Psychological factors - 1,739 entries found
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Sherman M.F., Gershon R.R., Samar S.M., Pearson J.M., Canton A.N., Damsky M.R.
Safety factors predictive of job satisfaction and job retention among home healthcare aides
Although many work characteristics associated with job satisfaction in home health care have been documented, a unique aspect of the work environment of home health care aides that might also affect job satisfaction is the fact that their workplace is a household. To obtain a better understanding of the potential impact of the hazards within the household environment on job satisfaction and job retention in home care, a risk assessment study was conducted. Data from a sample of 823 New York City home health care aides were obtained by means of questionnaires and analysed. Household job-related risks, environmental exposures, transportation issues, threats, verbal and physical abuse and violence were significantly correlated with home health care aides' job satisfaction and job retention. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1430-1441. Illus. 20 ref.
Alterman T., Grosch J., Chen X., Chrislip D., Petersen M., Krieg E., Chung H., Muntaner C.
Examining associations between job characteristics and health: Linking data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to two U.S. national health surveys
The objective of this study was to determine whether the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database can be used to identify psychosocial and environmental job factors, and to determine whether these factors can be linked to national health surveys. Job characteristics were obtained from O*NET 98. Health outcomes were obtained from two national surveys. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between O*NET factors and cardiovascular disease, depression, and health risk factors. Seven of nine work organization or psychosocial factors were significantly associated with health risk behaviors in both the national surveys. This study demonstrates a method for linking independently-obtained health data and job characteristic data based on occupational code.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1401-1413. 85 ref.
de la Hoz R.E., Hill S., Chasan R., Bienenfeld L.A., Afilaka A.A., Wilk-Rivard E., Herbert R.
Health care and social issues of immigrant rescue and recovery workers at the World Trade Center site
This article reviews the experience of immigrant workers involved in rescue and recovery work at the World Trade Center (WTC). This group was comprised largely of male immigrants from Latin America (predominantly from Ecuador and Colombia) or from Eastern Europe (predominantly from Poland). Recent reports have begun to document the disproportionate burden of occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses experienced by immigrant workers in the United States. The WTC experience of immigrants exemplified this burden but, additionally, highlighted that this burden is exacerbated by limitations in access to appropriate health care, disability and compensation benefits, and vocational rehabilitation services. A clinical programme, designed to address the complex medical and psychosocial needs of these workers, is described and was successfully established.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1329-1334. 9 ref.
Aptel M., Cail F., Gerling A., Louis O.
Proposal of parameters to implement a workstation rotation system to protect against MSDs
Workstation rotation has a positive impact on psychosocial factors, but is often ineffective in relation to musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention, notably on account of the intensity of the biomechanical demands. The design of a workstation rotation system intended to prevent MSDs must take into account the characteristics of the population concerned, its work experience and biomechanical demands. A logic diagram is proposed which can assist in designing an improved workstation rotation system. It is based on four complementary dimensions: ergonomic study of the context; integration of scientific knowledge; mastery of the implementation of the rotation system; evaluation and follow-up of the results.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.38, p.900-909. Illus. 34 ref.
Van den Broeck A., Vansteenkiste M., De Witte H., Lens W.
Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.277-294. Illus. 71 ref.
Sonnentag S., Mojza E.J., Binnewies C., Scholl A.
Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect
Although work engagement is associated with positive outcomes for the employee and the organization, this article suggests that employees also need time periods for temporarily disengaging from work. It is hypothesized that psychological detachment from work during off-job time is particularly important when work engagement is high. Over the course of four working weeks, 159 employees from five German organizations from various industries completed surveys twice a week. Hierarchical linear modelling showed that work engagement moderated the relationship between psychological detachment and positive affect. These findings suggest that both engagement when being at work and disengagement when being away from work are most beneficial for employees' affective states.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.257-276. Illus. 72 ref.
Hakanen J.J., Schaufeli W.B., Ahola K.
The job demands-resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement
The objective of this study was to test the motivational and health impairment processes of the job demands-resources model. Subjects consisted of a representative sample of 2555 Finnish dentists, who responded to two questionnaires at a three-year interval. Findings supported both the motivational process and the health impairment process. Job resources influenced future work engagement, which, in turn, predicted organizational commitment, whereas job demands predicted burnout, which, in turn predicted later depression. Non-occupational demands and resources did not influence the motivational or health impairment process over time.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.224-241. Illus. 57 ref.
