Bullying and mobbing - 155 entries found
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Bullying at work
Mobning på arbejdspladsen [in Danish]
Mobbning på arbetsplatsen [in Swedish]
Parenóhlēsē ston hṓro ergasías [in Greek]
Acoso moral en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Tööga seotud stress [in Estonian]
Työpaikkakiusaaminen [in Finnish]
Harcèlement moral sur le lieu de travail [in French]
Il mobbing sul posto di lavoro [in Italian]
Bauginimai darbe [in Lithuanian]
Pesten op het werk [in Dutch]
O assédio moral no local de trabalho [in Portuguese]
Šikanovanie na pracovisku [in Slovak]
Ustrahovanje na delovnem mestu [in Slovenian]
Mobbing [in German]
Bullying at work constitutes a significant problem in the European work force. The associated costs are considerable for both the worker and the organization. Prevention of bullying at work is one of the objectives of the European Commission' new strategy on health and safety at work. This fact sheet focuses on the use of intimidation in relationships between colleagues. Topics covered: definition of bullying; extent of the problem and persons affected; why bullying occurs; consequences; EU legislation; prevention of bullying at the workplace.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2002. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/sv/FACTSHEETSN23-SV_.PDF [in Swedish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/en/FACTSHEETSN23_EN.PDF [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/es/FACTSHEETSN23-ES_.PDF [in Spanish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/fr/FACTSHEETSN23-FR_.PDF [in French]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/da/FACTSHEETSN23-DA_.PDF [in Danish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/de/FACTSHEETSN23-DE.pdf [in German]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/et/facts23_et.pdf [in Estonian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/el/FACTSHEETSN23-GR_.PDF [in Greek]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/it/FACTSHEETSN23-IT_.PDF [in Italian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/lt/faktai23.pdf [in Lithuanian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/nl/FACTSHEETSN23-NL_.PDF [in Dutch]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/pt/FACTSHEETSN23-PT_.PDF [in Portuguese]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/sk/Fact23_SK.pdf [in Slovak]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/sl/FACTS23_SL.pdf [in Slovenian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/23/fi/FACTSHEETSN23-FI_.PDF [in Finnish]
Willingstorfer B., Schaper N., Sonntag K.
Factors that determine the frequency of bullying and its relationship with social working conditions at the workplace
Mobbingsmaße und -faktoren sowie bestehende Zusammenhänge mit sozialen Arbeitsplatzbedingungen [in German]
This article presents the results of two studies aimed at evaluating the extent of workplace bullying. In the first study, 61 subjects responded to various questionnaires designed to enable the evaluation of the intensity of bullying (scale of social stress factors, autoevaluation of the situations experienced personally and two scales for evaluating reactions to bullying). It was found that the frequency of bullying provides a measure of its intensity. In the second study, 150 employees of a services enterprise replied to several questionnaires, including the Björkqvist and Oesterman Work Harassment Scale, aimed at determining the extent of bullying, social stress factors, working conditions and job satisfaction. Findings show that men are more often victims of bullying than women. Among victims, negative evaluations were found for working conditions, ratings of supervisors and colleagues, job satisfaction and participation.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 2002, Vol.46 No.3, p.111-125. Illus. 27 ref.
Poucet V., Ponnet V.
Protection against violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the workplace
La protection contre la violence et le harcèlement moral ou sexuel au travail [in French]
De bescherming tegen geweld, pesterijen en ongewenst seksueel gedrag op het werk [in Dutch]
This document consists of a comment on the Law of 11 June 2002 on the protection of workers against violence, bullying or sexual harassment which came into force in Belgium on 1 July 2002. Contents: definitions; scope; prevention of violence, bullying and sexual harassment; general principles, protection of workers; protection of employers; protection of third parties; interim measures; other legislation on sexual harassment in the workplace.
Federaal Ministerie van Tewerkstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, 1040 Brussel, Belgium, Sep. 2002. 68p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.meta.fgov.be/pdf/pd/frdd36.pdf [in French]
http://www.meta.fgov.be/pdf/pd/nldd33.pdf [in Dutch]
Key for preventing and combating violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the workplace
Clés pour prévenir et lutter contre la violence et le harcèlement moral ou sexuel au travail [in French]
Wegwijs in ... de preventie en bescherming tegen geweld, pesten en ongewenst seksueel gedrag op het werk [in Dutch]
New regulations concerning the protection of workers against violence, bullying or sexual harassment came into force in Belgium on 1 July 2002. Aimed in particular at persons within the enterprise responsible for applying the regulations, the objective of this booklet is to help better understand the scope of the regulations. Contents: definitions and scope of the regulations; occupational safety and health policies; role of the occupational safety and health advisor; role of the trusted advisor; workers' protection; protection of employers and third parties; penalties; help to victims.
