Psychological factors - 1,739 entries found
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Dağdeviren M., Yüksel İ., Kurt M.
A fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) model to identify faulty behavior risk (FBR) in work system
Work system safety is a function of many factors, besides being dynamic and complex. There may be relations and dependencies among the safety factors. Therefore, work system safety should be analyzed in a holistic manner. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the faulty behaviour risks (FBRs) which are significant in work system safety through an analytical network process (ANP), an extension of the analytical hierarchy process which allows the analysis of complex systems. Besides, there are many difficulties and limitations in measuring the faulty behaviour factors. For this reason, the weights of factors and sub-factors necessary to calculate the FBR were determined by using fuzzy ANP, making it possible to improve decision-making processes.
Safety Science, June 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.771-783. Illus. 34 ref.
Trujillo Vargas C.M., Vargas E.
Psychosocial factors and psychosomatic and psychological reactions of stress
Factores psicosociales y reacciones psicosomáticas y psicológicas de estrés [in Spanish]
This article consists of a review of psychosocial factors and psychosomatic and psychological reactions of stress, together with the findings of a study carried out among employees of a technical university in Columbia. Main topics addressed: theoretical aspects of stress; consequences of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction; physiological, emotional and behavioural changes related to stress; disorders caused by reactions to stress; phases of stress (alertness, resistance, exhaustion); analysis of the findings of the study and evaluation of the impact of stress.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 2nd Quarter 2008, Vol.15, No.56, p.9-17. Illus. 14 ref.
MacFarlane E., Chapman A., Benke G., Meaklim J., Sim M., McNeil J.
Training and other predictors of personal protective equipment use in Australian grain farmers using pesticides
The objective of this study was to investigate patterns of use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce pesticide exposure in a sample of Australian farmers and also to assess possible predictive factors. A cross-sectional survey of 1102 farmers was conducted by means of a questionnaire. Up to 40% of the farmers reported routinely using no PPE at all when exposed to pesticides. In multivariate analyses PPE use appeared to be most strongly associated with younger age and farm chemical training. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.141-146. 33 ref.
Waldenström K., Ahlberg G., Bergman P., Forsell Y., Stoetzer U., Waldenström M., Lundberg I.
Externally assessed psychosocial work characteristics and diagnoses of anxiety and depression
Interpretations of relationships between work characteristics and psychiatric disorders may be biased by over-reporting of unfavourable work characteristics among those with psychiatric disorders. This study attempts to account for this bias. The sample consisted of 672 employed men and women in different occupations. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed in an interview and psychiatric diagnoses were established according to DSM-IV. Data on current work characteristics and work characteristics three years ago were also obtained through interviews. Odds ratios (OR) for depression included lack of support from colleagues and supervisors (OR 6.4) and deterioration in work characteristics during the study period (OR 2.8). Findings for anxiety were similar but not statistically significant.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.90-97. Illus. 41 ref.
West C., Bernard B., Mueller C., Kitt M., Driscoll R., Tak S.
Mental health outcomes in police personnel after hurricane Katrina
This cross-sectional study examined symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) personnel who provided law enforcement and relief services to affected communities following Hurricane Katrina. Mental health outcomes related to personal and work-related exposures of police personnel eight weeks after the hurricane were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. Of the 912 police personnel who completed the questionnaire, 26% reported symptoms consistent with depression and 19% reported symptoms consistent with PTSD. For PTSD, risk factors included recovery of bodies, crowd control, assault and injury to a family member. Depressive symptoms were associated with rare family contact, uninhabitable home, isolation from the NOPD, assault and injury to a family member.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.689-695. 39 ref.
Kleppa E., Sanne B., Tell G.S.
Working overtime is associated with anxiety and depression: The Hordaland health study
The objective of this case-control study was to examine whether long work hours are associated with increased prevalences of anxiety and depression. A total of 1350 overtime workers was compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle and somatic health was included. Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.658-666. Illus. 22 ref.
Using routinely collected data to augment the management of health and productivity loss
The objective of this study was to test models of productivity loss developed from data collected using a health risk appraisal including the broader context of work, mental health, well-being, and the demands of organizational and family life. It involved the secondary analyses of 17,821 responses to a questionnaire on work limiting factors. Structural equation techniques were used to develop a series of models featuring 38 measures and a four-step hypothesized sequence. The tests confirmed the presence of two distinct but interrelated components driven by health issues, namely presenteeism (impaired performance at work) and absenteeism (time away from work) to describe productivity loss. The tests also documented the predictive power of eight categories of measures in accounting for the phenomenon.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.615-632. Illus. 21 ref.