Bakker A.B., Schaufeli W.B., Leiter M.P., Taris T.W.
Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupation health psychology
This review article presents the emerging concept of work engagement: a positive and fulfilling state of work-related well-being that is characterized by vigour, dedication and absorption. Although there are different views of work engagement, most scholars agree that engaged employees have high levels of energy and identify strongly with their work. The most often used instrument to measure engagement is the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, a self-report instrument that has been validated in many countries across the world.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.187-200. 72 ref.
Väänänen A., Koskinen A., Joensuu M., Kivimäki M., Vahtera J., Kouvonen A., Jäppinen P.
Lack of predictability at work and risk of acute myocardial infarction: An 18-year prospective study of industrial employees
This study examined whether job autonomy and predictability were related to subsequent acute myocardial infarction (MI) events in a population of initially heart disease-free industrial employees. During an 18-year follow-up, 56 fatal and 316 nonfatal events of acute MI were documented among 7663 employees with no recorded history of cardiovascular disease at baseline in 1986. After adjustment for demographics, psychological distress, prevalent medical conditions, lifestyle risk factors and socioeconomic characteristics, low decision autonomy was not significantly related to subsequent acute MI. By contrast, low predictability at work was associated with elevated risk of acute MI, particularly among employees aged 45 to 54 years.
American Journal of Public Health, Dec. 2008, Vol. 98, No.12, p.2264-2271. 55 ref.
Salvatore A.L., Bradman A., Castorina R., Camacho J., López J., Barr D.B., Snyder J., Jewell N.P., Eskenazi B.
Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey County, California
The objective of this study was to assess the safety consciousness of farmworkers with respect to pesticide exposure. Behaviours of 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California, were assessed via self-reports. Organophosphorus (OP) exposure was evaluated using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Wearing recommended protective clothing, wearing clean work clothes, and the combination of hand washing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA metabolite levels. However, despite these precautions, participants still had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.782-794. Illus. 57 ref.
Violanti J.M., Charles L.E., Hartley T.A., Mnatsakanova A., Andrew M.E., Fekedulegn D., Vila B., Burchfiel C.M.
Shift-work and suicide ideation among police officers
This cross-sectional study assessed the association between shift work and suicide ideation among police officers. Shift work was based on daily payroll records over five years for 41 women and 70 men. Standardized psychological measures were employed. ANOVA and Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations. Among policewomen with increased depressive symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 116% for every 10-unit increase in percentage of hours worked on day shift (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.16). Among policemen with higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, prevalence of suicide ideation increased by 13% with every 10-unit increase in the percentage of hours worked on afternoon shift (PR 1.13).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.758-768. 57 ref.
Gilworth G., Smyth G., Smith J., Tennant A.
The development and validation of the office work screen
A 62-item questionnaire aimed at capturing relevant psychosocial issues and musculoskeletal symptoms and measuring work instability among office workers was developed and returned by 153 employees from two different settings. The data were fitted to the Rasch model of work instability. Reliability was 0.9, indicating suitability for use at the individual level. The questionnaire incorporates both musculoskeletal and psychosocial factors in one dimension. This new questionnaire will facilitate workforce screening, individual monitoring and proactive targeting of interventions (for example, vocational rehabilitation) to prevent or minimize sickness absence in office workers.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.289-294. Illus. 29 ref.
Ayers K.M.S., Thomson W.M., Newton J.T., Rich A.M.
Job stressors of New Zealand dentists and their coping strategies
The aim of this study was to investigate job stressors and coping strategies among New Zealand dentists by means of a nationwide postal survey of a representative sample of 700 dentists. The response rate was 65%. The most commonly-reported stressors were treating difficult children (52%), constant time pressure (48%) and maintaining high levels of concentration (43%). The strategies most utilized for managing work-related stress included interactions with people (78%), sports (64%) and forgetting about work (59%). There were differences in the strategies used by male and female practitioners. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.275-281. 25 ref.
Psychosocial aspects of shift work
Les aspects psychosociaux du travail en équipes [in French]
More and more enterprises resort to shift work which, for most workers, is not a matter of choice. This article reviews the various psychosocial effects of shift work. Topics addressed: economic advantages of shift work for enterprises; individual factors; sleep and fatigue; nutrition; psychological effects; effects on human relations; possible improvements; advice on how to organize shift work.
