Psychology of work organization - 534 entries found
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- Psychology of work organization
Change in course - About reorganisation and computerisation at a local government authority
Ändrad kurs - Om organisationsförändring och datorisering i en kommunal förvaltning [in Swedish]
Study of organisational change and computerisation in a local government administration in order to determine how the personnel reacted to the changes and to provide a basis for development of methods for influencing change processes. The transition represented a major adjustment for most of the personnel. Many considered their work more interesting but the workload, time pressure and stress had increased considerably. Three sources of stress could be identified: uncertainty, adaptation and pressure. The computer system met with some resistance during the first year. Changes in work tasks were experienced positively on the condition that the person involved could influence the changes.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 83p. Illus. 41 ref.
Opposition of personnel to quality control
Personnelle Widerstände gegen Qualitätssicherungsmassnahmen [in German]
Quality control is rejected because work routines have to be changed, new knowledge must be acquired, positions of power are lost and its purpose is not understood. It may be opposed by openly arguing against it, by subtle sabotage or by forming opposition groups. Opposition may be avoided by incentives such as pay raises, promotion and positive feedback from insiders.
Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit, 1989, Vol.34, No.1, p.49-52. Illus.
Leimann Patt H.O.
The right and wrong stuff in civil aviation
Aircrew members are considered to work in a hostile environment and must rely on their own psychic resources to counteract their "aeronautical anxiety". Various relationships of motivation and defence give rise either to the flying adaptation syndrome or the various forms of the secondary flying disadaptation syndrome when aircrew members must face the danger of flight. These alterations may cause temporary or permanent medical disqualification due to the impairment of safety which they provoke. This paper proposes an analysis of the interplay between motivation, psychic defences and aviation stress to explain the manifestations of flight adaptation and disadaptation seen in some aircrew members.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.59, No.10, p.955-959. 22 ref.
Motivating for occupational safety
Zur Arbeitssicherheit motivieren - Ein Leitfaden für Vorgesetzte [in German]
Motivazione ai fini della sicurezza sul lavoro: una guida per i superiori [in Italian]
Motiver pour travailler en sécurité [in French]
How can a manager motivate people to work safely ? What conditions are necessary for effective motivation ? What are the limits of motivation ? These questions, among others, are addressed in this brochure. It surveys basic problems of motivation and offers practical everyday suggestions.
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Dec. 1988, No.148, 20p. 10 ref.
Quick J.C., Bhagat R.S., Dalton J.E., Quick J.D.
Work stress - Health care systems in the workplace
While there are many studies demonstrating the effects of stress on employees and organizations, there is little evidence that research findings are being appropriately used in corporate health care systems. This publication consists of a compilation of original, multidisciplinary papers by academics and practitioners, which examine the current knowledge of work stress, preventive management strategies, and therapeutic healing techniques used in occupational health programs.
Praeger Publishers, One Madison Avenue, New York, NY 11010, 1987. xvii, 329p. Illus. Bib.ref. Index.
Safety and accidents in the construction industry: a work design perspective
This paper presents a synoptic view of construction safety from a behavioural science perspective. It considers the different influences that have a bearing upon the formation and maintenance of the attitudes and motivations of workers towards safety and risk-taking at work. It summarises these influences in terms of a 'Potential Accident Subject' model. The implications of this model for the development of practical measures to improve construction safety are then discussed in terms of a series of work design principles which might better aid the reinforcement of safety as a primary goal throughout the industry.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1987, Vol.1, No.2, p.167-174. Illus. 19 ref.
Factors affecting the attendance rate of farmers at mass health examinations over a 10-year period
Nōmin o taishō to shita 10-nenkan no shūdan kenshin e no jushin kōdō no kanren yōin no kentō [in Japanese]
Group examination for anaemia, cerebrovascular disease and occupational diseases were conducted among several thousand adult farmers in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, from 1971-1984. The farmers were requested to attend the examination once a year on indicated dates. After 10 years' experience, a survey of 873 subjects based on a self-administered questionnaire was carried out concerning motivation to attend the examination, subjective symptoms and daily health behaviour of individuals. Interviews applying a psychodynamic theory of attendance behaviour postulated by Baker and Shontz (1972) were made. Rate of continuous attendance at the health examination was more closely related to cognizance and attitude of individuals to the examination and to personal and family health care than to personal physical condition, subjective symptoms, and perceived health. The attendance group had a significantly higher level of Shontz's behaviour promoting factors and lower level of inhibiting factors.
