Psychology of work organization - 534 entries found
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- Psychology of work organization
Kortum E., Leka S., Cox T.
Psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: Health impact, priorities, barriers and solutions
This study explores experts' perceptions of psychosocial risks and work-related stress in emerging economies and developing countries. It focuses on knowledge of potential health impact of psychosocial risks and preliminary priorities for action, and discusses potential barriers and solutions to addressing psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries. It was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, two rounds of an online Delphi survey and four focus groups. Twenty nine experts with expertise in occupational health were interviewed. Seventy four experts responded to the first round of an online Delphi survey and 53 responded to the second round. Four groups of experts with a total of 37 active participants with specific or broader knowledge about developing country contexts participated in focus group discussions. High concern was expressed for the need to address psychosocial risks and work-related stress and their health impact. Developing country experts' knowledge about these issues was comparable to knowledge from industrialized countries; however, application of expert knowledge was reported to be weak in developing countries. Socio-economic conditions were regarded as important considerations. Priorities to be addressed were identified, and barriers to implementing possible solutions were proposed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.225-238. Illus. 56 ref.
Psychosocial_risks.pdf [in English]
Netterstrøm B., Kristensen T.S., Jensen G., Schnor P.
Is the demand-control model still a usefull tool to assess work-related psychosocial risk for ischemic heart disease? Results from a 14 year follow up in the Copenhagen City heart study
The objective of this study was to test the usefulness of the Demand-Control Model as predictor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). 1146 actively-employed men and women from the general population of Copenhagen participated at baseline in 1993-1994. They filled in questionnaires on the Demand-Control Model, job title, work place, civil status, family income, leisure time activity, smoking, medication, social support, social relations, conflicts, job responsibility, satisfaction, and insecurity and went through a medical examination, including measurements of coronary risk factors. All deaths and hospital admissions due to IHD, including first myocardial infarction (MI) in the cohort were traced in the Danish registries of deaths and hospital admissions to June 2007. 104 cases of first-time hospitalisation or death due to IHD including 49 cases of MI occurred during 14 years follow up. Odds ratios (ORs) compared to the relaxed group was 1.1 (0.1-3.1) among women and 1.6 (0.4-4.9) among men after confounder adjustment. Neither demands nor control were significantly associated with IHD. Among men 50 years of age or more, the risk for IHD was, however, elevated in the job strain group and the active group (odds ratio (OR) 3.5 and 3.2 respectively). Job insecurity was strongly associated with IHD in men (OR 2.7) after all adjustments. The risk was increased for MI too (OR 2.7). Among women, the only significant association with IHD was for job dissatisfaction (OR 3.0).
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.217-224. 27 ref.
Is_the_demand-control_model.pdf [in English]
Haukka E., Pehkonen I., Leino-Arjas P., Viikari-Juntura E., Takala E.P., Malmivaara A., Hopsu L., Mutanen P., Ketola R., Virtanen T., Holtari-Leino M., Nykänen J., Stenholm S., Ojajärvi A., Riihimäki H.
Effect of a participatory ergonomics intervention on psychosocial factors at work in a randomised controlled trial
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a participatory ergonomics intervention on psychosocial factors among kitchen workers. It was conducted in the form of a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 504 workers in 119 municipal kitchens in four cities in Finland, from 2002 to 2005. The kitchens were randomised to 59 intervention and 60 control groups. The intervention lasted 11-14 months and was based on the workers' active participation in work analysis, planning and implementing the ergonomic changes aimed at decreasing the physical and mental workload. Mental stress, mental strenuousness of work, hurry, job satisfaction, job control, skill discretion, co-worker relationships and supervisor support were measured. Data were collected by questionnaire at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a 12-month follow-up. At the end of the intervention, the odds ratio (OR) of job dissatisfaction for the intervention group as compared with the control group was 3.0, of mental stress 2.3 and of poor co-worker relationships 2.3. At the 12-month follow-up, the OR of job dissatisfaction was 3.0. Analysis of the independent and joint effects of the intervention and unconnected organisational reforms showed that adverse changes were accentuated among those with exposure to both. No favourable effects on psychosocial factors at work were found. The adverse changes were due to a joint effect of the intervention and unconnected organisational reforms. The findings do not support the usefulness of this kind of intervention in changing unsatisfactory psychosocial working conditions.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.67, No.3, p.170-177. Illus. 40 ref.
Zakerian S.A., Subramaniam I.D.
The relationship between psychosocial work factors, work stress and computer-related musculoskeletal discomforts among computer users in Malaysia
Increasing numbers of workers use computers at work. This study examined the associations between psychosocial work factors, work stress and musculoskeletal discomforts via a questionnaire survey on 30 office workers at a university in Malaysia, whose jobs required an extensive use of computers. The questionnaire was distributed and collected daily for 20 days. While the results indicated a significant relationship among psychosocial work factors, work stress and musculoskeletal discomfort, three psychosocial work factors were found to be more important than others in both work stress and musculoskeletal discomfort: job demands, negative social interaction and computer-related problems. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.4, p.425-434. 57 ref.
The_relationship.pdf [in English]
Nagami M., Tsutsumi A., Tsuchiya M., Morimoto K.