Prevent Focus, Nov. 2008, No.9, p.16-19. Illus.
Macciocu L., Nardella C., Rossi I., Stella M., Brizio L.
Workers' active participation in the prevention of psychosocial hazards in the credit sector: A key priority for becoming a socially responsible business
La partecipazione attiva del lavoratore nella prevenzione dei rischi psicosociali nel settore del credito: elemento prioritario per l'attuazione di un'impresa socialmente responsabile [in Italian]
The aim of this study was to examine the level of employee participation in safety and health in the banking sector in Italy, focusing primarily on issues related to well-being, work organization and the worker-organization interface. Data were collected from 2100 banking sector employees across Italy, by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis revealed a working environment that does not facilitate worker participation. Three out of four workers clearly affirmed that they were not in a position to actively contribute to the promotion of safety and well-being in their workplace. Other findings are discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.17-40. Illus. 33 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_1_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_1_en.pdf [in English]
Living and working in Europe
Vivre et travailler en Europe [in French]
The European Union (EU), together with its citizens, is undergoing profound change. Demographic change, greater global competition, technological developments and the enlargement of the EU itself are all shaping the lives, both private and professional, of ordinary men and women across the Member States. This overview uses the European Foundation's (Eurofound) research findings to capture a snapshot of what it means to live and work in Europe at the start of the 21st century. The detailed reports available through the Eurofound website provide deeper insights into the issues summarized here.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, Nov. 2008. 28p. Illus.
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2008/90/en/2/EF0890EN.pdf [in English]
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2008/90/fr/2/EF0890FR.pdf [in French]
Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment in employees in a Norwegian municipality: A cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to validate a Norwegian version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI-Q). A total of 1803 employees in a medium-sized Norwegian municipality replied to the ERI-Q, and health-related variables such as self-reported general health, psychological distress, musculoskeletal complaints, and work-related burnout were examined. Findings are discussed. Satisfactory psychometric properties were found for most of the latent factors in the ERI-Q. The findings also indicate that it may be fruitful to explore health conditions among employees with different combinations of effort-reward and overcommitment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Apr. 2008, Vol.3, No.9, 11p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2405796/pdf/1745-6673-3-9.pdf [in English]
Lee T.K., LaBrie R.A., Rhee H.S., Shaffer H.J.
A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems
The objective of this study was to identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes among casino employees in South Korea depending upon whether or not they reported any gambling problems. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 388 employees on the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems were compared to those who reported any gambling problems. Exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems reported more smoking, alcohol consumption and depression compared to employees who did not report gambling problems. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.191-197. 23 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/191 [in English]
Kivistö M., Härmä M., Sallinen M., Kalimo R.
Work-related factors, sleep debt and insomnia in IT professionals
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of sleep debt, insomnia and long working hours among Finnish IT professionals and to analyse which specific work-related factors are associated with shortened sleep. A total of 2334 IT professionals responded to a questionnaire survey. Thirty-seven per cent reported sleep debt of at least 1h and 6% of at least 2h, while 16% reported insomnia. Twenty-seven per cent worked for a minimum of 50h per week. Hierarchical regression analyses were applied to investigate risk factors of sleep debt and insomnia. The most important factors associated with both sleep debt and insomnia were work-related demands requiring long hours, mental stamina, problem solving and positive perceptions of work, such as job control and importance of the respondents' own work in their life.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.138-140. 9 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/138 [in English]
Brousse G., Fontana L., Ouchchane L., Boisson C., Gerbaud L., Bourguet D., Perrier A., Schmitt A., Llorca P.M., Chamoux A.
Psychopathological features of a patient population of targets of workplace bullying
The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of stress and anxiety-depression disorder developed by targets of workplace bullying and to characterize this population in terms of psychopathology and socio-demographic features. Forty-eight patients (36 women and 12 men) meeting Leymann criteria for bullying were included in a prospective study. Evaluations were performed at first consultation and at 12 months using a standard clinical interview and several tests for stress, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Stress at work and depression significantly influenced capacity to return to work. At 12-month assessments, subjects working showed a significantly better score on the HAD scale than those still not working. Over half the targets presented a neuroticism-related predominant personality trait. Workplace bullying can have severe mental health repercussions, triggering serious and persistent underlying disorders.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.122-128. 34 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/122 [in English]
Spreeuwers D., de Boer A.G.E.M., Verbeek J.H.A.M., van Beurden M.M., van Dijk F.J.H.