Integrated management of depression: Improving system quality and creating effective interfaces
Depression is a chronic recurrent condition and is a leading cause of work disability. Improving occupational outcomes for depression will require an integrated approach that incorporates best practices from the clinical, community and workplace systems. After a brief review of quality improvement initiatives and promising practices in each system, an integrated chronic care model for depression is presented.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.482-491. Illus. 53 ref.
Puriene A., Aleksejuniene J., Petrauskiene J., Balciuniene I., Janulyte V.
Self-perceived mental health and job satisfaction among Lithuanian dentists
The aim of this study was to document dentists' self-perceived mental health and job satisfaction of Lithuanian dentists. A postal questionnaire survey was mailed to all the 2449 licensed dentists registered with the Lithuanian Dental Association. The response rate was 68.2%. The questionnaire investigated dentists' mental health and job satisfaction during the previous year. The majority of respondents (80.7%) reported being satisfied with their job. Nervousness (89.2%) and burnout (83.6%) were the most prevalent mental complaints and they also tended to be the most chronic of all reported mental disorders. Increasing age significantly reduced the possibility of nervousness or depression and increased the possibility of being satisfied with dental practice. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2008, Vol.46, No.3, p.247-252. Illus. 35 ref.
Safety climate in a broad context - What is it, how does it work, and can it be managed?
Since the end of the 1970s, safety has attracted increasing interest as a social construct, in research as in practice. Safety climate research is an example of this trend, but theoretical ambiguity unfortunately has delayed the development of a better understanding of this concept. In the last few years, several longitudinal studies based on clear definitions have, however, contributed to theoretical progress describing the relation of safety climate to other domains, as well as possible mechanisms for its influence on work safety performance. This review article comments these developments. Also, based on recent research findings, it speculates on the particular importance of a positive safety climate in the development of safety motivation and interactive safety behavior, and a possible reciprocal relation between these factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Suppl. 2008, No.5, p.5-8. Illus. 18 ref.
Kolstrup C., Lundqvist P., Pinzke P.
Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. Data on self-perceived psychosocial work environment and MSDs were collected by means of questionnaires. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as being good by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs of the back and upper extremities. The study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.1, p.23-36. 53 ref.
Phan Chan Thé E.
Addictive behaviour and safety-critical jobs
Conduites addictives et postes de sécurité [in French]
This article discusses the management of addictive behaviour in occupational settings, with an emphasis on screening for the abuse of drugs and alcohol among persons assigned to safety-critical jobs. Two examples of safety-critical jobs are presented: truck drivers and dock handlers. The article also presents various statistics that help understand the importance and the severity of the problem of substance addiction in France.
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2008, No.97, p.76-81. Illus.
Psychosocial hazards - When good driving goes alongside good behaviour
Risques psychosociaux - Quand bien conduire rime avec bonne conduite [in French]
This article presents the preventive measures against psychosocial hazards implemented by a public transport enterprise in the Paris region, faced with increasing incivilities and violence (physical and verbal abuse, damage to equipment). The measures include staff training in conflict management and communicating with young persons in schools and sport halls.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2008, No.686, p.46-47. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ArchivesTS/archivests.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS686page46_1/$File/TS686page46.pdf?OpenElement [in French]
Baek J.B., Bae S., Ham B.H., Singh K.P.
Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry
A questionnaire was sent to 642 manufacturing plants in Korea in 2003 to explore safety climate practices. The response rate was 30.4%. The number of employees among the responding enterprises ranged from less than 30 to over 1000 employees. Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety rules, pressure for production and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety awareness. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Nov. 2008, Vol.159, No.1, p.49-52. 14 ref.
Mehlum I.S., Kristensen P., Kjuus H., Wergeland E.
Are occupational factors important determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in musculoskeletal pain?
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and low-back pain, neck-shoulder pain and arm pain in the general working population in Oslo, Norway, and to examine the impact of job characteristics on these disorders. Subjects were 7239 economically active persons aged between 30 and 45 years who attended the Oslo health study in 2000-2001. Occupational class was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status. There was a clear relationship between socioeconomic status and musculoskeletal pain, more pronounced for men than for women. The prevalence ratios were larger for low-back pain and arm pain than for neck-shoulder pain. Physical job demands explained a substantial proportion of the occupational class inequalities in low-back pain, while job autonomy was more important in explaining the inequalities in neck-shoulder pain and arm pain. Other findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.34, No.4, p.250-259. 61 ref.
