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Psychological factors - 1,739 entries found

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CIS 08-739 Carrión García M.A., López Barón F., Tous Pallarès J.
The APEA model, a psychosocial intervention protocol. Beyond the psychosocial evaluation
El modelo AEPA protocolo para la intervención psicosocial. Más allá de la evaluación psicosocial [in Spanish]
This article presents the "APEA" model of psychosocial intervention aimed at improving safety, health and the quality of life in the social work environment. It also describes an 8-step protocol for interventions within the enterprise: existing state of demand within the enterprise; collection and evaluation of data; action plan; corrections and changes to be implemented; selection of interventions (at the mega, macro and/or micro levels); implementation of the interventions; evaluation, follow-up and control of the results of the interventions; evaluation and follow-up aimed at introducing improvements.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Jan. 2008, No.45, p.22-30. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 09-1419 Dejours C.
Averting violence - Work, violence and health
Conjurer la violence - Travail, violence et santé [in French]
There is a worsening of violence in many settings, including within the enterprise. This document highlights the extent to which work organization is involved in the root causes of violence at the place of work and proposes pathways for preventive action, both inside and outside the enterprise.
Editions Payot & Rivages, 106, boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France, 2007. 316p. 71 ref. Price: EUR 23.00.

CIS 09-1023 Dimich-Ward H., Taliadouros V., Teschke K., Chow Y., Abboud R., Chan-Yeung M.
Quality of life and employment status of workers with western red cedar asthma
The impact of current employment status and other factors on quality of life was evaluated for workers diagnosed with western red cedar asthma in British Columbia, Canada. Data were collected by means of structured telephone interviews. Among the 213 participants, employment status was the most consistent predictor of quality-of-life domains, with highest scores for employed subjects, particularly those who were no longer exposed to red cedar. Subjects who had quit work because of their asthma had worse scores, particularly for vitality and general health perceptions. Other factors independently associated with specific aspects of poor quality of life were having asthma-like symptoms, taking medication, and not being married.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1040-1045. 29 ref.

CIS 09-1181 Suominen S., Vahtera J., Korkeila K., Helenius H., Kivimäki M., Koskenvuo M.
Job strain, life events, and sickness absence: A longitudinal cohort study in a random population sample
To examine job strain, adverse life events, and their co-occurrence as predictors of sickness absence, data were collected by means of questionnaires in a random sample of 1806 Finns in gainful employment and linked to sickness absence records from national health registers. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and health behaviour, job strain (rate ratio RR 1.73), but not life events, independently predicted increased rate of sickness absence among men. The opposite was true for women (RR for life events 1.39). No statistically significant interaction between job strain and life events was detected.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.990-996. 26 ref.

CIS 09-1193 Ahola K., Honkonen T., Virtanen M., Kivimäki M., Isometsä E., Aromaa A., Lönnqvist J.
Interventions in relation to occupational burnout: The population-based health 2000 study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation in burnout prevention interventions. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, structured interviews and the Finnish national register of psychopharmacological prescriptions in a representative sample of 3276 employees. When compared with employees free of burnout, the odds ratio of severe burnout for participation in occupational interventions was 0.41 and in individual-focused interventions 5.36. Antidepressant prescriptions were 2.53 times more common among those with severe burnout than among those without burnout after adjustment for depressive and anxiety disorders.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.943-952. 60 ref.

CIS 09-744 Campo G., Fattorini E.
Human resource management in organizational change and the issue of mobbing: An Italian experience
La gestione delle risorse umane nelle organizzazioni che cambiano e la problematica del mobbing: un'esperienza italiana [in Italian]
Staff redundancies that often result from mergers and organizational changes in the business world are difficult to implement in public sector companies, where such changes often lead to mobbing. The objective of this survey of the power sector, which in recent years has been affected by considerable organizational changes, was to determine the frequency and risk factors of mobbing. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Findings show a working environment that tends to isolate and alienate a significant number of workers, one out of three, who explicitly claimed that they felt victims of psychological violence and also felt useless and little appreciated in performing a meaningless job. On the whole, women and older workers tend to be the most exposed to psychological abuse. The older were not old enough to benefit from early retirement schemes and who, like women, were unable to return to the labour market with confidence after years of harassment and humiliation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2007, Vol.3, No.2, p.37-45. Illus. 13 ref. [in Italian] [in English]