Diagnosing and reporting of occupational diseases: A quality improvement study
The objective of this study was to assess the need of quality improvement in the diagnosis and reporting of noise-induced occupational hearing loss and occupational adjustment disorder. Questionnaires were sent to occupational physicians in the Netherlands. Twenty-three questionnaires on noise-induced hearing loss and 125 questionnaires on adjustment disorder were available for analysis. For noise-induced hearing loss, there was a need for quality improvement of the aspects of medical history, audiometric measurement, clinical diagnosis of the disease and reporting. For adjustment disorder, the assessment of other non-occupational causes needed improvement. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.115-121. 23 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/115 [in English]
Estryn-Behar M., van der Heijden B., Camerino D., Fry C., Le Nezet O., Conway P.M., Hasselhorn H.M.
Violence risks in nursing - Results from the European "NEXT" study
Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. A total of 39,894 nurses from 10 European countries responded to a questionnaire at baseline and one year later. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and various work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Findings are discussed. This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.107-114. 26 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/107 [in English]
Roelen C.A.M., Schreuder K.J., Koopmans P.C., Groothoff J.W.
Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether perceived (physical and mental) workload and specific job demands are associated with self-reported health complaints. A random sample of 983 male employees working in manufacturing industry in the Netherlands responded to the Basic Occupational Health Questionnaire. The main findings were that perceived physical job demands matched with self-reported musculoskeletal complaints, whereas perceived mental job demands were unrelated to specific complaints. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.58-63. 27 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/58 [in English]
Giannandrea F., Settimi L., Figà Talamanca I.F.
The use of personal protective equipment in pregnant greenhouse workers
The objective of this study was to determine the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among pregnant greenhouse workers in Italy and to identify risk factors related to the non-use of appropriate preventive measures. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to 232 Italian female greenhouse workers regarding their use of PPE and the outcomes of their first pregnancy. Although most pregnant women used at least one form of PPE while working, there were differences in rates of PPE use according to social status. Overall, the protection was inadequate in the south of Italy and among the less educated. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.52-57. 29 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/52 [in English]
Petersen M.R., Burnett C.A.
The suicide mortality of working physicians and dentists
Using all deaths and corresponding census data in 26 states of the United States from 1984 to 1992, this study examined the suicide risk for physicians and dentists. Age-standardized suicide rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated for white male and white female physicians and white male dentists. For white female physicians, the suicide rate was elevated compared to the general working population (SRR 2.39). For white male physicians and dentists, the overall suicide rates were reduced (SRR 0.80 and 0.68 respectively). For older male physicians and dentists, however, elevated suicide rates were observed. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.25-29. 21 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/25 [in English]
Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., David S.
Importance of psychosocial work factors on general health outcomes in the national French SUMER survey
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between psychosocial work factors and state of health indicators within the national French working population. The study was based on a questionnaire survey of a sample of 24,486 working women and men. Psychosocial risk factors at work included psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, workplace bullying and violence from the public. The health indicators studied were self-reported health, long sickness absence (>8 days of absence) and work injury. Low decision latitude, low social support and high psychological demands were found to be risk factors for poor self-reported health and long sickness absence. High demands were also found to be associated with work injury. Workplace bullying and/or violence from the public also increased the risk of poor health, long sickness absence and work injury.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.15-24. 57 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/15 [in English]
Sheriff B., Stevens P.
Mental health challenges
This article discusses employers' responsibilities with respect to employees' mental health in Australia. It argues that this is a top management responsibility, requiring empathy and flexibility, together with awareness of the psychological frailty of victims when planning job or organizational changes. Reference is also made to legal aspects in Australia.
National Safety - The Magazine of the National Safety Council of Australia, May 2008, Vol.3, No.4, p.36-41. Illus.
Kang Y., Hahm H., Yang S., Kim T.
Application of the life change unit model for the prevention of accident proneness among small to medium sized industries in Korea
Behaviour models have provided an accident proneness concept based on life change unit (LCU) factors. This paper describes the development of a Korean Life Change Unit (KLCU) model for workers and managers in fatal accident areas, as well as an evaluation of its application. Results suggest that death of parents is the highest stress-giving factor for employees of small and medium sized industries, a rational finding the viewpoint of Korean culture. The next stress-giving factors were shown to be the death of a spouse, followed by the death of close family members, the death of close friends, problems of family members' health, unemployment, and jail terms. It turned out that these factors have a serious effect on industrial accidents and work-related diseases. The death of parents and close friends are ranked higher in the KLCU model than that of Western society.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.470-476. 19 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_470.pdf [in English]
Del Prado-Lu J.L.
