Violence and terrorism - 395 entries found
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Perriard J., Weissbrodt R.
Violence at work
La violence au travail [in French]
Violence is an emerging topic of concern in the area of occupational safety and health. This booklet proposes several leads for exploring the issue of violence, analysing the situation and implementing appropriate actions involving the cooperation of management and employees. Contents: introduction; definitions of external violence; hazardous situations; sociological framework for analysing acts of violence; consequences of violence; prevention of violence at the workplace.
Département de l'économie, de l'emploi et des affaires extérieures, Office cantonal de l'inspection des relations du travail, 23, rue Ferdinand-Hodler, Case postale 3974, 1211 Genève 3, Switzerland, 2002. 45p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: CHF 16.00.
Averhoff F.M., Moyer L.A., Woodruff B.A., Deladisma A.M., Nunnery J., Alter M.J., Margolis H.S.
Occupational exposures and risk of hepatitis B virus infection among public safety workers
A questionnaire and seroprevalence survey was conducted to determine the frequency and type of occupational exposures (OEs) and the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection experienced by public safety workers (PSWs). Of the 2910 PSWs who completed the survey, 6.8% reported at least one OE in the previous 6 months, including needlestick (1.0%), being cut with a contaminated object (2.8%), mucous membrane exposure to blood (0.9%), and being bitten by a human (3.5%). The rate of OE varied by occupation with 2.7% of firefighters, 3.2% of sheriff officers, 6.6% of corrections officers, and 7.4% of police officers reporting ≥1 OE. The HBV infection prevalence was 8.6%, and after adjustment for age and race, it was comparable to the overall US prevalence and did not vary by occupation. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine to PSWs early in their careers will prevent HBV infection associated with occupational and non-OEs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.591-596. 23 ref.
Rischitelli G., McCauley L., Lambert W.E., Lasarev M., Mahoney E.
Hepatitis C in urban and rural public safety workers
A sample of 719 Oregon public safety personnel (police officers, firefighters and corrections officers) was tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody after completing a risk questionnaire. Seven of nine positive enzyme immunoassay tests (78%) were confirmed with recombinant immunoblot assay, yielding confirmed prevalence estimates of 1.2% among the 406 firefighters and emergency medical technicians, and 0.7% in 274 corrections personnel. No cases were observed in the 29 participating police officers. Self-reports of the number of workplace exposures to blood were not associated with HCV positivity, and the number of years of public safety employment seemed to be slightly less for HCV-positive subjects. Two of the seven (28.6%) HCV-positive individuals reported having at least one non-occupational risk factor (odds ratio, 4.3), suggesting the greater relative importance of non-occupational exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.568-573. 21 ref.
Farrow S., Hayakawa H.
Investing in safety - An analytical precautionary principle
Governments and businesses must respond to increasing safety requirements and balance the associated costs with productivity and competing pressures. A real options approach has been introduced for decision making in the private sector; this approach is adapted for regulatory decisions that can involve irreversible and uncertain safety impacts, social costs that differ from direct costs, and differences in perception among the stakeholders. The outcome is an economic decision gage that determines if it is optimal to invest in safety even if the estimated costs significantly exceed the estimated benefits. Potential applications include civil aviation, ground transportation, pipelines, nuclear facilities, natural disaster planning and terrorism.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.165-174. 29 ref.
27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health - Grenoble, 4-7 June 2002
27e Congrès national de médecine et santé au travail - Grenoble, 4-7 juin 2002 [in French]
Proceedings of the 27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health held in Grenoble, France, 4-7 June 2002. Main topics covered: microbiological and toxicological risks of water-based paint; household waste treatment and health hazards; PAH; violence in the workplace; new strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders; prevention by routine medical examination; pluridisciplinarity; occupational medicine and quality; influence of the Internet on practices in occupational medicine; ethics and occupational health; perception of hazards and risk-taking; ionizing radiation; sleep and work (diagnosis of hyper-somnolence); nutrition; occupational asthma and options for prevention; occupationally-related cardiovascular risk; effects of company restructuring on health; working after the age of 50; socio-occupational health inequalities.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2002, Vol.63, No.3-4, p.133-354 (whole issue). Bibl.ref.
Menuet T., Claude P.
Preventing armed robberies
Prévenir les vols à main armée [in French]
This article presents the approach adopted by a bank to prevent armed robberies. The first step consisted of auditing and benchmarking the existing prevention system in comparison with those adopted by other banks. Next, the conclusions of this first step were presented to senior management, along with 50-odd proposals, including the designation of a safety coordinator, systematic automation of operations, subcontracting the handling of cash, and in particular the feeding of ATMs, ensuring a constant level of visible human activity in branch offices, training of personnel and developing their awareness. Prospects for the future safety of bank branch offices and technological developments in this field are also discussed.