Federaal Ministerie van Tewerkstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, 1040 Brussel, Belgium, Oct. 2002. 56p. Illus.
http://meta.fgov.be/pdf/pd/frdd38.pdf [in French]
http://meta.fgov.be/pdf/pd/nldd35.pdf [in Dutch]
Annual report 02
Annual report of the Belgian Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Prevent) for the year 2002. Contents: objectives; participation in national and European networks; studies and projects (occupational safety and health in small and medium enterprises, mapping out European occupational safety and health research, identification of good practices, integrating safety and health into general education, working with laptop computers, harassment and violence at the workplace); publications and supply of information; training sessions and workshops; organization; financial highlights.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2002. 23p. Illus.
Winstanley S., Whittington R.
Anxiety, burnout and coping styles in general hospital staff exposed to workplace aggression: A cyclic model of burnout and vulnerability to aggression
This study compared anxiety, coping styles and burnout among hospital staff according to the frequency of aggressive experiences. A sub-sample was also examined to determine any immediate after-effects from aggressive encounters. 375 healthcare workers across professions completed questionnaires which were analysed according to the type and frequency of aggression experienced within the preceding year. There were no significant differences in levels of anxiety or in coping styles. However, significant differences were determined in levels of burnout. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were significantly higher among staff more frequently victimized. A cyclical model is proposed according to which burnout from all sources might increase vulnerability to victimization. Increases in emotional exhaustion lead directly to an increase in depersonalization as a coping mechanism, which subsequently manifests as a negative behavioural change toward patients, thus rendering staff more vulnerable to further aggression.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.16, No.4, p.302-315. Illus. 34 ref.
Schatte S., Weißgerber B.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Violence at the place of work
Gewalt am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Proceedings of a conference on violence at the place of work held in Dresden, Germany, 26 February 2002. Main topics covered: violence in the retail sector and in health services; safety of employees in contact with clients; risks of accidents resulting from the challenging of individuals by security service agents; violence de-escalation model implemented by police services; prevention of violence at places of learning; taking bullying and violence into account in enterprise occupational safety and health management systems; schemes for the prevention of violence in hospitals; activities of the German Occupational Safety and Health Institute (BGAG) with respect to violence at the place of work.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 12.50.
Hermans S., Hermans V., Claes L., Pepermans R.
How Belgian enterprises are responding to the issue of bullying
L'approche du harcèlement dans le monde des entreprises belges [in French]
This article presents the results of a survey on how Belgian enterprises are addressing the issue of bullying and the extent to which they are already implementing the provisions of a proposed law due to be effective in mid-2002. A questionnaire was sent to 375 enterprises, among which 233 (59.5%) responded. The following aspects were examined: prevalence of complaints; existence of a policy; measures taken in favour of the victim; disciplinary and other measures taken against the perpetrators; extent to which the measures required under the proposed law have already been introduced.
Travail et bien-être, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.5, No.4, p.12-16. Illus.
Prevention of undesirable attitudes at the workplace
La prévention des comportements indésirables au travail [in French]
According to the provisions of the Belgian law on well-being, each person working within an enterprise has responsibilities with respect to the safety, health and well-being of their fellow-workers and themselves. The new law of 11 June 2002 on the protection against violence, bullying and sexual harassment at work further specifies that each worker is required to refrain from all these types of act and to participate actively in the related preventive policies. Aimed at employers, this article presents the practical aspects of the implementation of this law within the enterprise and proposes the participatory risk analysis approach as a tool for the diagnosis and the prevention of undesirable attitudes at the workplace.
Travail et bien-être, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.5, No.4, p.6-11. Illus.
Álvarez Montero A.
Prevention of occupational hazards: Current assessment and future prospects
La prevención de riesgos laborales: Balance y perspectivas [in Spanish]
This CD-ROM consists of a compilation of the papers presented during the fifth Andalusian conference on labour relations, held on 21-22 November 2002 in Jaén, Spain, on the topic of "Prevention of occupational hazards: Current assessment and future prospects". Panel discussions organized during this conference addressed the following issues: role of the government in the field of occupational safety and health; cost-benefit analysis of occupational safety and health; hazards resulting from new forms of work; organization and management of occupational safety and health within the enterprise; legislation applicable to the protection against occupational hazards and its practical implementation.