CIS 09-496 Callaghan P., Nijman H., Palmstierna T., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 25-27 October 2007. Several papers concerned the safety, health and training of the staff: prevention of post-traumatic stress reaction in staff following a patient assault; training programme in the management of violence in a Hong Kong hospital; training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on management of violence; ward safety perceptions by nurses in several countries; interactions between nurses and patients in terms of predisposition to violence; violence toward heath care staff in Turkey.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2007. 383p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-490 Barrientos-Gutierrez T., Gimeno D., Mangione T.W., Harrist R.B., Amick B.C.
Drinking social norms and drinking behaviours: A multilevel analysis of 137 workgroups in 16 worksites
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between drinking social norms and heavy drinking, frequent drinking and drinking at work. The sample included 5338 workers with complete data, spread between 137 workgroups from 16 American worksites. Multivariate adjusted models showed participants working in workgroups in the most discouraging drinking norms quartile were 45% less likely to be heavy drinkers, 54% less likely to be frequent drinkers and 69% less likely to drink at work than their counterparts in the least discouraging quartile. These findings suggest that public health efforts at reducing drinking and alcohol-related injuries and diseases should target interventions at worksites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.64, No.9, p.602-608. 33 ref.

CIS 09-500
Health and Safety Executive
Managing the causes of work-related stress - A step-by-step approach using the Management Standards
Work-related stress is a major cause of occupational ill health. This can result in sickness absence, high staff turnover and poor work performance. HSE Management Standards are aimed at helping employers, employees and their representatives manage the issue sensibly and minimize the impact of work-related stress on businesses. They represent a set of conditions that reflect high levels of health, well-being and organizational performance. Following the advice in this guide will help employers identify and close the gap between current performance levels and these conditions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Nov. 2007. iv, 56p. Illus. 13 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: GBP 10.95.

CIS 09-248 Svensen E., Arnetz B.B., Ursin H., Eriksen H.R.
Health complaints and satisfied with the job? A cross-sectional study on work environment, job satisfaction, and subjective health complaints
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) among satisfied and dissatisfied workers. The second aim was to evaluate whether any SHC differences were attributable directly to the work environment or mediated by the perception of the environment (satisfactory or not). Work environment, job satisfaction and SHC were evaluated in 458 employees (56% women) of five enterprises and administrations in Norway. Satisfied workers reported an average of five to six subjective health complaints, whose prevalences corresponded to those of Norwegian general population. It is concluded that SHCs are common among satisfied workers, and work environment has only a limited influence on this state of health indicator.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.568-573. 43 ref.