Work, stress research update
This article summarizes the findings of two recent surveys on occupational stress among Canadian workers. Overall, workplace stress and related mental problems seem to be on the rise. However, executives seem to be in better health than in earlier surveys conducted in 1997 and 2002. Other findings are discussed.
Accident Prevention, Aug.-Sep. 2008, Vol.55, No.3, p.19-20.
Salvatore A.L., Bradman A., Castorina R., Camacho J., López J., B. Barr D.B., Snyder J., Jewell N.P., Eskenazi B.
Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey County, California
The relationship between self-reported behaviours and agricultural pesticide exposures were assessed in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Wearing recommended clothing, wearing clean work clothes, hand washing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA levels. Despite these protective behaviours, however, participants had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Further efforts are needed to reduce the exposure disparities experienced by farmworkers and decrease the potential for ``take home'' exposures to farmworkers' families.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.782-794. Illus. 57 ref.
Violanti J.M., Charles L.E., Hartley T.A., Mnatsakanova A., Andrew M.E., Fekedulegn D., Vila B., Burchfiel C.M.
Shift-work and suicide ideation among police officers
This cross-sectional study assessed the association between shift work and suicide ideation among police officers. Shift work was based on daily payroll records over five years for 41 women and 70 men. Standardized psychological measures were employed. ANOVA and Poisson regression were used to analyse associations. Among policewomen with increased depressive symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 116% for every 10-unit increase in percentage of hours worked on day shift (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.16). Among policemen with higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 13% with every 10-unit increase in the percentage of hours worked on afternoon shift (PR 1.13). Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.758-768. 57 ref.
Faurie I., Fraccaroli F., Le Blanc A.
Age and working: From studies on ageing at work to a psychosocial approach to the end of working life
Âge et travail: des études sur le vieillissement au travail à une approche psychosociale de la fin de la carrière professionnelle [in French]
The long-predicted problem of pension funding, together with the issue of workforce ageing, have given rise to many studies analysing psychological and social processes marking the later stages of occupational activity. In this framework, the objectives of this article are firstly to conduct a critical review of the main studies on ageing within organizations and, more generally, on the relationships between age and work, and secondly to provide evidence on the relevance of a psychosocial approach to the issue of older workers, which cannot simply be limited to ageing at work. This approach involves an analysis of socialization and identity restructuring processes that characterise the transition during the final years of occupational activity.
Travail humain, Apr. 2008, Vol.71, No.2, p.137-172. Approx 150 ref.
Psychosocial factors at work and risk of depression: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence
Major depression is a leading cause of psychiatric morbidity. Psychosocial factors at the workplace may influence the occurrence of this disorder, but evidence so far remains circumstantial. This literature survey reviews studies addressing the risk of major depression and depressive symptoms relative to psychosocial stressors in the working environment. Sixteen company or population-based studies including some 63,000 employees were identified. Despite the methodological limitations of several studies, there are consistent findings indicating that perceived adverse psychosocial factors at the workplace are related to elevated risks of subsequent onset of depressive symptoms or a major depressive episode.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.438-445. Illus. 41 ref.
Clarke S., Flitcroft C.
Effects of transformational leadership on perceived safety climate: A longitudinal study
Transformational leadership consists of leading by example and motivating employees. Previous research has emphasised the importance of transformational leadership style in relation to occupational safety. However, much existing empirical evidence has been drawn from cross-sectional data, which does not allow causal interpretation of this relationship. The longitudinal study reported in this article involved a sample of 14 SMEs in North West England. Data were collected by means of questionnaires before and after a five-month safety training intervention. A significant lagged effect of transformational leadership style on employees' perceived safety climate was observed. In particular, the importance of motivation is highlighted. Practical implications for the design of safety interventions are discussed, and avenues for further research are proposed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2008, Vol.24, No.3, p.237-247. 46 ref.
Bentley T., Tappin D.