Revue Technique Apave, Apr.-June 2002, No.298, p.24-25. Illus.
Act No.738 on Labour Protection [Finland]
Työturvallisuuslaki [in Finnish]
Arbetarskyddslag [in Swedish]
Framework law on occupational safety and health, incorporating into Finnish law the provisions of Directives 89/391/EEC (CIS 89-1401) and 93/104/EC (CIS 94-1807). Effective: 1 Jan. 2003. Contents: objectives (improvement of the working environment, prevention of occupational accidents and diseases); employers' obligations; risk evaluation in the workplace; work involving special hazards; planification of the working environment; guidance for workers; personal protective equipment; cooperation between employers and workers; workers' obligations and right to refuse work; work clothes and equipment; special provisions (ergonomics, risk of violence and harassment, solitary work, night work, ventilation, lighting, dangerous substances, machine safety, risk of injury, rescue work); specific situations (information, obligations of employers and self-employed at shared workplaces); obligations of persons from the outside (manufacturers, persons installing equipment and machinery, persons involved in the transport of dangerous goods). Act No.299 of 1958 on labour protection (see CIS 88-1053), with all its modifications, is repealed
Finlands författningssamling - Suomen säädöskokoelma, 30 Aug. 2002, No.109, p.3695-3711.
Gershon R.R.M., Lin S., Li X.
Work stress in aging police officers
To study the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, work stress, coping strategies and stress-related health outcomes were assessed and characterized in a sample of 105 police officers aged 50 years and older. The most important risk factors associated with perceived work stress were maladaptive coping behaviours such as excessive drinking or problem gambling (odds ratio (OR), 4.95) exposure to critical incidents such as shootings (OR 3.84), anxiety (OR 6.84), depression (OR 9.27), somatization (OR 5.74), posttraumatic stress symptoms (OR 2.89), symptoms of "burnout" (OR 5.93), chronic back pain (OR 3.55), alcohol abuse (OR 3.24) and inappropriately aggressive behaviour (OR 4.00). These data suggest that older workers in high-stress jobs may be at increased risk for work stress-related health problems, especially if they rely on risky health behaviours to cope with stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.160-167. 54 ref.
Nurminen M., Karjalainen A.
Epidemiologic estimate of the proportion of fatalities related to occupational factors in Finland
This study attempts to estimate the proportion of annual deaths related to occupational factors in Finland. Statistics on causes of death, numbers of subjects exposed, and risk ratios obtained from the epidemiological literature were used. Sex-, age- and disease-specific numbers of deaths were provided by Statistics Finland for 1996. The fraction of work-related mortality was estimated to be 7% (10% for men and 2% for women). For the main cause-of-death categories, the attributable fractions were 12% for circulatory system diseases, 8% for malignant neoplasms, 4% for respiratory system diseases, 4% for mental disorders, 3% for nervous system diseases, and 3% for accidents and violence.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2001, Vol.27, No.3, p.161-213. Illus. 340 ref.
Dunnagan T., Peterson M., Haynes G.
Mental health issues in the workplace: A case for a new managerial approach
Anger, stress, and depression in the workplace are growing concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a traditional worksite health promotion program had an impact on mental health factors. Results suggest that these programmes play only a limited role in improving work-related mental health. Rather, management should play a greater role in addressing workplace stress, anger and depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1073-1080. 27 ref.
Gilioli R., Adinolfi M., Bagaglio A., Boccaletti D., Cassitto M.G., Della Pietra B., Fanelli C., Fattorini E., Gilioli D., Grieco A., Guizzaro A., Labella A., Mattei O., Menegozzo M., Menegozzo S., Molinini R., Musto D., Paoletti A., Papalia F., Quagliuolo R., Vinci F.
A new risk in occupational medicine: Mobbing
Un nuovo rischio all'attenzione della medicina del lavoro: le molestie morali (mobbing) [in Italian]
In this consensus document from several Italian universities criteria are proposed for establishing the risks of bullying and mobbing in the workplace. Some definitions of the phenomenon are proposed, while potential targets and consequences for health and social situations are identified. Diagnostic criteria are listed with indications for the role of industrial physicians and human resource departments.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.61-69. 12 ref.