CIS 08-1496
Health and Safety Executive
Testing the effectiveness of the streamlined national well being programme at managing work-related stress in schools
The HSE have identified six main factors of work organization that, if not properly managed, are associated with poor health and wellbeing: demands, control, support, relationships, role and change. HSE's Management Standards for Work-Related Stress represent a set of conditions that reflect high levels of health, wellbeing and organisational performance in each of these areas. Following these standards helps employers to identify the gap between their current performance and these conditions, and to develop their own solutions to close this gap. This study evaluated the effectiveness of these standards in managing work-related stress in schools. It involved collecting data from participating local authorities and schools. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 81p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-1499 Poxon B., Coupar W., Findlay J., Luckhurst D., Stevens R., Webster J.
Health and Safety Executive
Using soft people skills to improve worker involvement in health and safety
The involvement of workers is central to the achievement of improved enterprise performance across many dimensions, including that of effective safety and health management. Many organizations claim that worker involvement in their decision-making and management has resulted in quantifiable benefits, such as improved change management, more responsive customer service provision, better dispute resolution, reduced labour turnover, and reduced sickness absence and accident rate. The objective of this study was to investigate organizational cultures which create the capacity for effective employee involvement in safety and health. It involved studying ten organizations with widely differing organizational cultures. It was concluded that the most decisive factor in this process was the creation, support and sustenance of a dialogue culture within the organizations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 33p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-1391 Ramos A., Silva Filho J.F., Jardim S.R.
Sociodemographic data and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents at a public university in Rio de Janeiro
Dados sociodemográficos e condições de trabalho de pintores expostos a solventes em uma universidade pública da cidade do Rio de Janeiro [in Portuguese]
This cross-sectional study presents the socio-demographic profile and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents. Data on demographic factors and working conditions were collected from 55 painters employed by a public university in Rio de Janeiro by means of interviews. It was found that 58.2% of the painters reported never wearing individual protection equipment; 52.73% were unaware of the internal occupational accident prevention committee; 92.73% performed some kind of repetitive movement; 60% had another source of income (mostly as freelancers); 87.3% rated relationships at work as being good and 45.45% had already worked as painters before being hired by their present employers. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.38-49. Illus. 60 ref.óciodemograficos.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1474 Oliveira F.
The persistence of the notion of the unsafe act and the construction of blame: narratives on work accidents in a metalworking plant
A persistência da noção de ato inseguro e a construção da culpa: os discursos sobre os acidentes de trabalho em uma indústria metalúrgica [in Portuguese]
Various conceptions based on personal or psychological factors have been developed to explain occupational accidents. This study was an attempt to investigate these conceptions in the workers' discursive practices. It was based on observations, informal conversations, document evaluations and interviews with twenty workers in a metalworking shop. A pervasive presence of Heinrich's domino theory was observed in the patterns of understanding occupational accidents. Unsafe acts are mainly explained by naturalization of risks and by institutionalized transmission practices. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2007, Vol.32, No.115, p.19-27. 21 ref.ção%20de%20ato%20inseguro.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1337 Meliá Navarro J.L., Becerril Galindo M.
Systematic observation of safety - Effective and simple method to reduce occupational accidents in the construction sector
Observación sistemática de la seguridad - Método eficaz y sencillo para reducir los accidentes laborales en la construcción [in Spanish]
This article presents a method for the prevention of occupational accidents based on behaviour observation that has been developed specifically for the construction sector, and whose high effectiveness has been repeatedly demonstrated in numerous international scientific studies carried out in enterprises and on construction sites.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2007, No.179, p.28-39. Illus. 16 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-1498 Lansdown T.C., Deighan C, Brotherton C.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in the small to medium-sized enterprise: Psychosocial opportunities for intervention
The aim of this project was to identify psychosocial factors which are effective in the maintenance and improvement of safety and health in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It involved a literature review, a questionnaire survey and phone interviews with stakeholders. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Overall, SMEs showed a low level of safety and health activity. Important psychosocial factors were found to be the level of available resources, relationships with suppliers and decision-making latitude by junior and middle-level staff. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 67p. Illus. 61 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1193 Ford P., Pepper K., Reiger P.
Health and Safety Executive
Watch Your Step campaign evaluation: Qualitative research
A major campaign was run by the HSE in October 2005, aimed at raising awareness of slip and trip accidents and to encourage both employers and employees to take action to prevent them. This report covers a qualitative follow-up evaluation study conducted between May and July 2006, which comprised interviews with duty holders and employees. The key objectives of this study were to understand whether the campaign had prompted behavioural changes, and if yes, to understand the extent of these changes. The research also served to explore perceptions of the campaign among the various parties concerned in order to identify possible improvements to future campaigns.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 63p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-1137 O'Regan S., Tyers C., Hill D., Gordon-Dseagu V., Rick J.
Health and Safety Executive
Taking risks with asbestos: What influences the behaviour of maintenance workers?
Workers most at risk of contracting an asbestos-related disease are those in construction-related trades who conduct maintenance work on buildings constructed in the 50's, 60's and 70's. This report presents the results of 60 interviews with maintenance workers (including electricians, carpenters, plumbers, heating engineers and painters), who discuss their knowledge and attitudes with respect to asbestos. It was found that there are a range of issues affecting safe working methods in the presence of asbestos, including: the complexity of the messages about asbestos risks, attitudes towards risk and personal hygiene, prevailing worksite culture, economic pressures and whether individuals feel able to exert control over their work environment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 84p. [in English]

CIS 08-1225 Wang P.C., Rempel D.M., Harrison R.J., Chan J., Ritz B.R.
Work-organisational and personal factors associated with upper body musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between occupational and personal factors and the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among garment workers in Los Angeles. It involved 520 sewing machine operators from 13 garment industry sewing shops. Detailed information on organizational factors, personal factors and musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained in interviews. Data were analysed using unconditional logistic regression models. The prevalences of moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulder region the distal upper extremity were 24% and 16% respectively. Risk factors included an age of less than 30 years, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, being single, working more than 10 years as a sewing machine operator, working in large shops, higher work-rest ratios, high physical exertion, high physical isometric loads, high job demand and low job satisfaction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.64, No.12, p.806-813. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 08-1243 Nakao M., Nishikitani M., Shima S., Yano E.
A 2-year cohort study on the impact of an employee assistance program (EAP) on depression and suicidal thoughts in male Japanese workers
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) on depression and suicide-related behaviours in the workplace. It involved 283 male Japanese employees aged 22-38 years at a Japanese information technology company introducing an EAP. Controls consisted of 22 men working at an affiliated company without the EAP. All participants completed the Hamilton Depression Scale questionnaire (HAM-D) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) before the EAP was introduced and two years after its introduction. In the EAP group, the total HAM-D scores significantly decreased after the two-year study period, while no significant changes were observed in the reference group. The JCQ scores were not significantly different between the baseline and after the two-year study period in both groups. EAPs may be a promising strategy for maintaining the good mental health of workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2007, Vol.81, No.2, p.151-157. 30 ref.

