employees with no recorded history of cardiovascular disease at baseline in 1986. After adjustment for demographics, psychological distress, prevalent medical conditions, lifestyle risk factors and socioeconomic characteristics, low decision autonomy was not significantly related to subsequent acute MI. By contrast, low predictability at work was associated with elevated risk of acute MI, particularly among employees aged 45 to 54 years.
American Journal of Public Health, Dec. 2008, Vol. 98, No.12, p.2264-2271. 55 ref.
Ayers K.M.S., Thomson W.M., Newton J.T., Rich A.M.
Job stressors of New Zealand dentists and their coping strategies
The aim of this study was to investigate job stressors and coping strategies among New Zealand dentists by means of a nationwide postal survey of a representative sample of 700 dentists. The response rate was 65%. The most commonly-reported stressors were treating difficult children (52%), constant time pressure (48%) and maintaining high levels of concentration (43%). The strategies most utilized for managing work-related stress included interactions with people (78%), sports (64%) and forgetting about work (59%). There were differences in the strategies used by male and female practitioners. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.275-281. 25 ref.
Psychosocial aspects of shift work
Les aspects psychosociaux du travail en équipes [in French]
More and more enterprises resort to shift work which, for most workers, is not a matter of choice. This article reviews the various psychosocial effects of shift work. Topics addressed: economic advantages of shift work for enterprises; individual factors; sleep and fatigue; nutrition; psychological effects; effects on human relations; possible improvements; advice on how to organize shift work.
Prevent Focus, Nov. 2008, No.9, p.16-19. Illus.
Macciocu L., Nardella C., Rossi I., Stella M., Brizio L.
Workers' active participation in the prevention of psychosocial hazards in the credit sector: A key priority for becoming a socially responsible business
La partecipazione attiva del lavoratore nella prevenzione dei rischi psicosociali nel settore del credito: elemento prioritario per l'attuazione di un'impresa socialmente responsabile [in Italian]
The aim of this study was to examine the level of employee participation in safety and health in the banking sector in Italy, focusing primarily on issues related to well-being, work organization and the worker-organization interface. Data were collected from 2100 banking sector employees across Italy, by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis revealed a working environment that does not facilitate worker participation. Three out of four workers clearly affirmed that they were not in a position to actively contribute to the promotion of safety and well-being in their workplace. Other findings are discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.17-40. Illus. 33 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_1_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_1_en.pdf [in English]
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