Mobbing in the workplace: New aspects of an old phenomenon
Molestie morali nei luoghi di lavoro: nuovi aspetti di un vecchio fenomeno [in Italian]
Psychological violence or mobbing should not be confused with normal competition and conflicts encountered in the workplace. It can be due to traditional motives, such as part of an attempt to get rid of an undesired individual or to a definite corporate strategy aimed at reducing the workforce. Mobbing has been recognized as a significant source of individual discomfort and subsequent illness. Lacking specific diagnostic criteria, post-traumatic stress disorder and adjustment disorder have been adopted from the international classification of mental diseases (DSM). Mobbing control is recognized not only as a target of prevention but also as a moral obligation.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.12-24. 18 ref.
Marsh S.M., Layne L.A.
Fatal injuries to civilian workers in the United States, 1980-1995 (National profile)
This document contains data from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for the years 1980 to 1995, during which more than 93,000 workers were fatally injured while working in the United States. On average, there were 16 occupational fatalities per day. The leading causes were motor vehicle accidents, homicides, machines, falls of persons, electrocutions and falling objects. Tables provide details on the frequency of fatal occupational accidents by year, age group, sex, race, cause, industry and occupation.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, June 2001. xiv, 56p. 55 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/NTOF2000/pdfs/ntof2fbc.pdf [in English]
Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Balty I., Le Bâcle C.
Anthrax: A "forgotten" disease that is now a bioterrorist risk
Le charbon: une maladie professionnelle "oubliée" devenue menace bioterroriste [in French]
Anthrax is an animal disease transmissible to humans. It has been listed in the French schedule of occupational diseases since 1938. It is not well understood and is often overlooked, because just a few general practitioners or occupational physicians have ever been confronted with cases. Since September 2001, this disease has emerged at the forefront of the news in a context of international terrorist risk. The French National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Research (INRS) has received numerous requests for information, both on the disease itself and on preventive measures to be adopted in the mailrooms of enterprises. Since it involves a terrorist threat, the recommendations presented in this article are in line with those adopted by public agencies and are aimed at minimizing the consequences both for exposed persons and for the enterprise as a whole.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.375-387. 25 ref.
Violence at work: Wide differences across Europe
Violence au travail: une Europe disparate [in French]
According to the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, more than 15 million workers in the European Union claim to be subjected to violence at work, either in the form of sexual harassment, physical violence, threats or psychological violence. This article presents the results of a survey on violence at work carried out among the relevant national institutions of all EU member States. The phenomenon appears to be in the increase everywhere. However, the level of awareness varies greatly from one country to another and it is difficult to make comparisons given the different statistical classification systems. The violence prevention programmes of the London underground and the French post office are presented. The article also includes an example of legislation, that of Sweden, which has included special provisions for violence directed at employees.
Travail et sécurité, June 2001, No.608, p.16-22. Illus.
Merllié D., Paoli P.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Ten years of working conditions in the European Union
Dix ans de conditions de travail dans l'Union européenne [in French]
Diez años de condiciones de trabajo en la Unión Europea [in Spanish]
In the year 2000, the working population of the European Union (EU) consisted of 159 million persons, of whom 83% were salaried and 17% self-employed. That year, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out its third European survey (the two earlier surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1995; for the latter survey, see CIS 98-133). Exposure to physical hazards at the workplace, dissatisfaction with work and employment practices regarding job flexibility continue to be main causes of health problems among workers in the EU. Altogether, 21,500 workers were questioned regarding their conditions of work. The results of the survey show no significant improvements with respect to risk factors and general working conditions during the last ten years. The survey provides a general overview of the conditions of work in the EU, highlighting the trends, major issues and changes at the workplace.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus.
http://www.eurofound.ie/publications/files/EF00128EN.pdf [in English]
http://www.eurofound.ie/publications/files/EF00128FR.pdf [in French]
Faulkner K.A., Landsittel D.P., Hendricks S.A.
Robbery characteristics and employee injuries in convenience stores
Convenience store employees are at risk of injuries related to robberies. A prospective cohort study of 460 convenience store robberies was conducted from 1 February 1995 to 30 September 1996 to highlight possible associations between injury, robbery circumstances and work environments. Data sources included police reports, employee interviews, store evaluations and relevant census data. Injury risk was found to be strongly associated with the following factors: employee resistance, robberies without firearms or money taken, daytime and merchandise robberies, stores with limited escape routes and no cash limit policy or drop safe, older clerks, surrounding areas with lower valued buildings, less expensive rent, more vacant structures, and younger residents. Numerous inter-correlations between these characteristics were identified. Employee training, store procedures and store layout designs are important factors to consider for reducing robbery-related injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.703-709. 19 ref.
Scherrer Y., Boillat M.A.