CIS 08-1191 Snodgrass R., Corbett E., Carter L.
Health and Safety Executive
Exploration of the affect [sic] of litigation culture on the attribution and reporting of slip and trip accidents
Due to changes in United Kingdom litigation law in recent years, lawyers have been offering a "no win no fee" service, which appears to be generating a growing tendency amongst individuals to pursue claims of negligence, even in the most frivolous of cases. Reports in the press also suggest that there are many companies willing to pay out small amounts of compensation rather than fight a more costly litigation process. Society continues to change and there is less tolerance when it comes to risk. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of this heightened awareness, brought about by media activity, on the reporting of slip and trip accidents. This study employed both quantitative and qualitative techniques for collecting information from lawyers, insurers, and safety and health representatives, together with a survey of the general public. Findings indicate that employers are recording and reporting more accidents, both to comply with the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR, see CIS 95-1930) and as a self-defence mechanism against the threat of possible litigation. Employers are also taking more precautions with those having accidents on their premises. Findings also indicate that the general public and employees are less inhibited about reporting slip and trip accidents as they are more aware of their rights and therefore less tolerant of what they see as unfair treatment. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 63p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1154 Bellamy L.J., Geyer T.A.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a working model of how human factors, safety management systems and wider organisational issues fit together
This report describes a working model integrating human factors (HF), safety management systems (SMS), risk control (RC) and wider organizational issues, with a focus on major chemical major hazards. Eight major accidents were analysed. Repeated failure patterns were found which were represented as four specific combinations of components from the HF, SMS, RC and organization taxonomy, each combination defined by a theme. The four themes were: understanding of major accident prevention; competence for tasks; priorities, attention and conflict resolution; assurance. These themes were used for developing chemical hazard stakeholder priorities during a one-day workshop.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 192p. Illus. 97 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1248 Chilton S., Jones-Lee M., Metcalf H., Loomes G., Robinson A., Covey J., Spencer A., Spackman M.
Health and Safety Executive
Valuation of health and safety benefits: Dread risks
It is known that people typically fear the prospect of premature death by some causes considerably more than others. Three studies were undertaken to shed further light on these issues. In the first study, the focus was principally on causes that typically result in instant (or near-instant) death, such as road or rail accidents. In addition, attitudes were viewed primarily from the perspective of self-focused preferences concerning personal safety. By contrast, the second study considered causes of death typically preceded by protracted periods of pain and discomfort, such as lung or breast cancer. It sought to investigate attitudes to factors such as the victim's age and the question of responsibility for the cause of death. Finally, the third study was aimed at summarizing and evaluating the extensive body of work undertaken to date by sociologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists on the concept of "Societal Concerns".
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. 151p. 50 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1026 Ramos Villagrasa P.J., García-Izquierdo A.L.
Native and immigrant workers confronted by occupational safety and health
Trabajadores autóctonos e inmigrantes ante la prevención [in Spanish]
This article presents the findings of a survey carried out in Spain aimed at better understanding occupational safety and health perceptions among native and immigrant worker populations. The ultimate objective of the project was to develop a scale for evaluating the attitudes of these two groups of workers with respect to occupational hazards at the place of work
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2007, Vol.27, No.107, p.32-47. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-1064 Wallaart J., Winder C.
A survey of New Zealand farmers' knowledge about the risks and prevention of occupational respiratory disease
About 10% of the working population of New Zealand is employed in agriculture. Some types of farming appear to have a higher level of occupational respiratory disease than among the general population. In this study, farmers' knowledge about the risks and prevention of occupational respiratory disease was assessed by means of a questionnaire survey. The findings suggest that the level of knowledge is low, despite numerous attempts by government and other agencies to raise awareness in this community. Implications are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2007, Vol.23, No.5, p.469-479. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 08-1197 Marlow P., Dickety N.
Health and Safety Executive
Knowledge of workplace transport hazards amongst British businesses
This study was carried out to gather baseline data on the current level of understanding regarding workplace transport hazards by businesses in the United Kingdom, through consultations with their safety managers. A telephone questionnaire survey was conducted across a stratified sample of businesses from five major sectors of activity, seeking information on a range of issues known to be associated with workplace transport risk, as well as subsidiary questions on other inter-related workplace transport issues. The main finding is that vehicle safety was rated more important than site safety or driver safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 29p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1238 Hayasaka Y., Nakamura K., Yamamoto M., Sasaki S.
Work environment and mental health status assessed by the general health questionnaire in female Japanese doctors
This study aimed to determine factors in the work environment influencing mental health status among female doctors in Japan. An anonymous survey questionnaire was mailed to 587 female doctors, and 367 (62.5%) responded. The survey included questions on their age and marital status, together with work-related information on their speciality, affiliated medical facility, position, type of employment, work schedule and night duty. The thirty-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) was used to examine psychological distress. A total of 169 (46.1%) subjects met criteria for having psychological distress. Bivariate analysis showed that age, marital status, medical facility, position, working time and working at night were associated with the GHQ-30 score. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.781-786. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 08-998 Radwańska A.
Family problems 2003-2006 (Selected Polish and foreign literature)
Problemy rodziny 2003-2006 (literatura polska i obca w wyborze) [in Polish]
This bibliography consists of a compilation of Polish and foreign literature on work-related family issues published from 2003 to 2006. It includes scientific as well as popular publications, both in the form of books and articles from periodicals. It also includes lists of journal titles and their abbreviations, publishing institutions and symbols, together with an index.
Główna Biblioteka Pracy i Zabezpieczenia Społecznego, ul. Limanowskiego 23, 02-943 Warsaw, Poland, 2007. 107p. Index.