Job control and coworker support improve employee job performance
This study examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, and job performance was evaluated using the World Mental Health Survey Instrument. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance. Job control and co-worker support were positively related to job performance. These findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.845-851. 21 ref.
Job_control.pdf [in English]
Arimura M., Imai M., Okawa M., Fujimura T., Yamada N.
Sleep, mental health status, and medical errors among hospital nurses in Japan
Medical error involving nurses is a critical issue since nurses' actions will have a direct and often significant effect on the prognosis of their patients. To investigate the significance of nurse health in Japan and its potential impact on patient services, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted among nurses working in hospitals, with the specific purpose of examining the relationship between shift work, mental health and self-reported medical errors. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between the shift work system, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores and nurse errors: the odds ratios for shift system and GHQ were 2.1 and 1.1, respectively. It was confirmed that both sleep and mental health status among hospital nurses were relatively poor, and that shift work and poor mental health were significant factors contributing to medical errors.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.811-817. 25 ref.
Sleep_mental_health.pdf [in English]
Tanaka K., Otsubo T., Tanaka M., Kaku A., Nishinoue N., Takanao T., Kamata N., Miyaoka H.
Similarity in predictors between near miss and adverse event among Japanese nurses working at teaching hospitals
Near miss-based analysis has been recently suggested to be more important in the medical field than focusing on adverse events, as in the industrial field. To validate the utility of near miss-based analysis in the medical fields, this study investigated whether or not predictors of near misses and adverse events were similar among nurses at teaching hospitals. Of the 1,860 nurses approached, 1,737 (93.4%) were included in the final analysis. Potential predictors provided for analysis included gender, age, years of nursing experience, frequency of alcohol consumption, work place, ward rotation, frequency of night shifts, sleepiness during work, frequency of feeling unskilled, nurses' job stressors, working conditions, and depression. Ordinal logistic analysis showed that predictors of near misses and adverse events were markedly similar. Parameters that were significantly related to both near misses and adverse events were years of experience, frequency of night shifts, internal ward, and time pressure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.775-782. 36 ref.
Similarity_in_predictors.pdf [in English]
Leka S., Jain A., Zwetsloot G., Cox T.
Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union
This article discusses the policy context to the management of work-related psychosocial risks in the European Union (EU), identifying major achievements and challenges in relation to policy and practice. It draws on the ﬁndings of the PRMIA-EF project, a policy-oriented research programme funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme for Research. It is concluded that although a common policy context in the area of psychosocial risk management has developed in the EU, there still exists great variation in the translation of these initiatives into practice in different EU member states. Moreover, evaluation in this area is sporadic, even though it could inform the way forward as concerns both policy and practice developments.
Work and Stress, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.24, No.3, p.298-307. 39 ref.
Policy-level_interventions.pdf [in English]
Houdmont J., Cox T., Griffiths A.
Work-related stress case definitions and prevalence rates in national surveys
There is concern about lack of consistency in the design of case definitions used to measure work-related stress in national workforce surveys and the implications of this for the reliability and validity of prevalence estimates as well as for developments in policy and practice on tackling work-related stress. The aim of this study was to examine associations between case definitions used for the measurement of work-related stress in nationally-representative workforce surveys and the prevalence rates generated. The study focused on 18 nationally-representative workforce surveys conducted between 1995 and 2008 that involved British samples. The published report from each survey was scrutinized for evidence of the case definition used to measure work-related stress and the associated prevalence rate. Several types of case definition were identified that differed in terms of their theoretical basis, structure and content. Each was associated with a unique range of prevalence rates. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.658-661. 9 ref.
Wadsworth E.J., Chaplin K.S., Smith A.P.
The work environment, stress and well-being
Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is concluded that it is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.635-639. Illus. 18 ref.
McCarthy V.J., Power S., Greiner B.A.
Perceived occupational stress in nurses working in Ireland
The objective of this study was to examine the levels of stress experienced by nurses working in an Irish teaching hospital and investigate differences in perceived stress levels by ward area and associations with work characteristics. A cross-sectional study design was employed, with a two-stage cluster sampling process. Data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire, and nurses were investigated across 10 different wards using the Nursing Stress Scale and the Demand Control Support Scales. The response rate was 62%. Using outpatients as a reference ward, perceived stress levels were found to be significantly higher in the medical ward, accident and emergency, intensive care unit and paediatric wards. There was no significant difference between the wards with regard to job strain; however, differences did occur with levels of support, the day unit and paediatric ward reporting the lowest level of supervisor support. A significant association was seen between the wards and perceived stress even after adjustment.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.604-610. 26 ref.
Hoppe A., Heaney C.A., Fujishiro K.
Stressors, resources, and well-being among Latino and White warehouse workers in the United States
Social forces and cultural factors may contribute to Latino and White workers experiencing similar jobs differently. This study examines the psychosocial stressors and resources experienced by Latino and White workers in manual material handling jobs in the United States and the effects of these stressors and resources on worker well-being. Fifty-nine Latino warehouse workers were matched with White workers by job title, job tenure and warehouse facility. Data were obtained by means of questionnaires and subjected to regression analysis. Results reveal similar psychosocial stressors and resources for both groups. However, Latino workers reported better well-being. For Latino workers, social resources at work such as management fairness and supervisor support have a stronger relationship with well-being. For White workers wage fairness is the most significant predictor for well-being. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.252-263. Illus. 49 ref.