Are guards in the penitentiary system of the Canton of Vaud at risk of occupational exposure to blood-transmissible diseases?
Les surveillants travaillant dans le système pénitentiaire vaudois sont-ils soumis à un risque d'exposition professionnelle à une maladie transmissible par le sang? [in French]
Prison staff is at risk of blood-transmissible diseases given the nature of the of inmate population they are confronted with, in particular in the course of searches, acts of violence and accidents. The objective of this study conducted in a Swiss canton was to characterize the real and perceived risk of occupational blood-transmissible diseases in this occupation. Hepatitis B (HB) was used as an indicator of blood transmissible diseases, and HB serology of all employees (n = 248) was determined. Furthermore, a questionnaire was addressed to all employees. 19% of the warders had been wounded during searches in cells and 8.2% when searching inmates. One third of the guards had been at least once in contact with the blood of a prisoner. However, no increases in the number of seroconversions were observed. Finally, risk perception remains intense, concerning 73% of the guards and 20% of the remaining staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.83-91. Illus. 26 ref.
Violence at the workplace - Prevention guide
This guide is aimed at all persons concerned with workplace violence and its prevention, and particularly at individuals involved in the development and implementation of workplace violence prevention programmes. It replaces an earlier edition analysed under CIS 01-1025. Contents include: introduction and definition of workplace violence; developing a workplace violence prevention programme; methods for preventing workplace violence; responding to workplace violence; Canadian and U.S. legislation. Appendices include sample risk assessment questionnaires, inspection forms and reporting forms. Document also available in French at CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 2001. 163p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).
Pérez Bilbao J., Nogareda Cuixart C, Martín Daza. F., Sancho Figueroa T.
Bullying, physical violence and sexual harassment
Mobbing, violencia física y acoso sexual [in Spanish]
This booklet defines the various types of bullying and violence that can be encountered at the workplace (bullying, physical violence, sexual harassment) as well as their consequences for the worker and for the work performed. It proposes intervention measures (social support and psychological support for victims, disciplinary measures) and preventive measures. Legal aspects are also addressed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 143p. Illus. 87 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in care homes
This booklet is aimed at owners, managers and employees of care institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes, specialized institutions for handicapped persons or persons undergoing rehabilitation programmes and residential care homes owned by local authorities. Its purpose is to help them understand and meet their duties under current safety and health legislation. Contents: legal framework; managing health and safety; reporting of incidents; first aid; hazardous substances; control of infection; patient handling; aggression and violence to staff; work-related stress; legionellosis; utilities (gas and electricity); asbestos; general working environment; health and safety in the kitchen, the laundry and outdoors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 60p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Crises and decent work: A collection of essays
Collection of technical papers on how the ILO's Decent Work agenda (including improvements in occupational safety and health) can contribute to the prevention or resolution of major crises in the world, whether due to natural disasters or human conflict.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. ix, 97p. Bibl.ref.
Hagan P.E., Montgomery J.F., O'Reilly J.T.
Accident prevention manual for business and industry - Administration and programs
First part of a series of textbooks on safety management in enterprises (for parts 2, 3 and 4, see CIS 01-693, CIS 00-396 and CIS 01-728). It covers: introduction to safety and health (historical perspectives, safety professionals, safety culture, regulatory history in the US); loss control information and analysis (loss control programmes, safety and health auditing, environmental auditing, workmen's compensation, hazard identification, incident investigation and analysis, cost of incidents, record keeping, incidence rates, computers and information management); organization of safety, health and environment programmes (occupational health and industrial hygiene programmes, environmental management, indoor air quality, ergonomics programmes, employee assistance programmes, emergency preparedness, workplace violence, product safety management, service and warehouse facilities, transportation safety programmes, office safety, laboratory safety, contractor and non-employee safety, process safety management); programme implementation and maintenance (motivation, safety and health training, media, safety awareness programmes). In the appendix: sources of help; answers to review questions. Last edition (9th) analysed: CIS 89-1811.
National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca IL 60143-3201, USA, 12th ed., 2001. x, 836p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 99.95 (members), USD 119.95 (non-members).
Di Martino V., Gold D., Schaap A.
SOLVE - Stress, Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs, HIV/AIDS, Violence: Managing emerging health-related problems at work
Folder with five leaflets on common psychosocial issues that may affect safety and health in the workplace.
International Labour Office, InFocus Safework, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 5 brochures. Illus.
Keith M.M., Cann B., Brophy J.T., Hellyer D., Day M., Egan S., Mayville K., Watterson A.