Qualitative evaluation of a framework for understanding the development of organizational safety culture
This article presents findings of a study aimed at understanding factors contributing towards safety culture in New Zealand, based on the case of a specific enterprise. An attempt was made to qualitatively determine the level of a number of safety culture parameters and to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently-published framework for understanding safety culture. Methods included a qualitative survey involving two focus groups and semi-structured interviews with management, employee and contractor respondents. Key findings included low levels of employee involvement in OHS, shortcomings in communication in all aspects of OHS and a poor reporting culture. The framework was found to be an excellent tool for analysing safety culture.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2008, Vol.24, No.3, p.213-220. 16 ref.
Safety culture: Snapshot of a developing concept
This article reviews some of the key issues to be considered in literature surveys on safety culture, particularly with respect to selecting scientifically sound articles. Topics addressed: disciplines contributing to safety culture literature; sectors studied; determining the relative impact of safety culture publications; peer-review of articles; multi-author articles; authors' countries of origin.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2008, Vol.24, No.3, p.179-189. Illus. 26 ref.
Norman K., Wigaeus Tornqvist E., Toomingas A.
Working conditions in a selected sample of call centre companies in Sweden
The purpose of this study was to describe working conditions in call centres in Sweden. A questionnaire was answered by 1183 operators (848 women and 335 men) from 28 call centres. Items included background factors, conditions of employment, working hours, remuneration, duties, computer work and workplace design. It was found that operators at external companies and operators with low-complexity work tasks were generally younger, employed by the hour and working varying shifts. There were furthermore differences in working conditions between internal and external call centres. Finally it was found that certain aspects of supervision style and work organization, particularly at external call centres, cause stress and a lack of well being among the staff.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.2, p.177-194. 50 ref.
Norlander C., Ohlsson K., Balogh I., Hansson G.Å., Axmon A., Persson R., Skerfving S.
Gender differences in workers with identical repetitive industrial tasks: Exposure and musculoskeletal disorders
The aim of this study was to evaluate differences concerning physical or psychosocial exposures and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders between men and women with identical repetitive work tasks. Employees in two plants where large numbers of men and women worked side by side were studied. Postures and movements were registered by inclinometry for the head and arms, and by electrogoniometry for the wrists. Muscular activity was registered by surface electromyography. The psychosocial work environment was evaluated by the demand-control-support model, and finally musculoskeletal disorders were assessed by interview and by medical examination. It was found that work postures and movements were similar between genders. Also, concerning psychosocial work environment, no significant gender differences were found. Compared to men, women showed substantially higher muscular activity in relation to capacity and higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper extremity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.81, No.8, p.939-947. 43 ref.
Burton A.K., Kendall N.A.S., Pearce B.G., Birrell L.N., Bainbridge L.C.
Health and Safety Executive
Management of upper limb disorders and the biopsychosocial model
This review examined management strategies for the prevention of work-related upper limb disorders and established the extent to which the biopsychosocial model can be applied. Information from articles was extracted into evidence tables. The main results are presented in thematic sections covering classification and diagnosis, epidemiology, associations and risks, and management and treatment, focusing on return to work. It was found that while biological considerations should not be ignored, it is primarily the psychosocial factors that are important for determining return-to-work outcomes. Interventions that address the full range of psychosocial issues require a cultural shift in the way the relationship between upper limb complaints and work factors is conceived and handled.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 115p. Illus. Approx. 220 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr596.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Social support and musculoskeletal disorders: Literature review and data analysis
This study of the role of work-related social support as a risk factor for musculoskeletal diseases (MSD) involved a literature survey and a statistical analysis of data sets from published studies concerning civil servants and the offshore oil industry. The analyses showed that high supervisor support was associated with lower rates of MSD problems, lower pain severity and fewer MSD-related absences. The findings for co-worker support were less clear. Analyses revealed that high partner support was a significant risk factor for MSD-related absenteeism, after correction for various confounding factors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. iv, 58p. Illus. 23 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr594.pdf [in English]
Hoffmann-Richter U., Hoffmann H., Pfister S., Siegenthaler F., Schade V., Znoj H.
Psychosocial factors as reversible components in social insurance systems
Psychosoziale Faktoren in den Sozialversicherungen als Kippfigur [in German]
Les facteurs psychosociaux, figures réversibles des assurances sociales [in French]
This article discusses mental disturbances caused by occupational accidents or diseases, which represent an obstacle to rehabilitation. It presents a Swiss project entitled EBEPS (German acronym for identification and treatment of mental disorders in the context of occupational accidents and diseases), whose aim is to simplify the processing of complex rehabilitation cases. The project involved insured workers whose cases were followed up using "New Case Management" approaches, and who answered a questionnaire on their accident or diseases, as well as on various psychosocial factors and their perception of responsibilities in 2007. The questionnaire was submitted again one year later. The information collected enabled the identification of predictors of rehabilitation. The project will allow the development of an instrument that improves the early identification of workers who could have rehabilitation problems.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2008, No.79, p.35-46. Illus. 11 ref.