Organizational work factors among workers and supervisors in export processing zones which support global markets
The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between organizational and management factors at work for both front-line workers and supervisors in the Philippines' manufacturing sector. A survey was carried out in a sample of 23 establishments, 630 workers, and 47 supervisors, while ten focus group discussions for workers and five for supervisors were also held. Workers and supervisors alike reported illnesses and job dissatisfaction. The most prevalent issues among workers were insufficient skills, being pressured in doing work, fast paced work, repetitive work, and that work is both physically and mentally tiring. On the other hand, supervisors described their work as challenging, needing regular upgrading of skills and needing literacy on information technology. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.435-442. 23 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_435.pdf [in English]
When introducing change in the workplace, it is essential to focus on the motivation and engagement of workers, and not just on systems and processes. This article describes three models that occupational safety and health managers can use to gain commitment of staff: the management of complex change model, the DREC (denial, resistance, exploration and commitment) model, and force field analysis.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Dec. 2008, Vol.26, No.12, p.39-40. Illus. 4 ref.
Pauley K.A., O'Hare D., Mullen N.W., Wiggins M.
Implicit perceptions of risk and anxiety and pilot involvement in hazardous events
Pilots' decision making consists of both explicit processes and implicit, or intuitive, processes. This study examined the relationship between the implicit reactions toward risk among general aviation pilots in New Zealand and Australia, and their involvement in hazardous events. The pilots responded to a questionnaire and the Implicit Association Test was used to measure their associations between weather conditions and perceived risk and anxiety. It was found that the more weather-related hazardous events the pilots had been involved in, the less they associated implicit risk with adverse weather and the less implicitly anxious they were toward adverse weather. Pilots may therefore be involved in risk-taking behaviour because they perceive less risk in, and are implicitly less afraid of, hazardous conditions.
Human Factors, Oct. 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.723-733. 54 ref.
Hokstad P., Vatn J.
Ethical dilemmas in traffic safety work
This article explores various ethical questions regarding priority setting in safety. Some traffic examples are applied to illustrate the dilemmas. Basic ethical principles are considered, including approaches based on utility, fairness and discourse. It also discusses the various dimensions of utility and risk that could be relevant. Ethical challenges related to the willingness to pay are considered. A small-scale survey was carried out regarding the priority setting of traffic safety measures by individuals. The main results of this survey are summarized to provide a background for a discussion of the ethical dilemmas.
Safety Science, Dec. 2008, Vol.46, No.10, p.1435-1449. Illus. 24 ref.
Zhou Q., Fang D., Wang X.
A method to identify strategies for the improvement of human safety behavior by considering safety climate and personal experience
A Bayesian network (BN) model for studying safety climate in the construction sector in China is proposed as well as a methodology to identify potential strategies for safety improvement. A survey of 4700 employees was conducted at a large construction firm in China. BN analyses demonstrated that the safety climate factors had a more significant influence on an employee's safety behaviour than personal experience factors. It was found that a simple strategy could be effective when safety climate factors were properly controlled. In addition, a strategy involving controlling multiple factors (or joint strategies) could further improve safety behaviour. The analysis suggested that a joint control of both safety climate factors and personal experience factors worked most effectively. Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Dec. 2008, Vol.46, No.10, p.1406-1419. Illus. 39 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
The work of monitors of Febem
O trabalho dos monitores na Febem [in Portuguese]
Study of working conditions and health problems among monitors working in a Brazilian detention centre for minors called FEBEM.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2008. 84p. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/ARQUIVOS/PUBLICACAO/l/Monitores%20Febem.pdf [in Portuguese]
Ramminger T., Cruz de Brito J.
Mental health work: A preliminary analysis of public service workers' health
O trabalho em saúde mental: uma análise preliminar relativa à saúde dos trabalhadores dos serviços públicos [in Portuguese]
This preliminary analysis of the health of workers in psychiatric services in Brazil is based on a literature survey of the relation between health and work at mental health services and individual and group interviews of mental health service workers. These elements will be used for further research.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.36-49. 63 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20117%20Trabalho%20em%20sa%C3%BAde%20mental.pdf [in Portuguese]
Hungria Xavier A.C., Veiga Barcelos C.R., Peixoto Lopes J., Gandarela Chamarelli P., de Souza Ribeiro S., da Silva Lacerda L., Palacios M.