Identifying and prioritizing gaming workers' health and safety concerns using mapping for data collection
Gaming occupation workers suffer from a variety accidents and illnesses, and have and multiple health and safety concerns. Using participatory action research principles, 51 gaming workers in the province of Ontario (Canada) and 20 gaming workers in the province of Manitoba were consulted during focus group sessions. Mapping was used to survey the participants' health concerns, perceived occupational hazards and the impact of working conditions on their personal lives. Participants were then asked to prioritize their concerns and make recommendations for improvements. Results show that gaming workers from both provinces identified similar health, hazard and psycho-social concerns. They prioritized the issues of stress, ergonomics, air quality (including second-hand smoke and temperature), biological hazards, physical hazards and noise.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.42-51. 46 ref.
The state of occupational safety and health in the European Union - Pilot Study
L'état de la santé et de la sécurité au travail dans l'Union européenne - étude pilote [in French]
El Estado de la Seguridad y la Salud en el Trabajo en la Unión Europea - Estudio piloto [in Spanish]
Major overview of the current OSH situation within the 15 countries of the European Union (in 2000), based on reports submitted by the Member States themselves. Contents: data sources and methodology; major findings (for exposure indicators, OSH outcomes, needs for additional preventive measures, overall picture for individual risk categories, chemical and biological risks, emerging risks); the working environment (subdivided by individual risk categories, whether physical, ergonomic, chemical or biological - in addition, special attention is paid to: high-speed work, workpace dictated by social demand, machine-dictated workpace, physical violence, sexual harrassment, monotonous work, personal protective equipment, information and training); OSH outcomes (with special attention paid to: fatal accidents at work, work-induced musculoskeletal disorders, stress, occupational diseases); changes in working life (with special attention paid to: emerging risks, telework, employment status). Extensive appendices with detailed data. A similar study was undertaken to cover the 4 EFTA countries (see CIS 03-1594). The Summary Report of this document exists in all 11 languages of the European Union before its 2004 enlargement, and they can all be downloaded from the Internet.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2000. 478p. (Summary report: 64p.) Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: EUR 30.00 (for the Pilot Study). Downloadable versions free of charge.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/reports/401/en/StateofOSH_Pilot_study.pdf (Pilot study) [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/reports/402/es/summary_report_es.pdf (Informe resumen) [in Spanish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/reports/402/en/summary_report.pdf (Summary report) [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/reports/402/fr/summary_report_fr.pdf (Synthèse) [in French]
Violence at work - Enterprises fight back
Agressions professionnelles - Les entreprises ripostent [in French]
Between 1983 and 1998, there were 129 fatal occupational accidents in France resulting from violence. Contents of this collection of articles on violence at the workplace: three-phase approach to prevention (hazard evaluation, work organization and layout of premises, psychological help for victims); case of work incapacity of a violence victim requiring a change of employment; management of post-traumatic shock; measures implemented by the Paris public transport company (social work among young persons in underprivileged neighbourhoods, surveillance cameras, psychological help to victims of violence); measures implemented by the French National Railways (station opening hours, increased levels of staff presence, surveillance cameras); measures implemented in the banking sector (layout of branch offices, training of staff); violence in Europe (16% of the working population is potentially exposed to various forms of violence).
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2000, No.592, p.26-38. Illus. 10 ref.
Neuropsychic reactions following exposure to traumatic incidents at the place of work
Réactions psychiques après événements traumatiques survenus en milieu de travail [in French]
Cases of work-related post-traumatic neurosis are increasing. They can occur after an accident or tragic incident in which the worker was either a direct victim or a close witness; they can also follow incidents of physical or verbal violence. Unfortunately, they are not always recognized by employers or by occupational accident legislation. Contents of this review article: summary of regulations; description of post-traumatic neurosis symptoms; short case descriptions; approaches implemented by a public transport authority and a bank; role of employers; role of health insurance institutions; role of occupational physicians.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.2, p.155-164. 4ref.
Occupational physicians and urban violence
Le médecin du travail et les violences urbaines [in French]
Although psychological violence and bullying are often played down by employers and concealed by victims, they do cause psychological traumas. Occupational physicians can make useful contributions in the analysis and treatment of the effects of violence. Their involvement occurs at two levels: upstream, it consists of identifying psychologically vulnerable persons and proposing training programmes in areas of stress and conflict management and adapting behaviour for self-protection; downstream, it consists of debriefing and psychologically assisting victims so as to prevent after-effects.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.1, p.39-42.
Riopelle D.D., Bourque L.B., Robbins M., Shoaf K.I., Kraus J.