Kita-Kantō Igaku (Kita-Kantō Medical Journal), June 1987, Vol.37, No.1, p.117-127. 12 ref.
Successful accident prevention programmes - Proceedings from a workshop of XIth Congress on the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases
This workshop was one of the special sessions during the XIth World Congress on the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 1987. The presentations focused on two essential issues in accident prevention: knowledge and motivation. Knowledge about accident risks at a company is the basis for accident prevention activities but action also requires motivation for safety. There were 4 presentations on how to obtain and use knowledge to improve safety and 4 on how to increase safety motivation. The report contains the opening speeches, all the papers presented and the concluding remarks from the workshop.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 61p. Illus. 22 ref.
Successful accident prevention - Recommendations and ideas field tested in the Nordic countries
This booklet written for those in charge of safety in a company or a governmental organisation is the final report of the Nordic cooperative programme on effective accident prevention methods. It describes 10 experiments conducted at companies in various branches of industry.
Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1987. 77p. Illus. 23 ref.
Assessment of psychic stress factors at work
Bedömning av psykiska belastningsfaktorer i arbetet [in Swedish]
The screening method developed by specialists in Finland to assess the psychic stress of work in association with monitoring of the work environment is presented. The method is based on the results of studies on stress in working life and on job description methods. It is intended for occupational health personnel. The method covers factors like underload-overload, work organisation, job content, social factors including human relations. A sample checklist is enclosed.
Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 40 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1986. 40p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Fm.9.00.
Readings in behavioral issues in safety
Seventeen papers are reprinted concerning human error and behavioural factors in accident control. Topics covered: psychological climate (motivation, worker involvement and safety programmes, overtime and safety); attitude development and change; positive reinforcement techniques.
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068, USA, 1985. 106p. Illus. Price: USD 10.00.
Floru R., Cail F., Elias R.
Psychophysiological changes during a VDU repetitive task
A simulated realistic 120min data-entry task on a visual display terminal was employed to study the relationship between performance and various physiological indices of arousal. For 80% of the subjects, performance showed a progressive decline, reaching minimal values after 45-46min of work, followed by a significant rebound. Behavioural responses were associated with EEG arousal changes whereas average heart rate decreased from beginning to the end. The EEG pattern accompanying the rebound of the performance during the data-entry task supports the auto-arousal hypothesis which assumes that a cerebral compensatory effort intervenes in a mental repetitive task.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1985, Vol.28, No.10, p.1455-1468. Illus. 36 ref.
Cooper C.L., Sloan S.
Occupational and psychosocial stress among commercial aviation pilots
This study covered 442 pilots belonging to the British Airlines Pilots Association and who responded to a mailed questionnaire survey. It was found that self-perceived poor performance was associated with job related factors such as fatigue, anxiety about required courses, performance checks and insufficient flying time. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by lack of career opportunities, poor morale and work climate, lack of autonomy together with some domestic stressors (family health). Overall mental ill-health was found to be associated with lack of autonomy at work, fatigue, flying patterns, inability to relax and lack of social support.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.27, No.8, p.570-576. 12 ref.
Pépin M., Bergès S.
Part-time work and work organisation
Temps partiel et organisation du travail [in French]
This study analyses the consequences of part-time work. It is based on official statistics, which illustrate the growing importance of part-time work and provide data for an analysis of the characteristics of the workers concerned, and on the results of a survey conducted by a banking organisation among its 5382 employees in order to find out their degree of motivation and their opinions with regard to a possible introduction of part-time work. Remarks on the consequences of part-time work for work organisation and for working conditions.
Lettre d'information de l'ANACT, Apr. 1984, No.85, p.1-9 + bibliographic supplement.
The influence of shift work on leisure activities. A study with repeated measurement
Workers' perceptions of the extent to which leisure activities were hindered or facilitated by shift work were evaluated for a group of 82 workers who all began work at the same time. Data were collected by questionnaire and interview immediately after hiring, 4 months later, and after 2.5 years. Time-flexible activities were rated as less hindered than inflexible ones. The relative number of hindered activities did not increase during the study period. The group of 16 workers who had left the job during the study reported a greater number of hindered activities, in relation to the facilitated ones, than those who stayed on the job.