CIS 08-995 Brun E., Milczarek M.
Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This report presents the findings of an expert group on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts. A summary of the report is also available as a factsheet (CIS 08-250).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007.127p. Illus. 277 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-999 Identify psychosocial hazards - Indicators that will help you
Dépister les risques psychosociaux - Des indicateurs pour vous aider [in French]
The objective of this guide is to help identify psychosocial risk factors based on available data within the enterprise. To facilitate this screening work, a number of indicators are proposed, based on enterprise organizational factors or on the safety and health of employees. This guide will allow further work to be done and to instill a dialogue on the selection and definition of the most relevant screening indicators. This screening work will help implement steps aimed at hazard evaluation and prevention.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Dec.. 2007. 47p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 6.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed6012.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-988 Violence, harassment and discrimination in the workplace
Ch. 4 in the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey. It identified the extent of the violence and harassment across Europe in 2005. Around 5% of workers reported having experienced violence, bullying or harassment at work. In 2002, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions conducted a comparative analysis to map the patterns and trends of harassment and violence at work in the European Union and to clarify the concepts involved. This report analyses how the concepts of violence, harassment and bullying have evolved with regard to the working environment and identifies some of the differences in cultural perspectives regarding these issues. It also surveys the variety of legislative and non-legislative measures that have emerged to combat the problem at national and EU level, as well as positive examples of preventative good practice.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2007. viii, 134p. (This chapter: p.35-40). Illus. [in English] ((Ch.4)) [in English]

CIS 08-983 Naumann E.
Discrimination in labour law
Dyskryminacja w prawie pracy [in Polish]
This article comments European Union regulations and the provisions of Polish legislation regarding labour discrimination. It defines and explains direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, victimization and forcing employees to exhibit discriminating behaviour towards a colleague.
Monitor Prawa Pracy, June 2007, No.6, p.286-289.

CIS 08-733 Bauer J., Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Seibt R., Scheuch K., Wirsching M.
Working conditions, adverse events and mental health problems in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore the workload of teachers, to analyse the extent of negative or threatening school-related events teachers are confronted with and to evaluate mental health strain. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying a questionnaire covering different aspects of the occupational burden and threatening events, and the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). More than 42% had faced verbal insults, almost 7% deliberate damage to personal property and 4.4% threats of violence by pupils during the past 12 months. When applying the GHQ-12, 29.8% reported significant mental health problems. Teachers in middle schools indicated more of such problems than those of high schools. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.442-449. 37 ref.