Consejo Andaluz de Relaciones Laborales, Spain, . CD-ROM
Sapir M., Koukoulaki T., Levi L., Perimäki-Dietrich R., Vogel L., Tudor O., Schaufeli W.B., Kompier M.A.J., D'Hertefelt H., Péters S., Kristensen T.S., Lindström K., Aptel M., Cnockaert J.C., Douillet P., Schweitzer J.M.
Stress at work
Contents of this special issue on stress at work: review of trade union activities in Europe in the area of stress prevention; European Commission's guidance on occupational stress; violence at the workplace; legal aspects of psychological harassment at work; work-related stress in the United Kingdom; managing job stress in the Netherlands; measuring psychological workload in Belgium; questionnaire on working conditions; presentation of the Copenhagen and Nordic questionnaires for assessing psychosocial factors at work; stress and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders; stress and musculoskeletal disorders in France.
Newsletter of the European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety - Bulletin d'information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé et la sécurité, Sep. 2002, No. 19-20, p.1-59 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Working on stress
Stress lass nach [in German]
Travailler sans stress [in French]
Trabajemos contra el estrés [in Spanish]
Surveys indicate that close to one worker in three in Europe is affected by work-related stress. This special issue was published as a contribution to the European Week for Safety and Health at Work of October 2002, with the theme "Working on Stress". It includes short communications on stress at work contributed by European political leaders, heads of occupational safety and health agencies and university researchers. Topics include: accessing information on work-related stress; EU guidance on work-related stress; case studies showing how work-related stress can be successfully addressed; role of an employers' organization, role of a workers' organization; effectiveness of heath promotion programmes; bullying. Also available in French, German and Spanish.
Magazine - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work / Agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail, 2002, No.5, p.1-28 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/magazine/5/en/index.htm [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/magazine/5/fr/index.htm [in French]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/magazine/5/de/index.htm [in German]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/magazine/5/es/index.htm [in Spanish]
Rick J., Thomson L., Briner R.B., O'Regan S., Daniels K.
Health and Safety Executive
Review of existing supporting scientific knowledge to underpin standards of good practice for work-related stressors - Phase I
This literature review was undertaken in order to identify the best available evidence on the ways in which stressors affect individuals at work. The following stressors were investigated: poorly designed or managed workload, work scheduling, work design, physical environment and procedures for eliminating damaging conflict (bullying, harassment) at individual or team level; lack of skill discretion, decision authority, appropriate proactive support and appropriate reactive support. The review was conducted in line with principles of evidence based approaches, which consist of a systematic way of pulling together and assessing the quality of evidence around a given research question and making recommendations for practice.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. xxii, 226p. Illus. Approx 350 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr024.htm [in English]
Grenier-Peze M., Soula M.C.
Pluridisciplinary approach to bullying
Approche pluridisciplinaire du harcèlement moral [in French]
Given the level of media attention given to bullying, the large increase in victim complaints and the creation of specialized support networks, this article attempts to position the bullying victim syndrome with respect to the clinical tables of general occupational psychopathology. It provides an overview of bullying and presents two examples of clinical cases. Contents: definitions of bullying; clinical tables and diagnosis; forms of bullying; legal aspects.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.137-145. 9 ref.
Protection of mental health at work
La protection de la santé mentale au travail [in French]
Employers will to have to take into account the protection of workers' mental health. Indeed, the provisions of French Law No. 2002-73 on the bringing up to date of social benefits introduce the concept of "mental health" into labour legislation, and provide for penalties against cases of repeated bullying. This article describes the current situation with respect to the issues that employers have to take into account: limitations of hazard evaluation applied to workers' mental health; awareness of the symptoms of mental health disorders; ensuring that information concerning workers with mental health disorders are properly communicated to management; organization of mental health protection (inventory of risk factors, integration of physical, psychological and psycho-social constraints).
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2002, No.63, p.36-41. Illus.