Choi B., Schnall P.L., Yang H., Dobson M., Landsbergis P., Israel L., Karasek R., Baker D.
Psychosocial working conditions and active leisure-time physical activity in middle-aged US workers
The objective of this study was to examine whether psychosocial work characteristics such as job control, psychological job demands, and their combinations are associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in United States workers. It involved 2019 workers from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Job control and job demands were measured by standard questionnaire items. Active LTPA was defined as "moderate or vigorous" level of physical activity. After controlling for co-variates (age, race, education, income, physical effort at work, obesity, and alcohol consumption), high job control was associated with active LTPA. When compared to passive jobs (low control and low demands), active jobs (high control and low demands) and low-strain jobs (high control and high demands), increased the odds for active LTPA. It is concluded that having on-the-job learning opportunities and decision authority is conducive to active LTPA in middle-aged workers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.239-253. 52 ref.
Psychosocial_working_conditions.pdf [in English]
Solidaki E., Chatzi L., Bitsios P., Markatzi I., Plana E., Castro F., Palmer K., Coggon D., Kogevinas M.
Work-related and psychological determinants of multisite musculoskeletal pain
This study evaluated the relative importance of work-related and psychological determinants of the number of anatomical sites affected by musculoskeletal pain in a cross-sectional survey. The survey focused on musculoskeletal pain in six body regions (low-back, neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist-hand and knee) among 224 nurses, 200 office workers and 140 postal clerks in Crete, Greece. Information was collected on demographic characteristics, occupational physical load, psycho-social aspects of work, perceptions about the causes of pain, mental health, somatization and experience of pain in the previous 12 months. Associations were analyzed using Poisson regression together with classification and regression trees (CART). Two-thirds of the study sample reported pain in ≥2 body sites during the previous 12 months, and in 23%, more than three sites were affected. The number of painful anatomical sites was strongly related to both physical load at work and somatization (with relative risks increased 5-fold or more for frequent and disabling multisite pain) and was also significantly associated with work-related psychosocial factors and beliefs about work causation. The CART analysis suggested that somatization was the leading determinant of the number of painful body sites.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.1, p.54-61. Illus. 49 ref.
Krause N., Burgel B., Rempel D.
Effort-reward imbalance and one-year change in neck-shoulder and upper-extremity pain among call center computer operators
The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the independent effects of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work on regional musculoskeletal pain of the neck and upper extremities of call centre operators. It was conducted in the form of a one-year prospective study among 165 call centre operators in the United States who participated in an earlier randomized ergonomic intervention. Over a four-week period, ERI and 28 potential confounders were measures by means of a questionnaire at baseline. Regional upper-body pain and computer use was measured by weekly surveys for up to 12 months following the implementation of ergonomic interventions. Regional pain change scores were calculated as the difference between average weekly pain scores pre- and post-intervention. A significant relationship was found between high average ERI ratios and one-year increases in right upper-extremity pain after adjustment for pre-intervention regional mean pain score, current and past physical workload, ergonomic workstation design, and anthropometric, sociodemographic, and behavioural risk factors. No significant associations were found with change in neck-shoulder or left upper-extremity pain. Findings suggest that ERI predicts regional upper-extremity pain in computer operators working ≥20h per week. Control for physical workload and ergonomic workstation design was essential for identifying ERI as a risk factor.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.1, p.42-53. 54 ref.
Juniper B., White N., Bellamy P.
A new approach to evaluating the well-being of police
Although police forces are under increasing pressure to improve efficiency and productivity, the evaluation of well-being in law enforcement is mostly restricted to self-report stress questionnaires that are based on questionable construction methodologies. No instrument to specifically determine the well-being of police force employees currently exists. The objective of this study was to construct an instrument that measures the work-related well-being of officers and staff within a police force. The approach was drawn from well-established clinical models used to evaluate the well-being of patients. Potential variables were confirmed using an item selection method known as impact analysis that places keen emphasis on frequency and importance as perceived by the respondents themselves. Analyses of 822 completed response sets showed that nine separate dimensions of police work can adversely affect well-being (advancement, facilities, home-work interface, job, physical health, psychological health, relationships, organizational and workload). Overall, officers showed inferior well-being compared with their colleagues. Content validity and adequate internal reliability were confirmed.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.7, p.560-565. Illus. 21 ref.
Bevan A., Houdmont J., Menear N.
The management standards indicator tool and the estimation of risk
The indicator tool of the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) in the United Kingdom offers a measure of exposure to psychosocial work conditions that may be linked to stress-related outcomes. The HSE recommends that indicator tool data should be used as a basis for discussions concerned with the identification of psychosocial work conditions that might warrant prioritization for intervention. However, operational constraints may render discussions difficult to convene and when they do occur, the absence of information on risks associated with exposures can make it difficult to identify intervention priorities. The objective of this study was to examine the utility of the indicator tool for the identification of a manageable number of psychosocial work conditions as intervention candidates and to assess whether administration of a measure of stress-related outcomes alongside the indicator tool can facilitate the identification of intervention priorities. One thousand and thirty-eight employees in the London region of the Prison Service completed the indicator tool and a measure of psychological well-being. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risk of impairment to well-being associated with exposure to psychosocial work conditions. The indicator tool identified 34 psychosocial work conditions as warranting improvement. Intervention priority was given to those working conditions that were both reported to be poor by ≥50% of respondents and associated with risk of impairment to well-being. This method allowed for the identification of four areas for priority intervention.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.7, p.525-531. 24 ref.