Psychological resources, their social antecedents, and association with well-being and health behaviour in early adulthood
The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse how psychosocial characteristics in early childhood and adolescence predict successful entrance into working life. The subjects were members of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, which consists of all women and men born in 1966 in two northern provinces of Finland (n=12,058). At the most recent follow-up in 2007, 11,637 subjects were alive. Data were collected by means of postal questionnaires. Findings highlight the importance of family support during childhood and school achievement during adolescence. Other findings are discussed with respect to gender differences and differences in social and educational levels.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2008. 71p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 23.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.tsr.fi/files/TietokantaTutkittu/1998/98451Loppuraportti.pdf [in English]
van Rhenen W., van Dijk F.J.H., Schaufeli W.B., Blonk R.W.B.
Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population
The objective of this study was to establish an optimal cutoff point for distress measured with the 50-item four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ), using the prediction of sickness absence as a criterion. The cutoff point should allow a reliable evaluation of the risk of sickness absence in occupational health practice and be useful for future studies on distress and mental disorders. The questionnaire was given to workers with and without sickness absence due to distress. Sensitivity and specificity were compared for various potential cutoff points. A distress cutoff point of ≥11 appears reliably indicative of a distress level at which an employee is presumably at risk of sick leave on psychological grounds.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.3, 8p. Illus. 56 ref.
Taris T.W., Geurts S.A.E., Schaufeli W.B., Blonk R.W.B., Lagerveld S.E.
All day and all of the night: The relative contribution of two dimensions of workaholism to well-being in self-employed workers
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between workaholism and perceived health (exhaustion, physical complaints, and feelings of professional efficacy). It involved a sample of 477 Dutch self-employed workers. Workaholism is characterized by long work hours coupled with the inability to detach from work. It was expected that both workaholism components would be related to ill health. Variance and regression analyses revealed that this reasoning was confirmed for one component (inability to detach from work), but not for the other (working long hours).
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.153-165. 47 ref.
Shirom A., Toker S., Berliner S., Shapira I.
The Job Demand-Control-Support model and stress-related low-grade inflammatory responses among healthy employees: A longitudinal study
This study investigated the direct (additive) and interactive effects of the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDC-S) model's components on subsequent changes in three indicators of stress-induced inflammation in the body: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and white blood cell concentrations. Subject included 738 healthy male and 383 healthy female employees who underwent periodic health examinations twice at an 18-month interval. Few direct or indirect effects were found, and none were supportive of the JDC-S model. It is concluded that the physiological mechanism linking the JDC-S model with cardiovascular morbidity probably does not involve inflammatory processes.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.138-152. Illus. 58 ref.
Willis T.A., O'Connor D.B., Smith L.
Investigating effort-reward imbalance and work-family conflict in relation to morningness-eveningness and shift work
The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) has been found to be a strong predictor of both psychological and physiological outcomes. A sample of 112 police employees in the United Kingdom completed a baseline questionnaire that contained the ERI model and a measure of "morningness or eveningness" (M-E) chronotype. Two months later, participants completed a second questionnaire, including this time measures of work-family conflict and burnout. Regression analyses confirmed that ERI was a significant predictor of psychological adjustment to shift work. Moreover, M-E was found to make a unique contribution to the prediction of work-family conflict, such that evening types reported greater levels of maladjustment. The results indicate that adjustment to shift work and attendant effects on work-family conflict can be affected by an individual's morning-evening typology. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.125-137. 45 ref.
Kessler S.R., Spector P.E., Chang C.H., Parr A.D.
Organizational violence and aggression: Development of the three-factor Violence Climate Survey
Violence climate, a concept derived from the safety climate literature, may affect violence and aggression at work. Using a newly-developed instrument for measuring violence climate, this study consisted of a survey of a sample of 216 employees from a variety of sectors in the United States. It showed that violence climate is significantly related to exposure to physical violence and verbal aggression, physical strains and psychological strains, including job dissatisfaction and negative emotion at work. Exposure to both violence and aggression was associated with all strains. Multiple regression analyses suggested that it was primarily policies and pressure that was associated with verbal aggression, whereas mainly practices was related to physical violence.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.108-124. Illus. 55 ref.