Ergonomics, June 1983, Vol.26, No.6, p.565-574. Illus. 11 ref.
Maples T.W., Jacoby J.A., Johnson D.E., Ter Haar G.L., Buckingham F.M.
Effectiveness of employee training and motivation programs in reducing exposure to inorganic lead and lead alkyls
A pilot project in an alkyl lead production facility was conducted with 35 workers. After 12 months there was a 40% reduction in urinary lead concentrations and a 24% reduction in blood lead concentrations, both indicators of total exposure to organic and inorganic lead. The programme was especially effective in workers with high urinary blood levels. Capital investment in a training and motivation programme is minimal compared with engineering controls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1982, Vol.43, No.9, p.692-694. Illus. 7 ref.
Dick C., Kompart J., Reinartz G., Schnadt H., Tossing N.
Health effects of work in open-plan offices
Auswirkungen der Tätigkeit in Grossraumbüros auf die Gesundheit der Beschäftigten [in German]
The 1st volume of this report presents the results of a literature survey and research on psychophysical effects: levelling-out of human behaviour, anonymity, restrictions on the individual's ability to modify the physical environment, profusion of sensorial impressions and hypersensitivity, imposed selection of verbal communications, discrimination related to differences in the importance attributed to different types of work, reduction in individual responsibility. From the point of view of work humanisation, the concept of open-plan offices should be abandoned. Virtually all the workers questioned (95%) rejected this system. The 2nd volume deals with the necessary physical conditions, factors affecting thermal comfort, and acoustic and lighting factors.
Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Referat Presse und Information, Postfach 140280, 5300 Bonn 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 2 vols., 195 and 202p. Illus. 447 ref.
Surprise and sense making: What newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings
This article reviews research on approaches to organizational entry, identifies problems faced by newcomers and discusses limitations of current approaches. It also puts forward a new perspective identifying key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast and change, and it describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. The implications of the new perspective for research and practice on organizational entry are discussed.
Administrative Science Quarterly, June 1980, Vol.25, p.226-251. 101 ref.
A review of the literature on attitudes and roles and their effects on safety in the workplace
Theories on accident causation are first reviewed, and parallels drawn between some of the approaches and beliefs, and methods of intervention, in the field of safety. Major sections are then devoted to: shaping of attitudes in the workplace (their functioning, manifestations, formation, changes and factors leading to change); effects of attitude on safety (measurement of safety performance, measurement of attitude, attitude to risk, to the job, to safety and productivity, to legislation, effect of prevailing conditions); role problems in the workplace (conceptual framework, role problems, conflict, ambiguity, determinants, effects of role confusions).
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1980. 63p. 106 ref.
Hacker W., Richter P.
Considerations on occupational psychology
Spezielle Arbeits- und Ingenieurpsychologie in Einzeldarstellungen [in German]
Vol.1: methodology of occupational psychology studies; detailed comments on psychological evaluation of work organisation methods (evaluation objectives and criteria, working conditions linked to the production process, evaluation system, effects of work on personality). Vol.2: characteristics, origin and prevention of neuro-psychic fatigue, monotony, psychic "saturation" and stress, information and data required to evaluate the psychological effects of work, and counter-measures.
Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1980. 128 + 232p. Illus. 550 ref. Price: M.11.80 + 15.80.
Work: mental wear and tear - An essay on the psychopathology of work
Travail: usure mentale - Essai de psychopathologie du travail. [in French]
The non-behavioural field occupied by imposed activity such as movements, rhythms, and production mechanisms, is studied. Contents: brief review of the history of work (defensive ideologies of the proletariat, individual defence mechanisms against work organisation, e.g. repetitive work); dissatisfaction and significant content of work tasks; dissatisfaction and ergonomic content of the work; work and anxiety (direct and indirect signs, effect of imposed work rhythm, work relations, forms of anxiety); the case of the fighter pilot; exploitation of frustation and anxiety; work organisation and illness.
Editions Le Centurion, 17 rue de Babylone, 75007 Paris, France, 1980. 156p. 105 ref.
Saari J.T., Lahtela J.
Job enrichment: cause of increased accidents?