Autoridade para as condições do trabalho (ACT)
Manual - Stress in work premises
Manual - Stresse nos locais de trabalho [in Portuguese]
This CD-ROM includes a training manual for the prevention of stress at the workplace, together with related documents. The manual is divided into five modules: definition of stress; mechanisms and effects of stress on health; stressors at the workplace; consequences of stress; stress prevention and diagnosis. This course is aimed at managers, human resources staff and trade union representatives.
CGTP-IN, Rua Victor Cordon 1, 1249-102 Lisbon, Portugal, 2010. CD-ROM.
Tucker P., Brown M., Dahlgren A., Davies G., Ebden P., Folkard S., Hutchings H., Åkerstedt T.
The impact of junior doctors' worktime arrangements on their fatigue and well-being
Many doctors report working excessively demanding schedules. This study compared groups of junior doctors working on different schedules in order to identify which features of schedule design most negatively affected their fatigue and well-being in recent weeks. Completed by 336 doctors, the questionnaires focused on the respondents' personal circumstances, work situation, work schedules, sleep, and perceptions of fatigue, work-life balance and psychological strain. Working seven consecutive nights was associated with greater accumulated fatigue and greater work-life interference, compared with working just 3 or 4 nights. Having only one rest day after working nights was associated with increased fatigue. Working a weekend on-call between two consecutive working weeks was associated with increased work-life interference. Working frequent on-calls (either on weekends or during the week) was associated with increased work-life interference and psychological strain. Inter-shift intervals of <10 hours were associated with shorter periods of sleep and increased fatigue. The number of hours worked per week was positively associated with work-life interference and fatigue on night shifts.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.458-465. Illus. 34 ref.
Rehkopf D.H., Kuper H., Marmot M.G.
Discrepancy between objective and subjective measures of job stress and sickness absence
The aim of this study was to examine possible differences in the association of externally and self-assessed measures of work environment with sickness absence. The study population included 6997 middle-aged men and women from the Whitehall II cohort, whose work characteristics were examined at baseline (1985-1988) through both an external evaluation and self-report, with a follow-up of up to 13 years of sickness absence reporting from administrative records. The primary exposure of interest was the discrepancy between measures of work stress for fast job pace, conflicting demands and decision latitude. External measures of job characteristics were more strongly associated with higher rates of sickness absence compared with self-assessed measures, for both lower frequency of fast work pace and lower conflicting demands. Individuals who self-reported higher frequencies of fast work pace and conflicting demands than were reported through external assessment had higher rates of short-term sickness absence. There was no difference in rates of sickness absence found for decision latitude. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.449-457. Illus. 27 ref.
Netterstrøm B., Blønd M., Nielsen M., Rugulies R., Eskelinen L.
Development of depressive symptoms and depression during organizational change - A two-year follow-up study of civil servants
In 2007, Denmark went through a major reorganization, where most of its 275 municipalities and 14 counties merged into larger units. This study aimed to examine the development of depressive symptoms and incident depression among employees affected by this organizational change. A total of 685 civil servants employed in the administration of five municipalities and two counties participated in the study. They answered a postal questionnaire eight months prior to and 16 months after the reorganization regarding working conditions, psychosocial work environment factors, and depressive symptoms, based on the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). During the follow-up period in 2006-2008, 295 employees had experienced a merger with other workplaces (hereafter the merger group), 259 had got a new job (the new job group), and 131 who experienced no change in workplace served as the control group. The three groups were compared for mean score of MDI and incident cases of depression using general linear models and logistic regression analyses. After adjustment of the MDI for age, occupation, supervisor function and department at baseline in 2006, no significant differences in increase in MDI were found between the groups. The incidence of depression in the merger group was not significantly higher than the control group.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.445-448. 21 ref.
Lee Y., Shin S.
Job stress evaluation using response surface data mining
While job stress evaluation methods reported in the recent literature represent significant advances in the types of questionnaires currently available, there are limitations to their usefulness as analytic tools. Four steps to address these limitations are presented. The first step is the creation of an integrated job stress questionnaire (IJSQ) that incorporates physical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. The second step combines data mining (DM) with response surface methodology (RSM), to deal with specific situations by creating a new methodology called response surface data mining (RSDM). The third step follows the RSDM with detailed statistical relationships between the risk factors and the response of interest. The fourth and final step is a case study using the IJSQ and RSDM. The case study demonstrates that the proposed RSDM can effectively find significant physical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors by reducing the dimensionality. In addition, the process provides detailed statistical inferences.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.379-385. Illus. 32 ref.
Jaworek M., Marek T., Karwowski W., Andrzejczak C., Genaidy A.M.
Burnout syndrome as mediator for the effect of work-related factors on musculoskeletal complaints among hospital nurses
The present study tested the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of work-related factors, factors such as work demands and work stimuli, on the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 237 nurses from various wards across four hospitals located in southwestern Poland. Data was collected through three questionnaires. One of the questionnaires measured work-related factors and contained elements that afforded factor analysis. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that work demands were positively related to burnout syndrome and musculoskeletal complaints, higher work stimuli were associated with lower burnout, but with higher musculoskeletal complaints, and burnout was positively associated with musculoskeletal complaints.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.368-375. Illus. 59 ref.