Prevalence of assault and perception of risk of assault in urban public service employment settings
The prevalence and correlates of physical assaults, threats of assault, and workers' perceptions of safety in selected urban employment settings in the Los Angeles area (California, USA) are described. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 1,763 persons working at various jobs, who were asked to describe their work environments, their perceptions of personal safety at work, and physical assaults and threats they had experienced. Three percent of the respondents reported being assaulted within the previous year and 14% reported being threatened within the previous 30 days. Younger workers, more educated workers, and those who worked with clients or patients were more likely to report assaults. Approximately one third of those who reported threats or assaults described the perpetrator(s) as clients, patients, or persons in legal custody, and one third described the perpetrator(s) as co-workers or supervisors. Fifty-two percent of the workers reported being concerned about their safety at work.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.6, No.1, p.9-17. Illus. 12 ref.
Burkinshaw J., Foster J., Kelly D., Gagnon L., Collinge G., Clarke D., Lau Y.
Working alone safely - A guide for employers and employees
Employees who work alone can be grouped into five categories: employees who handle cash (store clerks, taxi drivers), employees who travel away from base office to meet their clients (including home care and social service employees and police officers), employees who do hazardous work (logging, oil, gas industries), employees who travel alone (truck drivers, businessmen) and employees who are at risk of a violent attack because their work site is isolated from public view (security guards, custodians). This handbook outlines employers' obligations and describes how to set up a safety programme. Best practices to avoid risk for each of these categories are reviewed. Appendices include check lists and legal requirements for employers and workers, as well as robbery prevention standards for clerks and violence prevention procedures in case of robbery.
Alberta Human Resources and Employment, 324 Legislature Building, Edmonton T5K 2B6, Alberta, Canada, Sep. 2000. 36p. 11 ref.
Dower J.M., Metzler R.W., Palya F.M., Peterson J.A., Pickett-Harner M.
NIOSH-DOD-OSHA sponsored chemical and biological respiratory protection workshop report
Report of a workshop on chemical and biological respiratory protection in connection with combating terrorism, held in Morgantown, WV, USA, 10-12 March 1999. The workshop provided a forum for over 140 representatives of 63 different emergency services, fire fighters, domestic preparedness organizations, equipment manufacturers, federal research organizations, and state and federal regulatory organizations. Main topics discussed: hazards associated with chemicals or chemical incidents; emergency services and their respiratory protection needs; respirator standards; chemical or biological response plans and protection needs for public health and the medical community. A list of chemical and biological agents of concern is included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Feb. 2000. iii, 76p.
Moracco K.E., Runyan C.W., Loomis D.P., Wolf S.H., Napp D., Butts J.D.
Killed on the clock: A population-based study of workplace homicide, 1977-1991
The epidemiology of workplace homicides in the US state of North Carolina is described, with emphasis on the circumstances. Workplace homicide victims were identified by age, sex, ethnicity and type of employment, and data were abstracted from the medical examiner system. Workplace homicide rates are highest for men, older and self-employed workers, minorities and people in specific occupations, especially taxi drivers. Robberies, mostly in retail settings, accounted for half of the cases, while 20% were known to involve disputes, the contexts of which differed by sex. Women were most likely to be killed by estranged partners. Preventive strategies need to address the specific contexts in which workplace homicide occurs, such as retail and taxi robberies, and law enforcement officers interacting with suspects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.629-636. Illus. 34 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Violence at work - A guide for employers
Persons who deal directly with the public may face aggressive or violent behaviour. They may be sworn at, threatened or even attacked. This booklet gives practical advice to employers, employees and safety representatives on dealing with violence at work. Contents include: definition of violence; legal aspects; the 4 steps of effective management of violence (finding out if there is a problem; deciding on what action to take; taking action; checking what has been done); helping to avoid long-term distress to employees.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2000. 13p. Illus. 6 ref.
Ruano Hernández A.
Violence and aggressiveness at work
Violencia y agresividad en el trabajo [in Spanish]
This article deals with the issue of violence and aggressiveness at the place of work. It describes the various types of physically and mentally violent behaviour that can be found in occupational settings, as well as the manners and behavioural attitudes of bullying (cutting off communication, casting slurs on a person's reputation, depreciating a person's qualifications). Night workers and isolated workers are more vulnerable to these forms of aggression. The consequences of violence and bullying are serious, and can even lead to suicide; they affect workers not only at the personal level, but also in terms of their work (loss of motivation, increased risks of accident).
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2000, Vol.20, No.78, p.27-39. Illus. 31 ref.
Chappell D., Di Martino V.
Violence at work
La violence au travail [in French]
This publication provides the basis for understanding the nature of violence in the workplace, provides information on current legislation and presents preventive strategies and measures. The importance of preventive, systematic and targeted response to violence at work is stressed. This second edition updates information presented in an earlier edition (see CIS 98-1047).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2000. xiii, 171p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.