Modern trends to lengthen work cycles and restructure jobs by job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment may cause occupational accidents due to lack of proper planning and training beforehand. With shorter work cycles the workers could be better trained, but had only narrow professional education and monotonous tasks which in the long run affected their mental health and caused job dissatisfaction. Positive and negative effects of work variety are discussed, based on work studies (described), with statistics of cycle time of tasks, frequency of occurrence of tasks, need for worker to plan the order of tasks, and figures for high and low accident frequency groups. Conclusion: too much variety and autonomy is not desirable from the safety point of view, although monotonous, repetitive short-cycle tasks also gave rise to accidents due to carelessness in spite of more thorough training and pre-planning.
Professional Safety, Dec. 1979, Vol.24, No.12, p.28-32. Illus. 11 ref.
Franaszczuk I., Kopaczewska Z.
Influence of monotonous work on workers' personality
Wpływ pracy monotonnej na osobowość pracowników [in Polish]
Examination results of several tests in workers engaged in fitting lamps on an assembly line were compared with matched controls. The differences in the average results showed a greater degree of nervousness and social inadaptation in the first group, and a relation between emotional stability and adaptability to work conditions, and performance. Proposals made to combat monotony are: a system of short, frequent work breaks, provison of musical earphones, improved work organisation.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1979, Vol.29, No.102, p.271-283. 7 ref.
Safe behaviour and safety motivation.
A questionnaire study among 207 construction workers is reported. Aspects researched were motivation, leadership, group characteristics and safety standards. The results are outlined in the light of the literature. A new model is derived from the findings, with remarks and recommendations.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Apr. 1978, Vol.1, No.4, p.363-376. Illus. 10 ref.
Safety and motivation at the workpost
Veiligheid en motivatie in de arbeidssituatie [in Dutch]
A historical survey of trends in research on the human role in accident causation is followed by considerations on the adaptation of man to work and vice versa (vocational guidance, selection and training, ergonomics). Human behaviour is determined by many different factors; this article considers those factors which influence motivation towards safety-mindedness: individual factors pertaining to character (the "accident prone" theory is rejected), work-linked aspects, group relationships and group-imposed behaviour, role of management, importance of work and safety organisation, social and cultural factors.
TNO-Project, Feb. 1977, Vol.5, No.2, p.58-62. Illus. 4 ref.
Why do we want to work safely?
Waarom wil men veilig werken? [in Dutch]
Report on an investigation into the determinants of safe behaviour at work. Psychological considerations of the use of the words "safe" and "unsafe" are followed by an account of the criteria applied: human factors in accident causation, accident statistics and reports (taking into account their discrepancies), results of previous studies, and motivation concerning work and risk-taking. The results of a questionnaire survey are reproduced and commented upon. It is concluded that motivation towards safe working is determined by the management's safety policy, the foreman's leadership and the acceptance of safe working principles by the workers as a group.
De veiligheid, June 1974, Vol.50, No.6, p.251-258; July-Aug. 1974, No.7-8, p.315-320; Sep.1974, No.9, p.381-384. Illus.
Application of motivation and communication techniques to occupational safety
Die Anwendung von Motivations- und Kommunikationstechniken für die Arbeitssicherheit [in German]
German translation of an American study, reviewing various ways of transmitting and exchanging information and motivations. The safety specialist has a choice between 3 procedures: one-way communication, feedback communication, two-way communication. Guide to the improvement of two-way communications and to the choice of the most appropriate method. Summary of studies on safe behaviour reinforcement (conditioned reflexes) from the Russian animal experiments down to practical applications at management level. Analysis of the technique of critical incident recall, which provides the safety specialist with information and has been found particularly valuable in determining the causes of "near-accidents".
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, May 1974, Vol.21, No.3, p.12-14; July 1974, No.4, p.7-9; Sep. 1974, No.5, p.2-4; and Nov. 1974, No.6, p.6-7.
Decisions to improve working conditions without influencing productivity: Study of a specific case in garages in France
Decisions d'amélioration des conditions de travail sans influence sur la productivité: Etude d'un cas particulier aux garages en France. [in French]
Study of the reasons inducing employers to invest in improvements in working conditions without a corresponding increase in productivity. Test employed: equipment for elimination of exhaust gases in garages. Under the French regulations, the provisions of which are quoted, its installation is not mandatory. A questionnaire was sent to 2,000 garages; 302 replies were received. Among garages that had not installed such equipment, the proportion of those with economic motives was very small compared with those offering technical reasons. In garages in which it was installed, business considerations had overriden social or sanitary criteria. The majority considered that the short-term profitability of this equipment is insignificant, but admit that the investment is justified. Several tables show the influence of geographical situation and the economic, industrial and social environment of their business on garage owners. Conclusion: this equipment in installed above all by large garages, in which the social pressure exerted by a large qualified staff is by no means negligible. Undertakings concerned with short- and medium-term profitability are less in favour of social expenditure than those that take the long-term view.
Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Paris. Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail, Aix-en-Provence, France, Sep. 1973. 157p.
Safety - a question of motivation
Veiligheid - een kwestie van motivatie [in Dutch]
Doctoral thesis based on a psychological study carried out in the building industry to determine the motivations underlying safe working attitudes. Subjects dealt with include: accidents and safety (individual, leadership, organisational factors and their influence on human behaviour); the anticipation theory of work motivation (personality factors, performance motive and fear of failure); determinants of motivation to safe work (leadership, group behaviour and personality); description of the questionnaire survey carried out by the author; analysis and evaluation of the results.
Faculteit Psychologie, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087a, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1974. 226p. Illus. 121 ref. Price: Glds.8.50.
Flexible working hours - Their effects on conditions of work, and the psychology and physiology of workers
L'horaire variable ou libre - Ses incidences sur les conditions de travail, la psychologie, la physiologie des travailleurs. [in French]
This MD thesis reviews the experience with this type of work schedule, the use of which is spreading: background, definitions, methods of application, recording and checking of hours worked, applicability, French statutory provisions, stages in the introduction of such schedules in an undertaking, results of experience with flexible working hours as regards the workers and the undertaking, unions' opinions, effects on work in different occupational categories (women, young persons, old or handicapped workers) and on the social and economic environment (leisure time, commuting). In the light of this experience, the effects of flexible working hours on the workers' physiology and psychology, the role of plant physicians and future prospects are examined.
Université de Paris - Val-de-Marne, Faculté de médecine de Créteil, Créteil, France, 1974. 88p. 78 ref.
Safety - Ways of influencing people
Sécurité - Possibilités d'influencer les hommes. [in French]
A large proportion of occupational accidents are caused by unsafe acts since artificial hazards are not considered instinctively in the same light as environmental hazards. Since it is impossible to exert an influence on natural instinct, other means to correct unsafe behaviour must be found: selecting the best qualified personnel for vacant posts; example set by supervisors; informing personnel about accident risks (presented in a clear and convincing manner); offering motives for safe behaviour.
Schweisstechnik - Soudure, June 1973, Vol.63, No.6, p.167-172.
General occupational and engineering psychology - Mental structure and regulation of occupational activities
Allgemeine Arbeits- und Ingenieurpsychologie - Psychische Struktur und Regulation von Arbeitstätigkeiten [in German]
Individual sections are devoted to: working conditions and occupational activities and behaviour from the psychological point of view; motivation; perceptual and intellectual regulation of occupational activities; sensorimotor regulation; improving the mental structure of occupational activities; causes and conditions of mental errors; relationships between occupational activity and personality.
Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, , 1973. 472p. Illus. 439 ref. Price: M.24.80.
Man as an accident cause
Der Mensch als Unfallursache [in German]
To prevent accidents, it is not enough to eliminate hazardous situations; one must spread the use of information and psychological techniques. By satisfying fundamental psychological and social needs, one may induce a safety-conscious behaviour. However, such methods may also be a source of risks; the desire to show off or to form part of a group and the need for independence are risk factors. Examples from daily occupational situations are given, and rules of conduct drawn from them.
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, Nov. 1972, Vol.19, No.6, p.1-4 and Jan. 1973, Vol.20, No.1, p.2-4. Illus.
Prevention - A management task
Die Unfallverhütung ist eine Führungsaufgabe [in German]
Reasons for the spectacular success of American industry in the field of accident prevention are offered. Since considerably more accidents are caused by unsafe acts than by hazardous situations, it is most important to motivate workers towards safe behaviour; this is a task for management. Usually, a favourable reaction can only be obtained if the satisfaction of psychological or social stimuli is used as motivation. The article describes in detail how to achieve this.
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, May 1972, Vol.19, No.3, p.10-12; July 1972, Vol.19, No.4, p.1-4; Sep. 1972, Vol.19, No.5, p.1-3; and Nov. 1972, Vol.19, No.6, p.16-17. Illus. 71 ref.
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