CIS 08-732 Unterbrink T., Hack A., Pfeifer R., Buhl-Grießhaber V., Müller U., Wesche H., Frommhold M., Scheuch K., Seibt R., Wirsching M., Bauer J.
Burnout and effort-reward imbalance in a sample of 949 German teachers
The aim of this study was to explore teacher burnout and the relationship between their efforts and their rewards. A sample of 949 German teachers in 10 high schools and 79 middle schools was investigated applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-D) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Inventory (ERI). Compared with studies investigating burnout in other occupations, high rates of symptoms such as emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment were found. Male teachers showed significantly lower personal accomplishment and more depersonalization than female teachers. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.433-441. 42 ref.

CIS 08-749 Houtman I., Jettinghoff K., Cedillo L.
Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries
In developing countries, the focus of occupational safety and health initiatives has until now essentially been on chemical, biological and physical exposures, while the psychosocial risks at work are still largely neglected. This booklet aims at raising awareness among employers and worker representatives of work-related stress in developing countries. Topics addressed: effects of globalization and the changing nature of work; definition of work-related stress; step-by-step approach to managing work-related stress; role of employers' and workers' representatives.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. 44p. Illus. 42 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-743 Pantry S.
Managing stress and conflict in libraries
Tackling conflict and stress effectively is a legal responsibility for management. This book defines what constitutes a healthy and safe library working environment. It describes the reporting procedures leading to conflict resolution, enabling both the employee and the manager to decide whether or not there is a case for making a risk assessment that may lead to formal mediation. Topics addressed: current safety and health concerns; risk assessment procedure; the business case; taking action to solve interpersonal conflict; communication skills and training; support to be expected from the organization. Also included are case studies, a glossary of health and safety terms, and sources of further information, including relevant United Kingdom legislation.
Facet Publishing, 7 Ridgemount Street, London WC1E 7AE, United Kingdom, 2007. vii, 140p. 129 ref. Index. Price: GBP 29.95.

CIS 08-542 Meliá J.L.
Model based on three conditions: Guide for the diagnosis and safety intervention
El modelo tricondicional: una guía para el diagnóstico y la intervención en prevención [in Spanish]
A safe work model based on three conditions is presented. To understand the model, one needs to start from the principle that occupational safety involves a continuous cycle of three phases: safety evaluation or diagnosis (problems, strong points); treatment or intervention (methods to be applied, measures to be implemented); evaluation of results (changes having occurred, modifications to be implemented). Within this context, three conditions need to be filled to ensure that workers carry out their work safely: their aptitude for the work; their understanding of the work; their willingness to do the work.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2007, No.182, p.38-50. Illus. 2 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-541 Gutiérrez J.M.
Behaviour-based safety
Seguridad basada en la conducta [in Spanish]
This article presents the process of behaviour-based safety, a method based on observation and feedback. Workers observe how various tasks are carried out by their colleagues, and positive or negative remarks are discussed with the objective of improving safety within the enterprise. The behaviour-based safety method includes four key elements: workers' participation and management involvement; systematic approach; observation walks within the enterprise aimed at improving working methods; positive feedback.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2007, No.182, p.20-26. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-738 Cox T., Karanika M., Griffiths A., Houdmont J.
Evaluating organizational-level work stress interventions: Beyond traditional methods
This literature survey considers some of the philosophical and methodological issues in relation to enterprise-level interventions for work-related stress. Starting from the complex and continually changing realities of work organization, the authors argue in favour of a more broadly conceived framework for evaluation that acknowledges the limitations of traditional approaches. The study concludes by offering an outline framework for this broader approach to the evaluation of interventions.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2007, Vol.21, No.4, p.348-362. 60 ref.