Myers D.J., Lipscomb H.J.
Informal social status among coworkers and risk of work-related injury among nurse aides in long-term care
A social network measure was used to explore whether one's rank in an informal social hierarchy of nurse aides employed in a long-term care facility was associated with risk of work-related injury. Six months of administrative staff schedule data and self-reported injury records were examined. Survey data were used to establish informal social status. Conditional logistic regression was used to model the effect of social status on injury risk; cases were matched to controls consisting of coworkers present on the floor, shift, and date of the injury event. This allowed for a comparison of social status rank within social groups among workers with the same job title. Findings support a theoretical framework suggesting that patterns of social relations between individuals based on informal social status in the workplace may contribute to differences in work-related injury risk among individuals with the same job title.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.514-523. Illus. 46 ref.
Krause N., Rugulies R., Maslach C.
Effort-rewards imbalance at work and self-rated health of Las Vegas hotel room cleaners
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Data was subjected to logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, health behaviour, physical workload and other potential confounders. 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2-5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.372-386. Illus. 81 ref.
Fournier P.S., Montreuil S., Brun J.P., Bilodeau C., Villa J.
Exploratory study to identify the aspects of the workload having an impact on health and safety: Case study in the services sector
Etude exploratoire des facteurs de la charge de travail ayant un impact sur la santé et la sécurité: étude de cas dans le secteur des services [in French]
The new types of work organization may have negative impacts on individuals in the form of fatigue, chronic stress or musculoskeletal disorders, as well as on the enterprise in the form of absenteeism or personnel turnover. The objective of this study was to identify the underlying dynamics and organizational processes leading to high workloads likely to have an impact on occupational safety and health. It was carried out at a leading Quebec insurance company by means of job observations and interviews among workers assigned to customer care. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. xi, 57p. Illus. 77 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-668.pdf [in French]
Dussault J., Jauvin N., Vézina M., Bourbonnais R.
Violence prevention between members of the same work organization - Evaluation of a participatory intervention
Prévention de la violence entre membres d'une même organisation de travail - Evaluation d'une intervention participative [in French]
Workplace violence, particularly when it involves members of the same organization, has repercussions on worker's safety and health. Although the Province of Quebec recently set up a legislative framework to counter this phenomenon, little is known about the usefulness and effectiveness of the means of prevention. This project was based on a participatory process in the workplace, and was systematically evaluated using a well-known model. It involved determining, by employees and their supervisors, the organizational constraints leading to violence and the solutions to eliminate and prevent its occurrence. It was carried out among prison service officers, by means of questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. ix, 84p. Approx. 130 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-661.pdf [in French]
Stress: The motor of life having become the new workplace killer
Stresse: de motor da vida a novo assassino no trabalho [in Portuguese]
This article on stress addresses its dual nature: on one hand a motor of life and on the other a "killer at the place of work" (burnout, occupational accidents). It examines the various factors influencing the development of occupational stress, its consequences and coping mechanisms, together with prevention and intervention strategies.
Segurança, Mar.-Apr. 2010, Vol XLV, No. 195, p. 14-17. Illus. 9 ref.
Sein M.M., Howteerakul N., Suwannapong N., Jirachewee J.
Job strain among rubber-glove-factory workers in Central Thailand
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and examine factors associated with, job strain among workers in a rubber-glove factory in a central province of Thailand. A total of 200 workers aged 18-55 years who had worked at the factory for at least six months completed the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) (Thai version). The prevalence of job strain was 27.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated two variables significantly associated with job strain: low supervisor social support (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.08) and high job insecurity (djusted OR 2.25). Effective training for supervisors to create good relationships among workers and supervisors, and ensuring steady and secure jobs for good employees, are necessary measures.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.503-510. 36 ref.
Job_strain.pdf [in English]
Lara Ruíz Á.
Some errors in the evaluation of psychosocial hazards
Algunos errores en las evaluaciones de riesgo psicosocial [in Spanish]
This article discusses the main errors that can be made when evaluating psychosocial hazards. They may relate to different phases of the evaluation, including: misidentification of psychosocial risk factors; choice of inappropriate methodology and techniques; errors in planning and carrying out the fieldwork; errors in the analysis of results or in the report; errors during the development and implementation of an intervention programme; errors in the monitoring and control of the proposed measures.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2010, No.58, p.28-33. Illus. 9 ref.
Algunos_errores.pdf [in Spanish]
Nomura K., Nakao M., Tsurugano S., Takeuchi T., Inoue M., Shinozaki Y., Y. Yano E.
Job stress and healthy behavior among male Japanese office workers
This cross-sectional study investigated 1183 Japanese male white-collar workers in 2008 during health checkups for metabolic syndrome. Healthy behaviour included either a calorie-focused diet or regular exercise. Job stress was measured by Job Content Questionnaire based on the job demands-control model and tension-anxiety and anger-hostility scales on the Profile of Mood States. Healthy behaviours were confirmed in 54% of study subjects. Multivariate logistic model showed that healthy behaviors were positively associated with a higher degree of work control and negatively associated with greater work demand. Work control and support were negatively correlated with tension-anxiety and depression, whereas work demand and strain were positively correlated with these two emotion domains. It is suggested that addressing job stress is of clinical importance to promote healthy behaviours.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2010, Vol.53, No.11, p.1128-1134. 28 ref.