Annotated bibliography on violence at work
This bibliography provides a wide range of references on the subject of violence at work, an area of common concern to workers, trade unions and employers. The source materials address the contributing causes to violence (organization of work, interpersonal dynamics and stress), and the variety of intervention measures which may prevent violence. Some of the references also address how violence affects workers in a variety of occupations, such as bank tellers, convenience store workers, health-care workers, migrant workers, restaurant workers, salespersons and social workers. The bibliography includes books, journal articles, monographs, reports, surveys and conference proceedings, mostly in English.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, rev. ed., 1999. 100p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/condtrav/pdf/hvs-99-2.pdf [in English]
Brundtland G.H., Alli B.O., Defabachew M.Y., Nkurlu J.I., Lehtinen S., Mununa F.T., Taskinen H., Frilander H., Muchiri F.K.
Women at work
This issue is primarily devoted to the theme of women at work. Contents: hazards encountered by women at the workplace; work-related health problems of women in Ethiopian manufacturing industries; workplace exposure of women to chemicals; review article on a Southern African regional conference on occupational safety and health (OSH); exposure of rural women to pesticides in Africa; legal provisions concerning the protection of pregnant women at work in Finland and in other European Union countries; violence at work towards women in Kenya.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 1999, Vol.9, No.2, p.27-55 (whole issue). Illus. 53 ref.
Peek-Asa C., Howard J.
Workplace-violence investigations by the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health, 1993-1996
The California Division of Occupational Safety and Health began conducting inspections for violent events in 1993, and information from these security inspections was collected from 1993 to 1997. The inspections were examined by initiating source, industry, type of event, and citations issued and compared with distributions of known victimizations. 237 inspections were conducted in 11 industries, with retail and health care establishments inspected most frequently. Employee complaints initiated 50.6% of events and accident reports initiated 40.1%. One third of inspections were initiated because of a fatal event, and 27.4% were initiated in response to a physical assault. Citations for security hazards were issued to 23.6% of businesses. Inspections initiated by employee complaints, in response to customer-related security issues, and involving nonfatal assaults were the most frequently cited reasons for inspection.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.647-653. 18 ref.
Creusot-Soret M., Alcouffe J., Montéléon P.Y.
How to address the issue of violence perceived by social workers? - "Talking about violence": A cross-sectional study in the Paris region
Comment aborder la violence ressentie par les travailleurs sociaux? "Parler de la violence" - Une enquête transversale en région parisienne [in French]
Social workers represent the occupation most exposed to violence during the course of their work. An epidemiological study conducted by means of a self-reporting questionnaire shows that exposure to violence is a frequent phenomenon and concerns 76.6% of workers involved in all types of tasks. Although the frequency of occurrences of violence is highest in the social work occupation group, it is also high in service activities. Verbal violence predominates (90% of reported cases). Solutions proposed by workers include improved communication at all levels so as to attenuate the impact of this exposure to violence.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.4, p.431-440.
Haartz J.C., Lehtinen S., Knave B.
Proceedings of the 7th Joint Science Symposium on Occupational Safety and Health
Proceedings of the 7th Joint Science Symposium on Occupational Safety and Health held at Hidden Valley, Pennsylvania, United States, from 26 to 29 October 1998. Main topics: work life in transition; special populations at risk; work environment management systems; prevention strategies; new occupational allergies and asthma; mixed exposures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1999, Suppl.1. p.1-164 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Crestois M., Lambert S.
Guidance aimed at building caretakers
Conseils aux gardiens et gardiennes d'immeuble [in French]
This guidance is aimed at building caretakers. Topics include: protective gloves; clothing for interior and exterior use; cleaning equipment; cleaning of sanitary facilities; handling of refuse containers; maintenance of gardens and exterior surfaces; cleaning of garbage chutes; cleaning underground and parking surfaces; problems of hypodermic needles; assault; splashes of cleaning products on eyes or skin; recommended vaccinations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.3, p.327-329.
Violence in the workplace - Prevention guide
This guide is aimed at all persons concerned with workplace violence and its prevention, and particularly at individuals involved in the development and implementation of workplace violence prevention programmes. Contents include: introduction and definition of workplace violence; developing a workplace violence prevention programme; methods for preventing workplace violence; responding to workplace violence; Canadian and U.S. legislation. Appendices include sample risk assessment questionnaires, inspection forms and reporting forms.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1999. 142p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).