CIS 08-737 Sun J., Wang S., Zhang J.Q., Li W.
Assessing the cumulative effects of stress: The association between job stress and allostatic load in a large sample of Chinese employees
Allostatic load (AL) is an index that is derived from a set of biological measures for assessing chronic stress. In this study, a 13-parameter index was used to examine the relationship between job strain and AL. Participants were 1219 healthy Chinese employees. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, and AL was assessed by various stress responses, including blood pressure, cholesterol, indicators of glucose metabolism, and hormone and inflammation markers. AL in the high job strain group differed sharply from that in the low job strain group. AL was positively associated with age and educational level. Analyses indicated that decision latitude and job demands were significantly related to AL. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2007, Vol.21, No.4, p.333-347. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 08-736 Behrendt S.U.
"Your stress manager" - An interactive medium for better handling of personal stress
"Ihr Stressmanager" - Ein interactives Medium zum besseren Umgang mit persönlichem Stress [in German]
Within the European Union, 28% of workers claim to suffer from stress-related health problems and a United Kingdom study has shown that 54% of absenteeism is due to stress-related impairment. This article describes an interactive DVD on stress management aimed at enterprises, which can be used on a single PC or installed for multi-user access through the enterprise Intranet. It consists of several modules: definition of stress; stress inventory; relaxation techniques; problem-solving methods; time management; hobbies, pleasurable pastimes, sports and nutrition; stress management objectives and action plan; quality control; addresses and contacts. This concept aims to achieve stress prevention by acting at three levels: primary (preserving mental health); secondary (early recognition of problems and effective intervention); tertiary (improving health and well-being after an illness or rehabilitation measures).
Kompass, Sep.-Oct. 2007, Vol.117, No.9/10, p.4-9. Illus.

CIS 08-721 Petereit-Haack G., Bolm-Audorff U., Ditchen D., Ellegast R., Elsner G., Grifka J., Haerting J., Hofmann F., Jäger M., Linhardt O., Luttmann A., Michaelis M., Schumann B., Seidler A.
Relationship between occupational psychosocial strain and disc-related diseases of the lumbar spine - Results of the German spine study
Zusammenhang zwischen beruflichen psychosozialen Belastungen und bandscheibenbedingten Erkrankungen der Lendenwirbelsäule - Ergebnisse der Deutschen Wirbelsäulenstudie [in German]
The aim of this case-control study carried out within the framework of a multi-centric study on occupational spinal column disorders in Germany was to examine the relationship between psychosocial strain at work and lumbar prolapse and chondrosis. Data on psychosocial strain were collected during computer-assisted structured interviews, while that concerning their spinal loads were obtained through biomechanical simulations using ten dose models. Findings show a relationship between psychosocial strain at work and the development of a lumbar prolapse or a chondrosis, both in men and women. Among women, the relationship with lumbar chondrosis was statistically significant. See also CIS 08-718/720.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2007, Vol.57, No.10, p.328-336. 25 ref.

CIS 08-750 Chouanière D., Langevin V., Guibert A.
Occupational stress - Steps of a prevention approach
Stress au travail - Les étapes d'une démarche de prévention [in French]
This guide on stress in occupational settings is aimed at all persons responsible for occupational safety and health within the enterprise. It proposes a six-step prevention approach: pre-diagnosis; putting together a project team; comprehensive diagnosis; communication of the findings; developing and implementing an action plan; follow-up. For each of the steps, it includes examples and comments from users.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July 2007. 31p. Illus. Price: EUR 6.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed6011.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-730 Mingote Adán J.C., del Pino Cuadrado P., Huidobro Á., Gutiérrez García D., de Miguel Peciña I., Gálvez Herrer M.
Patients with psychotic disorders at work: Diagnosis and treatment
El paciente que padece un trastorno psicótico en el trabajo: diagnóstico y tratamiento [in Spanish]
This article covers psychotic disorders and the conditions allowing affected workers to continue working. Contents: general aspects of psychotic delirium; costs of serious mental disorders; schizophrenia (characteristics, clinical evolution, compatibility of the disease with continued employment, behaviour to adopt with such patients and interventions during crises); paranoia or persisting delirium (characteristics, behaviour to adopt with such patients ); factors to take into account for the possible reintegration in their jobs of workers with psychotic disorders; brief psychotic episodes and work capacity.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.208, p.29-51. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 08-745 Lehto A.M, Pärnänen A.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Violence, bullying and harassment in the workplace
Incidence rates of physical violence, bullying and sexual harassment have increased, according to the European Working Conditions Survey and national surveys. This study examines the manner in which these issues have been studied in the national surveys of seven European countries. It is difficult to say how much of the increase is due to raised awareness, but the heightened levels of experience reported must be regarded as real. It also became apparent in the study that physical violence, bullying and sexual harassment are very different and cannot be regarded in the same way. This means that the preventive measures implemented at the workplace must be tailored to fit each problem.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2007. 21p. Illus. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-734 Hughes E.L., Parkes K.R.
Work hours and well-being: The roles of work-time control and work-family interference
This study examined the relationship between work hours and well-being. Questionnaire data from 292 female employees in two United Kingdom public sector organizations were analysed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for demographic variables, neuroticism and job demands, work-family interference mediated the effect of work hours on family satisfaction. It was also found that work-time control moderated the relationship between work hours and work-family interference. These findings show that longer work hours are not necessarily associated with higher work-family interference, and hence with poor recovery and impaired well-being. Instead, having a degree of control over work hours moderates the first causal link in this process. Thus, the provision by employers of some flexibility and control over work hours may help to reduce the potential negative impact of long work hours on employees.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2007, Vol.21, No.3, p.264-278. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 08-478 Villar M.F., de Arquer I., Gómez-Cano M., González Través C.
Evaluation of MSD risks by external occupational safety and health services
La evaluación de los riesgos de TME por los servicios de prevención ajenos [in Spanish]
This article presents the findings of a survey carried out in Spain among external occupational safety and health (OSH) service providers on the evaluation of ergonomic and psychosocial risk factors of musculoskeletal disease (MSD). Data were collected by means of questionnaires addressed to all accredited OSH service providers in Spain. A total of 74 questionnaires were returned (response rate 12.2%). The scope of the survey included the structure and organization of the OSH service, the type and size of enterprise served, how MSD risks are evaluated (by means of check lists, job studies, questionnaires), and the sectors of activity, types of jobs and other specific aspects. Results are presented in tables.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Oct. 2007, No.44, p.24-29. Illus.