Leka S., Jain A., Zewetsloot G., Cox T.
Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union
This article discusses the policy context to the management of work-related psychosocial risks in the EU, identifying major achievements and challenges in relation to policy and practice. It draws on the findings of the PRIMA-EF project, a policy-oriented research programme funded by the European Commission. It is concluded that although a common policy context in the area of psychosocial risk management has developed in the EU, there still exists great variation in the translation of these initiatives into practice in different EU member states. Moreover, evaluation in this area is sporadic, even though it could inform the way forward as it concerns both policy and practice developments.
Work and Stress, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.24, No.3, p.298-307. 39 ref.
Leineweber C., Wege N., Westerlund H., Theorell T., Wahrendorf M., Siegrist J.
How valid is a short measure of effort-reward imbalance at work? A replication study from Sweden
There is an urgent need for validated measures of health-adverse psychosocial work environments. This study tested the validity of a newly developed short version of the original questionnaire measuring effort-reward imbalance at work (ERI). The study sample comprised 4771 working men and women participating in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, in 2006 and 2008. Structural equation modelling was applied to test factorial validity, using the ERI scales. Results are based on logistic and linear regression analyses, with appropriate confounder control. The short version of the ERI questionnaire (16 items) provides satisfactory psychometric properties (internal consistency of scales, confirmatory factor analysis with a good model fit of the data with the theoretical structure). All scales, and the effort-reward ratio, were prospectively associated with an increased risk of poor general self-rated health and depressive symptoms, indicating satisfactory criterion validity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.67, No.8, p.526-531. Illus. 29 ref.
Peters S., Papin J.
Stress prevention in a large French enterprise
La prévention du stress dans une grande entreprise française [in French]
This article presents the stress prevention programme of a large French aerospace and defense firm, implemented in 19 production sites.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2010, Vol. 26, No. 4, p. 12-17. Illus. 1 ref.
Hellemans A., Piette A., Himpens A.
VOW/QFT - A comprehensive tool for analyzing the work ability of older workers
Le VOW/QFT - Un outil complet pour l'analyse des facultés de travail des travailleurs vieillissants [in French]
Work ability can be defined as a balance between the characteristics specific to the worker, such as the state of health, personal assets, work efficiency, intention to stay, knowledge and capabilities on the one hand, and job demands such as psychosocial load, physical workload, occupational safety and job requirements on the other hand. In Belgium, the Work Humanization Directorate of the Federal Public Employment Service has undertaken a series of studies in order to examine this concept further and to develop a tool entitled VOW/QFT, a comprehensive questionnaire in French and Dutch whose purpose is to study workers' perceptions and experience of their own characteristics and coping capabilities. The questionnaire aims to be easy to use by health professionals and to provide them with a scientific tool to support their professional practice. This article describes its application to workers aged 45-65 years.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2010, Vol.26, No.3, p.23-30. Illus. 41 ref.
Understanding gesture and work organization: An analysis in the context of the car industry and civil engineering
Les 'gestuelles' à l'épreuve de l'organisation du travail: du contexte de l'industrie automobile à celui du génie civil [in French]
This study aims to analyze the elaboration of gestures learned on the job in order to examine the organization of work. The specific objective is to highlight the complexity of the organization of gestures in a social context which tends to deny the role of manual work and to underestimate the complexity of gestures. This organization is complex because it has been developed over time and with experience, because its structure is based on principles relating to gestures and finally because it has been circumscribed by the characteristics of a work situation. The analysis of the elaboration of gestures is carried out in three distinct work situations with respect to the latitude for gestures. Two of these relate to car assembly lines and the third to an expressway bridge construction site. The gestures are analyzed by similar methods using interviews and observations. Findings confirm that the combination of high demands (workload) and low latitude (highly constraining procedures) restrain the development of gestures, thereby penalizing operators' health. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Travail humain, Apr. 2010, Vol.73, No.2, p.163-192. Illus. 51 ref.
Wang J., Schmitz N., Smailes E., Sareen J., Patten S.
Workplace characteristics, depression, and health-related presenteeism in a general population sample
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between workplace psychosocial factors, work-family conflicts, depression and health-related presenteeism. It was conducted in the form of a cross-sectional survey of 4032 employees representative of the working population aged 25 to 64 years in Alberta, Canada. Data about workplace characteristics, depression and health-related presenteeism were collected through telephone. Among the participants, 47.3% and 42.9% reported some degree of impaired job performance in completing work and avoiding distraction, respectively. Major depression is the strongest factor associated with avoiding distraction. Job strain and effort-reward imbalance seemed to affect job performance through severity of depression but not major depression. It is concluded that a negative work environment may directly and indirectly affect job performance. Workplace health promotion activities should target organizational factors such as job strain, effort-reward imbalance and work-family conflicts so as to reduce the risk of depression and the direct and indirect effects of these risk factors and depression on productivity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.52, No.5, p.836-842. 32 ref.