Workplace moral harassment in Rio de Janeiro health sector: Some characteristics
Assédio moral no trabalho no setor saúde no Rio de Janeiro: algumas características [in Portuguese]
This study examines the magnitude and some of the characteristics of the phenomenon of workplace moral harassement in the health care sector in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from previous randomized survey carried out in 2001 were analysed. All cases (1569) and their variables related to moral harassment were selected for the analysis. The occupational group of nurses' aides presented the highest proportion of moral harassment victims (22.7%) and the most frequent perpetrators were co-workers, supervisors and managers (48.7%). The victims' most frequent psychological reaction was "becoming super-alert". Although a certain proportion (38.5%) reported to their supervisors they had been morally harassed, action was taken in only 20% of the cases. The need to implement institutional measures to control violence at work is emphasized.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.15-22. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20117%20Ass%C3%A9dio%20moral.pdf [in Portuguese]
Phakthongsuk P., Apakupakul N.
Psychometric properties of the Thai version of the 22-item and 45-item Karasek job content questionnaire
The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 22-item and 45-item Thai versions of the job content questionnaire (TJCQ). The study encompassed 10,450 employees in Songkhla province, Thailand. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Factor validation was tested using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Both 22-item and 45-item versions demonstrated acceptable internal consistency in nearly all scales. The study provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the TJCQ among Thai employees.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.4, p.331-344. 43 ref.
The role of school organizational climate in occupational stress among secondary school teachers in Tehran
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of school organizational climate on the occupational stress of teachers. The study population consisted of a random sample of 220 secondary schools teachers in Tehran, Iran. Data on organizational climate and occupational stress were collected by means of questionnaires and subjected to statistical regression analysis. Moderate or high occupational stress was reported by 40% of the subjects. The rate of occupational stress among teachers could be predicted using the scores on the school organizational climate.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.4, p.319-329. 34 ref.
Needham I., Kingma M., O'Brian-Pallas L., McKenna K., Tucker R., Oud N.
Workplace violence in the health sector
Proceedings of a conference on workplace violence in the health care sector held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2008. Papers are grouped into chapters addressing the following issues: keynotes; economic aspects and implications of workplace violence; gender aspects; legal and ethical aspects; epidemiology, patterns and trends; policies and operational strategies; scientific aspects; social and psychological aspects; staff training and education.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2008. 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Lodde B., Jegaden D., Lucas D., Feraud M., Eusen Y., Dewitte J.D.
Stress in seamen and non seamen employed by the same company
The aim of this survey was to compare the level of occupational stress among 74 crew members working on French oceanographic vessels to that of 74 technicians and engineers from the oceanographic institute, who board the ships to operate special equipment during missions at sea. Both groups consisted of males of comparable age, who responded to questionnaires. The results showed that while there were no significant differences in strain at work and social support, there were significant differences in decision latitude which was much lower among seamen. The occupation of seaman was found to include specific elements regarded by Karasek as susceptible to lead to stress.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.53-60. 14 ref.
Boya F.O., Demiral Y., Ergör A., Akvardar Y., De Witte H.
Effects of perceived job insecurity on perceived anxiety and depression in nurses
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of perceived job insecurity on depression and anxiety among nurses working in the private health sector in Izmir, Turkey. A total of 462 nurses from 16 hospitals participated. Perceived quantitative and qualitative job insecurity were measured by means of structured questionnaires. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Job strain was assessed by the demand-control-support questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Anxiety (odds ratio OR 2.2) and depression (OR 2.5) were significantly associated with qualitative job insecurity. Similarly, quantitative job insecurity was associated with anxiety (OR 3.4) and depression (OR 2.2).
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.613-619. 26 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_613.pdf [in English]
Yamasaki A., Araki S., Sakai R., Yokoyama K., Voorhees A.S.
Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: Time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density
Effects of nine social life indicators on annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-1996 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Indicators included unemployment rate, participation of women in the labour force, age structure of the population, population density, divorce rates, industry, age and sex. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.541-549. Illus. 65 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_541.pdf [in English]
Snyder L.A., Krauss A.D., Chen P.Y., Finlinson S., Huang Y.H.