Edwards J.A., Webster S., Van Laar D., Easton S.
Psychometric analysis of the UK Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards work-related stress Indicator Tool
In the United Kingdom, the HSE's Management Standards Indicator Tool is increasingly used by enterprises to monitor working conditions that can lead to stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of this tool. Data were collected from 26,382 employees at 39 enterprises in the United Kingdom and used to perform a first-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the original 35-item seven-factor measurement scale. The results showed an acceptable fit to the data for the instrument. A second-order CFA was also performed to test if the tool contained a higher order one-dimensional measure of work-related stress. These findings also revealed an acceptable fit to the data, suggesting that it may be possible to derive a single measure of work-related stress. Normative data comprising tables of percentiles from the organizational data are provided to enable employers to compare their averages against national benchmarks.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.96-107. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposure to stress: Occupational hazards in hospitals
Various studies show that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job stress. In addition to psychological distress, other outcomes of job stress include burnout, absenteeism, employee intent to leave, reduced patient satisfaction, and diagnosis and treatment errors. The purpose of this booklet is to explain the sources of occupational stress, to identify the adverse health effects of occupational stress and to recommend work practices to reduce occupational stress. Short descriptions of two hospital stress prevention programmes are included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. iii, 13p. 28 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-136/pdfs/2008-136.pdf [in English]
Martínez Plaza C.A.
Occupational stress and cancer
Estrés laboral y cáncer [in Spanish]
Working conditions and work organization constitute psychosocial risk factors possibly leading to stress, in turn leading to somatic or psychic diseases. Stress has an incidence on the central nervous, immune and endocrine systems, resulting in higher susceptibility to carcinogens. This article discusses the relationship between occupational stress and cancer, together with the various mechanisms involved. Several models and studies on the stress/cancer relationship are reviewed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2008, No.46, p.28-47. Illus. 77 ref.
de Terssac G., Gaillard I.
The AZF disaster - Contributions from human and social sciences
La catastrophe d'AZF - L'apport des sciences humaines et sociales [in French]
On 21 September 2001, a fertilizer plant in Toulouse, France, exploded, causing the death of 30 persons, together with injuries and traumatic shock to many others. This disaster gave rise to a new industrial safety culture, in particular with respect to consultation between industry and government in the exchange of information (Bachelot law of 2003). This publication covers the various theoretical and practical lessons learned from this disaster, seen from a social and human sciences perspective.
Editions Tec et Doc, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xvii, 276p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: EUR 50.00.
Wright M., Beardwell C., Pennie D., Smith R., Norton Doyle J., Dimopoulos E.
Health and Safety Executive
Evidence based evaluation of the scale of disproportionate decisions on risk assessment and management
This report summarises a study of the prevalence and causes of disproportionate safety and health management in the United Kingdom. It confines itself to decisions that err on the side of excessive caution, excluding reckless decisions. Work involved reviewing literature, consulting trade associations and professional bodies, conducting a postal survey of decision makers and carrying out 12 case studies. Three times as many respondents believed that there was a problem with risk aversion in the United Kingdom in general, compared to those who felt that their own organization had such a problem. Some important factors include the fear of litigation, prosecution and personal liability. It also appears that the perceived likelihood of litigation and prosecution does not accord with true trends, suggesting that steps could be taken to address these fears.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. xii, 100p. 12 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr536.pdf [in English]
Edimansyah B.A., Rusli B.N., Naing L., Mohamed Rusli B.A., Winn T., Tengku Mohamed Ariff B.R.H.
Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychological job factors in male automotive assembly workers
This cross-sectional study explores the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors among automotive industry workers in Malaysia. A total of 728 workers, all male, responded to Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous working conditions were positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress, while supervisor support was inversely associated with depression and stress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.90-100. 40 ref.
Morin E., Aranha F.