Borritz M., Christensen K.B., Bültmann U., Rugulies R., Lund T., Andersen I., Villadsen E., Diderichsen F., Kristensen T.S.
Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA study among human service workers
The objective of this study was to examine whether burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Data were collected at 82 work units in human services in the framework of the PUMA study (PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and Job satisfaction). The cohort was followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register were used. Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial work environment, and equally important, the organizations should be attentive to employees with symptoms of burnout.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.52, No.10, p.964-970. 44 ref.
Karlsson M.L., Björklund C., Jensen I.
The effects of psychosocial work factors on production loss, and the mediating effect of employee health
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between psychosocial work factors and production loss, and whether a potential relationship is mediated by employee health. A total of 2095 individuals from four different companies were included in this prospective study. Logistic regressions were performed to find psychosocial work factors of relevance for production loss, measured as sickness absence and presenteeism. Psychosocial work factors were significantly related to production loss. Health partly or fully mediated the relationship between psychosocial work factors and production loss. Results indicate that several psychosocial work factors have both a direct and an indirect impact on companies' production loss. To be able to minimize production loss, companies must improve both psychosocial work factors and employees health.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.52, No.3, p.310-317. 34 ref.
Hökerberg Y.H., Aguiar O.B., Reichenheim M., Faerstein E., Valente J.G., Fonseca M. J., Lambert Passos S.R.
Dimensional structure of the demand control support questionnaire: A Brazilian context
According to Karasek, job strain results from an interaction between high demands and low decision latitude. The objective of this study was to reassess the dimensional structure and evaluate the internal consistency of the demand control support questionnaire (DCSQ), a shortened version of the job content questionnaire. The study investigated 825 workers who completed the DCSQ. Confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation models was used to test theoretical structure of dimensionality. Internal consistency was evaluated by composite reliability and convergent validity by average variance extracted. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2010, Vol.83, No.4, p.407-416. 49 ref.
Buddeberg-Fischer B., Stamm M., Buddeberg C., Klaghofer R.
Chronic stress experience in young physicians: Impact of person- and workplace-related factors
The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the relative impact of workplace-related factors and personal characteristics on chronic psychosocial stress experience in young physicians. A cohort of Swiss medical school graduates was followed up, beginning in 2001. In their fourth and eighth year after graduation, 443 physicians answered a questionnaire addressing their workplace conditions, effort-reward imbalance, professional and emotional support and personal characteristics. The chronic stress experience was measured by the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress-Screening Subscale of Chronic Stress (TICS-SCSS), seven years after graduation. The model of influencing factors on chronic stress experience was tested with a hierarchical regression analysis. Findings are discussed. It is a matter of concern that young physicians report feeling chronically stressed early in their professional career.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2010, Vol.83, No.4, p.373-379. 44 ref.
Wu H., Zhao Y., Wang J.N., Wang L.
Factors associated with occupational stress among Chinese doctors: A cross-sectional survey
The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with occupational stress among Chinese doctors in public hospitals. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of May/June 2008. The study population comprised 1989 doctors registered and working in the 20 national hospitals in a Chinese province, who were given a questionnaire pertaining to occupational stress that was assessed based on the Chinese Version Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), demographic characteristics, work situations, occupational roles and personal resources. The response rate was 79.8% (1587 respondents; 673 men, 914 women). The general linear model (GLM) was employed to explore the factors related to occupational stress. All data analysis was performed separately in men and women. Findings are discussed. The results indicate that the major factors associated with occupational stress differ between male and female doctors in China.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.155-164. 42 ref.
Hansen Å.M., Blangsted A.K., Hansen E.A., Søgaard K., Sjøgaard G.
Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers
The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers. Physical activity during the previous week was assessed during work and leisure time by a Danish version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and saliva samples were collected. The study group comprised 389 white-collar workers, aged 25-67 years, of which 257 were women. Physical activity during leisure time was associated with higher perceived energy, and for men also with lower perceived stress. Furthermore, physical activity at leisure time affected the association between salivary cortisol and perceived stress and energy, so that respondents being physically active at leisure time and perceiving higher energy showed higher evening saliva cortisol. It is concluded that physically active employees perceive less stress and more energy and that the association between stress-energy and salivary cortisol is affected by vigorous physical activity. Based on these results, it is recommended that office workers exposed to high job strain and inactivity at the job perform physical activity, preferably of high intensity, in order to reduce stress and increase energy.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.143-153. Illus. 50 ref.
Tsai F.J., Chan C.C.
Occupational stress and burnout of judges and procurators
The Chinese versions of the job content questionnaire (JCQ), the Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) were administered to examine occupational stress and personal, work-related and client-related burnout among 211 judicial officers, comprising 87 judges and 98 procurators, in Taiwan. Logistic regression was applied to determine the association between burnout and occupational stress among judges and procurators, adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, marriage, number of children, work experience and working hours). The judicial officers with average age of 36.84 years and work experience of 8.57 years had high averaging scores of job control (70.31), psychological demand (32.23), effort (18.98), reward (48.37), and overcommitment (17.04) as well as personal (49.97), work-related (51.36) and client-related (43.57) burnout. The high psychological demand, effort and overcommitment were significantly associated with both personal and work-related burnout, while the low workplace social support was significantly associated with client-related burnout among the judicial officers. The judges had a significantly higher risk of client-related burnout than the procurators.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.133-142. 21 ref.