The legal answer to psychological harassment at work, or "mobbing"
La respuesta jurídico legal ante el acoso moral en el trabajo o "mobbing" [in Spanish]
After providing a definition of bullying and its psychosocial effects, this article proceeds to describe the responsibilities of employers and the rights of employees under the provisions of the Spanish law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 01-601). It distinguished between two types of bullying, "bossiness" (persecution by a supervisor or manager) and "mobbing" (persecution by peers). The various actions that persecuted persons can undertake are described: notifying labour inspection, legal action (under criminal, civil or administrative law) or notifying social security (recognition of the health consequences of bullying as an occupational disease).
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.17, p.27-38. Illus. 15 ref.
Legal solutions for resolving cases of bullying at work
Les possibilités juridiques de résolution de cas de harcèlement moral au travail [in French]
Contents of this article on the legal aspects of bullying at work in France: definition and diagnosis; applicable legal principles (principle of loyalty and execution in good faith, respect of human dignity); legal instruments of labour law (prevention principle, protection of individual rights, right of warning and of refusal to work, protection of workers' health); legal instruments of social security law (occupational accidents and diseases caused by bullying); code of ethics; groups of persons involved in occupational safety and health, and in particular the role of occupational physicians; preventive actions within the enterprise.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.7-16. 5 ref.
Meschkutat B., Stackelbeck M., Langenhoff G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Report on mobbing: Current situation in the Federal Republic of Germany
Der Mobbing-Report. Repräsentativstudie für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland [in German]
This report presents the results of a study on bullying at the workplace from a survey of a population-based sample of 4396 persons, of whom 535 claimed to have been subjected to bullying. It discusses the frequency of bullying as a function of age and sex, occupation or sector of employment, company size and employee status. During the study period, 2.7% of the working population was affected by this problem and the survey highlighted the fact that one worker in nine (11.3%) was subjected to bullying at least once in the course of his or her working life. Women are more affected than men (3.5% versus 2.0%). Among workers under the age of 25, the frequency rate is 3.7%, and it reaches 4.4% for young workers without qualifications and apprentices.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 159p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.
Ferreras de la Fuente A., Pérez Urdániz A., Molina Ramos R., Solana Sorribas J.A., Rubio García I.
Guide to the evaluation of work incapacity as a consequence of psychiatric diseases
Manuel de valoración de la incapacidad laboral en las enfermedades psiquiátricas [in Spanish]
Aimed at occupational physicians, this manual offers guidance to the evaluation of work incapacity as a consequence of psychiatric diseases. Contents: incapacity due to psychic disorders; definition and classification of mental diseases; anamnesis and psychiatric evaluation of the patient; organic psychiatric disorders and mentally-retarded patients; psychiatric disorders related to the consumption of alcohol or drugs; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety, somatotrophic and dissociative disorders; personality disorders; other psychiatric disorders; new occupational pathologies (burnout, bullying). Appendices include: scales for evaluating the degree of incapacitation according Royal Decree 1971/1999; DSM-IV scales for evaluating total activity and social and professional activity; DSM-IV classification with ICD-10 and ICD-9-CM codes; ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders.
Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo, Madrid, Spain, 2001. 251p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Gilioli R., Adinolfi M., Bagaglio A., Boccaletti D., Cassitto M.G., Della Pietra B., Fanelli C., Fattorini E., Gilioli D., Grieco A., Guizzaro A., Labella A., Mattei O., Menegozzo M., Menegozzo S., Molinini R., Musto D., Paoletti A., Papalia F., Quagliuolo R., Vinci F.
A new risk in occupational medicine: Mobbing
Un nuovo rischio all'attenzione della medicina del lavoro: le molestie morali (mobbing) [in Italian]
In this consensus document from several Italian universities criteria are proposed for establishing the risks of bullying and mobbing in the workplace. Some definitions of the phenomenon are proposed, while potential targets and consequences for health and social situations are identified. Diagnostic criteria are listed with indications for the role of industrial physicians and human resource departments.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.61-69. 12 ref.
Mobbing in the workplace: New aspects of an old phenomenon
Molestie morali nei luoghi di lavoro: nuovi aspetti di un vecchio fenomeno [in Italian]
Psychological violence or mobbing should not be confused with normal competition and conflicts encountered in the workplace. It can be due to traditional motives, such as part of an attempt to get rid of an undesired individual or to a definite corporate strategy aimed at reducing the workforce. Mobbing has been recognized as a significant source of individual discomfort and subsequent illness. Lacking specific diagnostic criteria, post-traumatic stress disorder and adjustment disorder have been adopted from the international classification of mental diseases (DSM). Mobbing control is recognized not only as a target of prevention but also as a moral obligation.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.12-24. 18 ref.