Meaning of work, mental health and organizational commitment
Sens du travail, santé mentale et engagement organisationnel [in French]
The objective of this survey was to demonstrate that characteristics such as the usefulness and moral rectitude of the work, the learning and development opportunities, autonomy, recognition and the quality of human relations were linked to the meaning that people give to their work. Data were collected from the personnel of four organizations: a hospital, a health and social services centre, a research centre and an engineering consulting firm by means of questionnaires. Jobs perceived as being useful for society and that allow knowledge to be acquired were considered positive factors. Other hypotheses relating to the positive or negative impact of the meaning given to the work on psychological well-being or distress also emerged. Based on these findings, a theoretical model was developed that presents work organization as a determinant of employees' health, attitudes and performance. The report contains recommendations regarding the prevention of symptoms of psychological distress and the reduction of stress.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. iii, 54p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-543.pdf [in French]
Houtman I., Jettinghoff K., Cedillo L.
Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries - A modern hazard in a traditional working environment
Hatten-doshō-koku ni okeru rōdō sutoresu no ninshiki o kōjō saseru [in Japanese]
Sensibilisation au stress professionnel dans les pays en développement: Un risque actuel dans un environnement de travail traditionnel [in French]
Sensibilizando sobre el estrés laboral en los países en desarrollo - Un riesgo moderno en un ambiente de trabajo tradicional [in Spanish]
Work-related stress is an issue of growing concern in developing countries due to processes of globalization and the changing nature of work. In these countries, the focus of occupational safety and health initiatives has until now essentially been on chemical, biological and physical exposures, while the psychosocial risks at work are still largely neglected and their causes and consequences still insufficiently understood. This booklet raises awareness of the issue for employers and workers' representatives. Contents: introduction to the problem; effects of globalization and the changing nature of work; definition of work- related stress; model on work-related stress; managing work-related stress; acting at the local level; roles of employers' and workers' representatives.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2008. 44p. Illus. 41 ref.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789243591650_spa.pdf [in Spanish]
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789242591651_fre.pdf [in French]
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/924159165X_jpn.pdf [in Japanese]
http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/raisingawarenessofstress.pdf [in English]
Hansson A.S., Vingård E., Arnetz B.B., Anderzén I.
Organizational change, health, and sick leave among health care employees: A longitudinal study measuring stress markers, individual, and work site factors
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of organizational changes in health care services on employees' self-reported health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion, stress and sick leave. The initial population consisted of 226 Swedish workers engaged in the care of older people, reduced to 198 one year later. They were divided between a study group affected by organizational changes and a reference group not affected by them. Self-rated health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion and hormones associated with stress were analyzed using a two-factor variance analysis design. Findings showed no significant differences in self-rated health, work satisfaction and work-related exhaustion. However, significant changes were found across time and between groups for the recovery hormone DHEA-S. Other findings are discussed. The study highlights the importance of considering the impact of organizational change on employee well-being from a number of perspectives, such as self-reported health parameters, registered sick-leave data and biological stress markers.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.69-80. 35 ref.
Beckers D.G.J., van der Linden D., Smulders P.G.W., Kompier M.A.J., Taris T.W., Geurts S.E.A.
Voluntary or involuntary? Control over overtime and rewards for overtime in relation to fatigue and work satisfaction
This study aimed to examine whether the relationship between overtime and well-being is influenced by the voluntary vs. involuntary (i.e. compulsory) nature of overtime work and by the presence or absence of rewards for overtime. It also explored the prevalence of these types of overtime and how they were related to work and personal characteristics. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of 1612 full-time employees in the Netherlands. Variance analysis was used to compare rewarded and unrewarded, voluntary and involuntary overtime workers on personal and work characteristics, fatigue and work satisfaction. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that control over overtime and rewards for overtime are important for well-being. Moderate overtime work may not be a problem if it is done voluntarily. Moreover, the negative effects of compulsory overtime work may be partly offset by fair compensation.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.33-50. Illus. 47 ref.
Innstrand S.T., Langballe E.M., Espnes G.A., Falkum E., Aasland O.G.
Positive and negative work-family interaction and burnout: A longitudinal study of reciprocal relations
This study examined the relationship between work-family interaction in terms of the direction of influence (work-to-family vs. family-to-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation) and burnout. A sample of 2235 respondents from eight different occupational groups (lawyers, bus drivers, information technology workers, physicians, teachers, church ministers, advertising agency professional and nurses) supplied data at two points in time with a 2-year time interval. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed evidence for normal, reverse and reciprocal relationships. Other findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-15. Illus. 64 ref.
Saijo Y., Ueno T., Hashimoto Y.