European downstream oil industry safety performance - Statistical summary of reported incidents - 1998
This report includes safety statistics for the year 1998 concerning the refining and distribution activities notified by 27 companies, which account for 90% of European refining capacity. Overall, the reported hours worked by company employees and contractors were approximately 470 million. The average Lost Workday Injury Frequency (LWIF) was 4.5, similar to those of previous years which ranged from 4.0 to 4.7. Statistics are also provided for injury severity, injury frequency, road accidents and fatalities. Despite the intrinsic hazards of the materials and the operations carried out, the level of accidents is low when compared to other industries in Europe.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, July 1999. iv, 15p. Illus. 4 ref.
Hasselhorn H.M., Toomingas A., Lagerström M.
Occupational health for health care workers - A practical guide
Topics: chemical hazards; cytotoxic effects; dental services; disinfectants; disposal of harmful waste; health care personnel; heavy work; hospitals; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; inhalation anaesthetics; manual lifting; manuals; mental illness; musculoskeletal diseases; needle-stick injuries; night work; noise; occupational hygiene; radiological services; risk factors; shift work; skin diseases; violence.
Elsevier Science B.V., Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1999. xiii, 231p. Bibl.ref. Index.
Taskinen H., Chia S.E., Lindbohm M.L., Hong C.Y., Thein M.M.
Risks to the reproductive health of working women
Topics: agriculture; antifertility effects; lead; mercury; nickel; complications of pregnancy; developing countries; expectant mothers; harmful substances; ionizing radiation; legal aspects; manufacturing industries; noise; office work; pesticides; risk factors; service and sales workers; sexual harassment; shift work; stress factors; toxic substances; violence; women; work time schedules.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1999. 76p. Illus. 331 ref.
Work-related homicide in Australia, 1989 to 1992
This report analyses work-related homicides in Australia from 1989 to 1992. The 50 work-related homicides having taken pace during the period are broken down by sex, industry or occupation, weapon and apparent motive of the assailant. Most at risk were police officers, security guards and taxi drivers, with rates approximately 20 times higher than the average work-related homicide rate for all workers. Sales and service personnel, farmers, doctors and sex workers were also at high risk. Risk factors included working alone, especially at night, struggling with a would-be robber, inadequate security procedures and possible lack of protective vests.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, GPO Box 58, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia, June 1999. viii, 20p. 14 ref.
Identifying high-risk small business industries: The basis for preventing occupational injury, illness, and fatality
This report presents information on high-risk small industries identified from national data sources in the United States. These include the total number of cases and incidence rates of occupational injuries, illnesses and fatalities in small business industries. The report also lists the leading causes of fatal occupational injuries in small business industries, which include transportation accidents, assaults and violent acts, contact with objects and equipment, falls and exposure to harmful substances and environments. When mortality and morbidity measures are combined into a single index, the highest risks for small business industries are: logging; cut stone and stone products; trucking terminal facilities; roofing, siding and sheet metal work; camps and recreational vehicle parks.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1999. xii, 153p. Illus. 62 ref.
A kind of violence - Australian workers and workplaces
Compendium of cases illustrating working conditions, human attitudes and human behaviour in Australia in a variety of industries and occupations including manufacturing, chemicals, agriculture, construction. Topics include worker productivity, relationship with management and stress.
The Vulgar Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1999. viii, 148p. Illus.
de la Hougue G.
Fighting against arson
La lutte contre l'incendie volontaire [in French]
Insurance companies estimate that between 25 and 50% of fires are caused by arson. In France, statistics compiled by the Ministry of Interior show a 227% progression in the number of cases of arson between 1987 and 1996. Fires due to arson generally cause more damage than accidental fires, because they are often started in the absence of employees on the premises and with the intention to cause destruction. This article reviews some of the factors that motivate arsonists to act, based on whether the person is an employee or otherwise, and whether the act is pre-mediated or not. Typical vulnerable spots within a company are listed. Finally, it is recommended that the possibility of arson be systematically taken into account in risk analysis and prevention planning.
Face au risque, June-July 1999, No.354, p.27-31. Illus.
An analysis of occupational homicides involving workers 19 years old or younger
The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult workers in the United States have an increased risk of being the victim of an occupational homicide. Proportionate mortality ratios were used to identify the industries in which workers aged 19 and under were experiencing significantly higher proportion of fatalities due to violence. Relative risks were calculated to determine if, based on the number of person-years of exposure, workers aged 19 and under had a significantly greater relative risk for being a victim of an occupational homicide. Results indicate that workers of this age group employed in retail trade are at higher risk than their counterparts in other industries.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.12, p.1140-1145. Illus. 14 ref.
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