Violence at work: Wide differences across Europe
Violence au travail: une Europe disparate [in French]
According to the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, more than 15 million workers in the European Union claim to be subjected to violence at work, either in the form of sexual harassment, physical violence, threats or psychological violence. This article presents the results of a survey on violence at work carried out among the relevant national institutions of all EU member States. The phenomenon appears to be in the increase everywhere. However, the level of awareness varies greatly from one country to another and it is difficult to make comparisons given the different statistical classification systems. The violence prevention programmes of the London underground and the French post office are presented. The article also includes an example of legislation, that of Sweden, which has included special provisions for violence directed at employees.
Travail et sécurité, June 2001, No.608, p.16-22. Illus.
Merllié D., Paoli P.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Ten years of working conditions in the European Union
Dix ans de conditions de travail dans l'Union européenne [in French]
Diez años de condiciones de trabajo en la Unión Europea [in Spanish]
In the year 2000, the working population of the European Union (EU) consisted of 159 million persons, of whom 83% were salaried and 17% self-employed. That year, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out its third European survey (the two earlier surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1995; for the latter survey, see CIS 98-133). Exposure to physical hazards at the workplace, dissatisfaction with work and employment practices regarding job flexibility continue to be main causes of health problems among workers in the EU. Altogether, 21,500 workers were questioned regarding their conditions of work. The results of the survey show no significant improvements with respect to risk factors and general working conditions during the last ten years. The survey provides a general overview of the conditions of work in the EU, highlighting the trends, major issues and changes at the workplace.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus.
http://www.eurofound.ie/publications/files/EF00128EN.pdf [in English]
http://www.eurofound.ie/publications/files/EF00128FR.pdf [in French]
Chiaroni J., Chiaroni P.
Epidemiological data of workplace harassment from an investigation by occupational physicians in the PACA administrative region - A victim profile?
Données épidémiologiques des situations de mobbing au travail d'après une enquête effectuée auprès des médecins du travail de la région PACA - Un profil type du salarié harcelé? [in French]
Data for this study on mobbing were collected in the form of responses to a standardized questionnaire submitted by 292 occupational physicians responsible for over 600,000 workers in the PACA (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur) region of France. There were 517 reported cases of mobbing, corresponding to an overall rate of 0.84 per 1000 employees, 0.80 per 1000 in the private sector and 1.45 per 1000 in the public sector. All the sectors are concerned, but trade, services and health care and social work were particularly affected. The victims were more likely to be women, aged mostly between 45 and 54. The consequences of mobbing on health are systematic, and are characterized in particular by psychiatric complications. The consequences for victims' aptitudes and employability are disastrous.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.96-107. Illus. 17 ref.
Jurisprudence in occupational environment, health and safety 2000/2001
Jurisprudence de l'environnement, de la santé et sécurité au travail 2000/2001 [in French]
This publication addresses laws, regulations and court rulings in the area of occupational environment, safety and health during the year 2000/2001. Topics covered include: civil liability of employers; criminal liability of employers; recognition of occupational diseases; prevention of occupational hazards; protection and respect of employees; environment and working environment. An important part is devoted to the topic of bullying, subject of a proposed law foreseen for adoption during the autumn of 2001. For previous edition (1999/2000), see CIS 01-1405.
Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France, Sep. 2001. 172p. Price: FRF 275.00.
Bullying: Psychosomatic, psychodynamic and therapeutic approaches
Le harcèlement moral: approche psychosomatique, psychodynamique, thérapeutique [in French]
In 1997 in France, 30% of employed persons declared having experienced a tense relationship with supervisors. The most affected sectors are large retail chains, the hotel industry and the health care establishments. Contents of this general review article on bullying: definitions of bullying; clinical profile of victims; trauma; therapeutic approaches.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.169-177. 8 ref.
Pérez Bilbao J., Nogareda Cuixart C, Martín Daza. F., Sancho Figueroa T.
Bullying, physical violence and sexual harassment
Mobbing, violencia física y acoso sexual [in Spanish]
This booklet defines the various types of bullying and violence that can be encountered at the workplace (bullying, physical violence, sexual harassment) as well as their consequences for the worker and for the work performed. It proposes intervention measures (social support and psychological support for victims, disciplinary measures) and preventive measures. Legal aspects are also addressed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 143p. Illus. 87 ref.
Voss M., Floderus B., Diderichsen F.
Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: A study based on Sweden Post
In a study on sickness absenteeism of Swedish post office workers, 1,557 female and 1,913 male employees were surveyed by postal questionnaire and incidence of sickness was established from company records. Complaints about lifting heavy loads and monotonous movements were associated with an increased risk of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 was found for both women and men. For monotonous movements, the risk estimates were OR 1.42 and OR 1.45 for women and men, respectively. Working instead of taking sick leave when ill was more prevalent in the group with a high incidence of sickness (OR 1.74 for women, OR 1.60 for men). Overtime work of more than 50 hours a year was linked with low incidence of sickness for women and men. Among women, 16% reported bullying at the workplace, which was linked with a doubled risk of high incidence of sickness (OR 1.91). For men, the strongest association was found for those reporting anxiety about reorganization of the workplace (OR 1.93).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.58, No.3, p.178-184. 37 ref.
Occupational physicians and urban violence
Le médecin du travail et les violences urbaines [in French]
Although psychological violence and bullying are often played down by employers and concealed by victims, they do cause psychological traumas. Occupational physicians can make useful contributions in the analysis and treatment of the effects of violence. Their involvement occurs at two levels: upstream, it consists of identifying psychologically vulnerable persons and proposing training programmes in areas of stress and conflict management and adapting behaviour for self-protection; downstream, it consists of debriefing and psychologically assisting victims so as to prevent after-effects.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.1, p.39-42.
Kivimäki M., Elovainio M., Vahtera J.
Workplace bullying and sickness absence in hospital staff
Consequences of workplace bullying were examined in a cohort of 674 male and 4,981 female hospital employees aged 19-63 years by focusing on sickness absence. Data on sickness absence were gathered from employers' registers. Bullying and other predictors of health were measured by a questionnaire survey. 302 (5%) of the employees reported being victims of bullying. They did not differ from the other employees in terms of sex, age, occupation, type of job contract, hours of work, income, smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity. Victims of bullying had higher body mass and prevalence of chronic disease, and their rates of medically and self certified spells of sickness absence were 1.5 and 1.2 times higher than those of the rest of the staff. The rate ratios remained significant after adjustment for demographic data, occupational background, behaviour involving risks to health and baseline health status.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.57, No.10, p.656-660. 36 ref.
Fromaigeat D., Wennubst G.
Psychological suffering at work - Guide through the labyrinth of bullying
Souffrance psychologique au travail - Guide dans les méandres du harcèlement psychologique [in French]
Bullying at the place of work consists of acts carried out by a person or group of persons, psychologically targetting a specific individual. It is characterized by the repeated nature, frequency and regularity of the hostile acts, while the "mobbing" process is defined by the magnitude of the health effects and prejudice suffered. The purpose of this publication is to describe the consequences of such acts, and to help employers understand their seriousness and thus avoid their occurrence.
Office cantonal de l'inspection et des relations du travail (OCIRT), Case postale 3974, 1211 Genève 3, Switzerland, 2000. 115p. 30 ref.
Ruano Hernández A.
Violence and aggressiveness at work
Violencia y agresividad en el trabajo [in Spanish]
This article deals with the issue of violence and aggressiveness at the place of work. It describes the various types of physically and mentally violent behaviour that can be found in occupational settings, as well as the manners and behavioural attitudes of bullying (cutting off communication, casting slurs on a person's reputation, depreciating a person's qualifications). Night workers and isolated workers are more vulnerable to these forms of aggression. The consequences of violence and bullying are serious, and can even lead to suicide; they affect workers not only at the personal level, but also in terms of their work (loss of motivation, increased risks of accident).
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2000, Vol.20, No.78, p.27-39. Illus. 31 ref.
Chappell D., Di Martino V.
Violence at work
La violence au travail [in French]
This publication provides the basis for understanding the nature of violence in the workplace, provides information on current legislation and presents preventive strategies and measures. The importance of preventive, systematic and targeted response to violence at work is stressed. This second edition updates information presented in an earlier edition (see CIS 98-1047).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2000. xiii, 171p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.
This article expresses the results of a questionnaire survey in the United Kingdom on bullying by type of organization, perceived extent of the bullying, manner in which the problem is addressed and personal experiences of bullying. Two thirds of the respondents worked for companies employing more than 1,000 employees; manufacturing industries accounted for 30% and health care for 27%. The survey highlights the fact that a majority of respondents (two thirds) believe that their employers do not take the bullying problem seriously, and 84% state that there is no policy on this issue within their organization. Most of the responders (90%) believe that bullying exists within their organization. The perpetrator of the bullying is often a superior. The reaction to bullying varies (confronting the issue, complaining to management, tendering one's resignation).