Twenty-four-hour shift work, depressive symptoms, and job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between specific workload items and job stress among firefighters engaged in 24h shift work. The subjects were 1301 firefighters who answered a questionnaire covering age, gender, job type, job class, marital status, smoking and drinking habits, number of attendances, turnout time, extra work hours, CES-D depression scale and questions from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that workload, workload variance, conflicts, social support from a supervisor, role conflict and ambiguity, and self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters. Moreover, inadequate nap-time may affect their mental health. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2008, Vol.51, No.5, p.380-391. 53 ref.
Understanding work productivity and its application to work-related musculoskeletal disorders
An accurate measurement of work productivity is crucial to initiating, evaluating, and monitoring work disability management such as employee wellness and ergonomics programmes, and clinical interventions in work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This article presents a conceptual model of work productivity within the area of paid work and within the context of work-related MSDs. A discussion is provided on the two components of work productivity, namely as perceived and observed, and between absenteeism and presenteeism as sub-components of work productivity. A list of proposed research topics for applying the model to musculoskeletal diseases is presented.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar.-Apr. 2008, Vol.38, No.3-4, p.291-297. Illus. 34 ref.
Bond M.A., Kalaja A., Markkanen P., Cazeca D, Daniel S., Tsurikova L., Punnett L.
Expanding our understanding of the psychosocial work environment: A compendium of measures of discrimination, harassment and work-family issues
There is broad recognition that the psychosocial environment at work can affect physical and mental health as well as enterprise performance outcomes such as efficiency and productivity. Past research across several disciplines has revealed that gender- and race-related factors such as values, biases, harassment, discrimination, lack of support and work-family balance issues can affect physical and mental health. However, these features of the work environment have rarely been included simultaneously with the study of other workplace conditions. The objective of this project was to provide practical tools to occupational safety and health researchers interested in evaluating the role of discrimination, bias and work-family issues in occupational injuries and illness. A literature survey enabled the compiling of inventories, check lists, questionnaires and scenarios in the form of a catalogue of 46 measures that will be useful for investigating the psychosocial work environment.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Feb. 2008. vi, 275p. Approx. 120 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-104/pdfs/2008-104.pdf [in English]
Randolph R.F., Reinke D.C., Unger R.L.
NIOSH hearing loss simulator instruction and training guide
The NIOSH Hearing Loss Simulator is a software training and communication tool for promoting hearing loss prevention. It allows a user or trainer to demonstrate the effects of noise exposure on hearing without experiencing an actual noise-induced hearing loss. Estimates of the effects of different levels of noise exposure are based on the ANSI S3.44 standard, which specifies the predicted hearing loss for noise-exposed populations of individuals based on risk factors that include gender, age, sound levels and years of exposure. This guide explains the major objectives that can be addressed with the simulator and proposes training scenarios that can be applied to real-life occupational situations. The guide explains the simulator's functions in detail.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2008. 9p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2008-119.pdf [in English]
d'Errico A., Punnett L., Gold J.E., Gore R.
JCQ scale reliability and responsiveness to changes in manufacturing process
The job content questionnaire (JCQ) was administered to automobile manufacturing workers in two surveys, taken five years apart. Between the two interviews, the company introduced substantial changes in production technology in some production areas. The aims of this study were to describe the impact of these changes on self-reported psychosocial exposures and to examine the reliability of the JCQ scales, taking into account possible changes in job assignment. The study population included 790 subjects at the first and 519 at the second survey, of whom 387 participated in both. The introduction of more automated technology produced an overall increase in job control but did not decrease psychological demand. The reliability of the control scale was low overall but increased to an acceptable level among workers who had not changed job. The demand scale had high reliability only among workers whose physical ergonomic exposures were similar on both survey occasions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.138-147. 53 ref.
Carrión García M.A., López Barón F., Tous Pallarès J.
The APEA model, a psychosocial intervention protocol. Beyond the psychosocial evaluation
El modelo AEPA protocolo para la intervención psicosocial. Más allá de la evaluación psicosocial [in Spanish]
This article presents the "APEA" model of psychosocial intervention aimed at improving safety, health and the quality of life in the social work environment. It also describes an 8-step protocol for interventions within the enterprise: existing state of demand within the enterprise; collection and evaluation of data; action plan; corrections and changes to be implemented; selection of interventions (at the mega, macro and/or micro levels); implementation of the interventions; evaluation, follow-up and control of the results of the interventions; evaluation and follow-up aimed at introducing improvements.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Jan. 2008, No.45, p.22-30. Illus. 28 ref.
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