CIS 08-486 Kouabenan D.R.
Uncertainties, beliefs and safety management
Incertitudes, croyances et management de la sécurité [in French]
Risky situations are situations mostly characterized by uncertainty. This review article starts with a description of the link between the notions of risk and uncertainty by stressing the fact that uncertainty is an important component of risk appraisal, and shows that what is called risk is in fact a social construct. It then shows that risk appraisal and accident explanation are opportunities particularly favourable to the expression of beliefs and causal inferences. The role of such beliefs and inferences is to fill the gap in scientific knowledge regarding risky situations. In face of this gap, people tend to use heuristics in order to reduce the uncertainty and to facilitate risk assessment. But many factors (cognitive, motivational, affective) lead to distortions in risk perception and accident explanation. They are either linked to the characteristics of the risk itself or to the characteristics proper to the perceiver or the explainer. These factors create illusions and false certainties in risk perception and accident explanation, which may lead to unsafe behaviours. Investigating these beliefs could be useful to design preventive messages and to influence more efficiently individual behaviours in favour of safety.
Travail humain, Apr. 2007, Vol.70, No.3, p.271-287. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 08-499 Brun J.P., Biron C., Ivers H.
Strategic approach to the prevention of occupational mental health problems
Démarche stratégique de prévention des problèmes de santé mentale au travail [in French]
The growing number of injuries related to stress, burnout or other psychological factors result from the rapid increase in occupational mental health problems in the last few years. However, most organizations lack a strategic risk prevention tool to address this important issue. This report presents the results of a research project involving the evaluation of organizational interventions for the prevention of work-related stress, for the purpose of developing a diagnostic tool for use by enterprises. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and observations in three organizations: an educational institution, a hospital and a forestry enterprise.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. viii, 65p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: CAD 8.48. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-496 Dollard M., Skinner N., Tuckey M.R., Bailey T.
National surveillance of psychosocial risk factors in the workplace: An international overview
The national surveillance of psychosocial risk factors in the workplace is useful for recording the changing work environment, developing policies and programmes to prevent stress and promoting mental and physical health and well-being at work. This article reviews, from an Australian perspective, 35 national surveillance systems across 20 different countries in Europe and North America, together with an additional four multi-country systems for psychosocial risks. It describes the scope and sampling methodology of each system, for which it also provides an overall evaluation. Findings are discussed, with emphasis on subject areas likely to be of increasing concern in the future: additional psychosocial risks; emotional labour; workplace bullying; acute vs. chronic exposure to workplace stressors; organizational justice; organizational change; positive psychological states and well-being.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2007, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-29. 106 ref.

CIS 08-277 Gozzo J., Luzeaux N.
Less noise please
Moins fort le bruit [in French]
The purpose of this leaflet aimed at employees is to raise their level of consciousness with respect to the problem of noise at the place of work. Topics addressed: noise and its hazards (tinnitus, stress, risk of accidents); how to react when exposed to noise (report the problem, use protective equipment); main French regulations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2007. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed6020.pdf [in French]

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