Occupational Health, Jan. 2000, Vol.52, No.1, p.16-17; 19. Illus.
Bosco M.G., Salerno S., Valcella F.
Work and mental health: An integrated program maintained by occupational health services and mental health centres
Salute mentale e lavoro: azioni tecniche integrate tra i servizi di prevenzione igiene e sicurezza nei luoghi di lavoro e centri di salute mentale [in Italian]
In the face of increasing risks of occupational stress, mobbing and burnout, mental health centres should assume the role prescribed by Italian law, and act within occupational health programmes. Two health services in the Latium region of Italy were analysed using the method of organizational congruence to determine actions concerning mental health at work. The current lack of integration of mental health services is pointed out and measures for improving organization, intervention and collaboration in this field are proposed.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.90, No.6, p.752-761. 30 ref.
The mental workload of work is increasing
La pénibilité mentale du travail augmente [in French]
According to a survey conducted in 1998 by the French Ministry of Employment, occupational mental workload has increased when compared to the results of a similar survey conducted in 1991. One employee in four claims not to have enough time to do their work. Topics covered: perceived risk of penalty in the case of errors; work rhythms; noise exposure; indicators of occupational mental workload; frequency of task interruptions in favour of more urgent tasks; bullying at work; conflicts with superiors or co-workers.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1999, No.589, p.8-10. Illus. 3 ref.
Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: Staff questionnaire survey
In a questionnaire survey of 1,100 employees in a National Health Service (NHS) community trust in the south east of England, 421 workers reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year. 460 had witnessed the bullying of others. When bullying occurred it was most likely to be by a manager. Two thirds of the victims of bullying had tried to take action when the bullying occurred, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. Staff who had been bullied had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction and higher levels of job-induced stress, depression, anxiety and intention to leave the job. Support at work seemed to protect people from some of the damaging effects of bullying. Topics: anxiety; bullying; depressive neurosis; health care personnel; human behaviour; job dissatisfaction; neuropsychic stress; questionnaire survey; social aspects; transfer to other work.
British Medical Journal, Jan. 1999, Vol.318, No.7178, p.228-232. 28 ref.
Martín Daza F., Pérez Bilbao J., López García-Silva J.A.
Psychological harassment at work: Mobbing
El hostigamiento psicológico en el trabajo: mobbing [in Spanish]
Topics: bullying; data sheet; human behaviour; human relations; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 6p. 10 ref.
Workplace harassment: What is it, and what should the law do about it?
Workplace harassment occurs when a person subjects another in the workplace to degrading behaviour, ranging from verbal abuse or threats to actual physical violence. It is an inappropriate expression of power that adversely affects workers and their productivity, and that requires both legal and non-legal redress. Legal remedies available to victims of such harassment are surveyed, and measures, both legal and non-legal, which might be applied in the workplace to prevent such unacceptable behaviour are explored. Topics: Australia; bullying; discriminatory practices; human behaviour; labour-management relations; legislation; neuropsychic stress; sexual harassment; violence; workmen's compensation.
JIR - The Journal of Industrial Relations, June 1998, Vol.40, No.2, p.232-246. Bibl.ref.
Taking on the bullies
Bullying is not a new problem. What is new is a growing determination among workers and their representatives not to tolerate the type of abuses that occurred in the past. Topics: bullying; human behaviour; human relations; Ireland; legislation; psychological effects; psychology of work organization; responsibilities of employers; role of management; role of supervisory staff; role of workers organizations.
Health and Safety, Nov.-Dec. 1998, p.13-16. Illus.
The role of workplace conflict in occupational health and safety
It is argued that there are several key issues that impact on or are impacted by conflict, namely stress, bullying and workplace violence. As such, conflict is a workplace hazard that can dramatically affect employee safety and health. It is argued that a piecemeal approach to workplace conflict fails to account for its systemic nature, leaving conflict unresolved. Topics: bullying; discriminatory practices; human behaviour; human relations; neuropsychic stress; sickness absenteeism; violence.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.6, p.587-592. 24 ref.
Workplace bullying: Do something!