Harrington C.B., Feuerstein M.
Workstyle in office workers: Ergonomic and psychological reactivity to work demands
The objective of this study was to investigate whether variation in work demands were related to keyboard force, postural change, cognitive reactivity, physiological arousal and work output in asymptomatic office workers who varied in workstyle. Eighty asymptomatic office workers prescreened for level of workstyle (high = 39, low = 41) were enrolled in the study. Participants were exposed to a high- and low-demand work task, and biomechanical, physiological, and psychological reactivity were measured. Results indicate that the high workstyle group demonstrated elevated keyboard force, greater awkward posture, more negative mood changes, and more negative work-related cognitions. Asymptomatic office workers with higher levels of self-reported adverse workstyle responded to a manipulation of work demands with greater psychological and biomechanical strain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.52, No.4, p.375-382. Illus. 29 ref.
Chambel M.J., Castanheira F.
Working in a call centre: From myths to reality
Trabalhar num call center: Dos mitos à realidade [in Portuguese]
This book presents an analysis of the working conditions and human resource management in call centers in Portugal and discusses how they can be developed to improve the quality of life of workers in this sector, and hence the performance and efficiency of enterprises in which they are employed.
Editora RH, Lda., R. do Mercado 7,1800-271 Lisbon, Portugal, 2010. 118p. Illus. 164 ref. Price: EUR 13.12.
Denoncin R., De Parscau L., Djaouti C., Léandre E., Rougeron D., Rol V., Sutra C., Titon N.
The INRS MSD questionnaire: Use in perfumery packaging enterprises
Questionnaire TMS de l'INRS: utilisation dans les entreprises de conditionnement du secteur de la parfumerie [in French]
In the perfumery and cosmetics industry, packaging involves a high risk of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs). The INRS questionnaire was administered to 426 workers of four enterprises in this sector. The study population consisted mostly of women, of average age 43.4 years. Two-thirds of the complaints concerned the spinal column, particularly neck disorders and low back pain. One third of the workers declared having taken leave from work due to MSDs in the 12 previous months. Less than half of the employees felt that their work was valued and 40% feared that their tasks would be automated. One third regularly practiced a sport. Other findings are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2010, No.123, p.287-295. Illus. 10 ref.
TF_187.pdf [in French]
Puttonen S., Härmä M., Hublin C.
Shift work and cardiovascular disease - Pathways from circadian stress to morbidity
In order to establish a causal relation between shift work and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathways from the former to the latter need to be verified. This article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms between shift work and CVD. Shift work can increase the risk of CVD by several interrelated psychosocial, behavioural, and physiological mechanisms. The psychosocial mechanisms relate to difficulties in controlling working hours, decreased work-life balance and poor recovery following work. The most probable behavioural changes are weight gain and smoking. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changed lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. The data provide evidence for possible disease mechanisms between shift work and CVD, but compelling evidence on any specific mechanism is missing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.96-108. Illus. 129 ref.
Shift_work_and_cardiovascular_disease.pdf [in English]
Hovden J., Albrechtsen E., Herrera I.A.
Is there a need for new theories, models and approaches to occupational accident prevention?
This article discusses occupational accident modelling challenges associated with a changing working life, and questions whether ideas from models developed for high-risk, complex socio-technical systems can be transformed and adapted for use in occupational accident prevention. It also raises a debate as to whether occupational accidents consist mainly of simple component failures or whether a systemic approach to the phenomenon is of some interest and value.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.950-956. 59 ref.
Malakis S., Kontogiannis T., Kirwan B.
Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control: Taskwork strategies (Part I); Teamwork strategies (Part II)
A large body of research in air traffic control has focused on human errors in decision making while little attention has been paid to the cognitive strategies employed by controllers in managing abnormal situations. This study examines the cognitive strategies in taskwork and teamwork that enable controllers to become resilient decision-makers. Two field studies were carried out where novice and experienced controllers were observed in simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios. A prototype model of taskwork and teamwork strategies in air traffic management was developed and its construct validity was tested in the context of the field studies, leading to the development of a generic model of Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Difficulties experienced by novice controllers are discussed, together with strategies employed by experts to manage uncertainty and balance workload during emergencies.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.620-627. Illus 34 ref. (part I); 628-635. Illus. 36 ref. (part II).
Kramer D.M., Bigelow P.L., Carlan N., Wells R.P., Garritano E., Vi P., Plawinski M.
Searching for needles in a haystack: Identifying innovations to prevent MSDs in the construction sector
This study identified innovations that could potentially reduce the risk of MSDs in the construction sector in the Province of Ontario, Canada. The research approach was based on a collaborative model between researchers and workplace representatives, which involved searching for innovations being used by construction companies. The study focused on 20 innovations that represented a variety of trades, tools and organizational processes. It examined the attributes of the innovations, and the barriers to their adoption. The analysis was based on observations of workers, surveys of workers and construction-safety consultants, and company interviews. It was found that innovations were adopted by companies for multiple advantages including productivity, simplicity and cost. The major barriers for adoption were the traditional culture of the construction sector rather than financial.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.577-584. Illus. 31 ref.
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