Results of two large UK surveys on bullying at work are summarized and data pertinent to occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals are presented. Beyond the pervasiveness of the problem, of particular note are the stress levels apparently caused by bullying at work, and the psychological consequences. The actions of individuals as a result of being bullied are examined, revealing difficulties in finding support and resolving the issue. A case is made that respondents report a culture of acceptance of bullying within their workplaces. It is suggested that a lack of overt action by those in supportive roles such as trade union representatives, personnel managers and OSH professionals can contribute to sustaining this culture. Topics: bullying; discriminatory practices; human behaviour; human relations; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.6, p.581-585. 9 ref.
The distinction between workplace bullying and workplace violence and the ramifications for OHS
It is argued that workplace violence and workplace bullying are discrete phenomena and have different implications for OSH management and prevention. Preventive strategies are suggested for dealing with both problems. It is also suggested that such strategies will be more effective when systemic forms of workplace bullying and violence are addressed. Topics: behaviour prediction; bullying; discriminatory practices; human behaviour; human relations; plant safety and health organization; violence.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.6, p.575-580. 22 ref.
O'Moore M., Seigne E., McGuire L., Smith M.
Victims of bullying at work in Ireland
Results from a study involving self-referred victims of workplace bullying in Ireland are presented. The nature and effects of bullying are examined, as are views of the causes of victimization. Findings support international research that bullying is damaging to the physical and mental health and to the careers of victims. The results highlight the need for early intervention and the development of anti-bullying programs in the workplace. Topics: bullying; discriminatory practices; human relations; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; sickness absenteeism; stress factors.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.6, p.569-574. 37 ref.
Einarsen S., Matthiesen S., Skogstad A.
Bullying, burnout and well-being among assistant nurses
Bullying at work is studied in a representative sample of 745 Norwegian assistant nurses. While 4.8% of the assistant nurses currently experienced problems with bullying, 8.4% had former experiences as victims of bullying. Moreover, one out of five had witnessed others being bullied. The most common kinds of bullying behaviour experienced by the victims were serious slander, rumours and silent hostility. Fellow assistant nurses and nurses were seen as the offenders in most cases. None of the victims felt bullied by patients or relatives. Bullied assistant nurses had significantly higher levels of burnout, lowered job-satisfaction and lowered psychological well-being compared with their non-bullied colleagues. Topics: bullying; human relations; job dissatisfaction; neuropsychic stress; nursing personnel; overstrain; psychological effects; questionnaire survey; social aspects; stress factors.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.6, p.563-568. 35 ref.
Sheehan M., McCarthy P., Kearns D.
Managerial styles during organisational restructuring: Issues for health and safety practitioners
Topics: Australia; bullying; industrial organization; industrial relations; questionnaire survey; role of management; state of health.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1998, Vol.14, No.1, p.31-37. 28 ref.
Chappell D., Di Martino V.
Violence at work
Topics: bullying; character; drug dependence; economic aspects; high-risk groups; human behaviour; human relations; ILO; information of personnel; international agreements; legislation; personality disorders; psychological effects; report; risk factors; sexual harassment; statistics; violence; work in isolation.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1998. xi, 165p. Illus. 226 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.
Nursing the wounds of bullying
Policy guidelines on bullying issued by the Irish Nurses Organisation cover the consequences of bullying, the responsibilities of employers and unions and advice for nurses who feel they are being bullied. An education programme for management is recommended. Topics: bullying; health services; human behaviour; human relations; Ireland; legal aspects; neuropsychic stress; nursing personnel.
Health and Safety, Oct. 1997, p.41-43. 1 ref.
In line of fire
Causes and effects of bullying at work. Topics: biological effects; bullying; human behaviour; human relations; mental stress; psychological effects; workmen's compensation.
Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997, Vol.27, No.6, p.30-34. 4 ref.
Camps del Saz P., Martín Daza F., Pérez Bilbao J., López García Silva J.A.
Psychological harassment at the workplace: Mobbing
Hostigamiento psicológico en el trabajo: el mobbing [in Spanish]
Topics: behaviour study; bullying; human behaviour; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; social aspects; Spain.
Salud y trabajo, 1996, No.118, p.10-14. 14 ref.
Bully for you
It is estimated that up to 4% of workers in Ireland may suffer from a form of persistent bullying to a degree likely to cause fear, anxiety, stress or depression. Physical and non-physical forms of bullying are described and psychological effects are outlined. Employers' responsibilities include development of a policy and action plan, and providing appropriate training to alert staff to the problem.
Health and Safety, May 1996, p.9-10.
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