Occupational safety: Application of the job demand-control-support model
The utility of the job demand-control-support (JDCS) model for explaining psychological and physical well-being has been documented in a variety of settings. The current study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of the JDCS model for predicting occupational injuries based on data for blue-collar workers from two regions of the United States. Risk factors were evaluated using hierarchical linear modeling. Significant interactions were found between situational constraints and safety control to predict workplace injuries. However, there were no significant three-way interactions between situational constraints, safety control and safety climate on workplace injuries. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2008, Vol.40, No.5, p.1713-1723. Illus. 47 ref.
Phan Chan Thé E.
Identifying a suicide crisis and suicide prevention at the place of work
Repérage de la crise suicidaire et prévention du suicide au travail [in French]
Contents of this review article on the prevention of suicide risk at the place of work: general aspects; definition of suicide risk; identifying persons with suicidal intentions; recommendations with respect to behaviour aimed at work colleagues; evaluation of the risk and urgency; list of suicide risk factors proposed by the WHO; suicide prevention strategies at the place of work.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.84-88. Illus.
Judgement on the safety of a sociotechnical system
Le jugement sur la sécurité d'un système sociotechnique [in French]
This article raises issues related to major industrial accidents. It argues that the excessive confidence that often results in a major accident is due to unfortunate drifts in the working of organizations.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.42-48. Illus.
Paturel D., Champion I.
Organization and bullying - Occupational safety and health challenges
Organisation et harcèlement moral - Les enjeux de la prévention [in French]
This review article on bullying discusses the specific aspects of French legislation. It includes accounts of victims and analyses the causes of bullying as well as the psychological profiles of victims and perpetrators. It suggests that a central cause of bullying is dysfunctional human relations within the enterprise.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2008, No.98, p.81-87. Illus. 17 ref.
Comparing the Job Strain and Job Demand-Control-Support models in direct-care disability workers: Support for support
This study evaluated the relationship of physiological indices of stress (cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A) to the job strain and the job demand-control-support models. A sample of 98 direct-care disability workers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Job Content Questionnaire. In addition, participants' morning saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol and immunoglobulin A concentration levels. The job strain and job demand-control-support models were tested using structural equation modelling. The job demand-control-support model successfully fitted with the data and was able to predict physiological outcomes; the job strain model did not. Salivary immunoglobulin A levels were predicted more successfully than the cortisol levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.316-323. Illus. 40 ref.
Lau B., Knardahl S.
Perceived job insecurity, job predictability, personality, and health
This study sought to determine whether perceived job insecurity was associated with workers' personality traits and beliefs. In addition, it was tested whether aspects of personality reinforced or moderated the relationships between job insecurity and health. A first questionnaire was returned by 5163 participants of the Oslo Health Study, and a follow-up questionnaire sent six months later to a random sample among the first respondents was returned by 1946 participants. Confidence in having a good job in two years was most strongly related to the health variables, and particularly with mental distress. Type-A behavior predicted an increase in upper back pain, while optimism predicted a reduction in low back pain. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.172-181. 37 ref.
Osinubi O.Y.O., Gandhi S.K., Ohman-Strickland P., Boglarsky C., Fiedler N., Kipen H., Robson M.
Organizational factors and office workers' health after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks: Long-term physical symptoms, psychological distress, and work productivity
To assess if organizational factors were predictors of workers' health and productivity after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 750 workers, comparing those that had direct exposures to the WTC attacks (south of Canal Street workers) with those less directly exposed (north of Canal Street workers). South of Canal Street workers reported headache and cough more frequently than north of Canal Street workers. Organizational culture was an independent predictor of cough and job stress, and job stress was an independent predictor of on-the-job productivity losses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.112-125. 45 ref.
Haruyama Y., Muto T., Ichimura K., Yan Y., Fukuda H.
Changes of subjective stress and stress-related symptoms after a merger announcement: A longitudinal study in a merger-planning company in Japan
To investigate the influences of a merger on employees in a major Japanese financial company, changes of subjective stress and stress-related symptoms after a merger announcement were explored among 71 employees using longitudinal study surveys. Questionnaire items concerned stress and symptoms, personal characteristics, lifestyle, medical examinations and work-related factors. After the merger announcement, the prevalence of subjective stress, anxiety and impatience increased significantly from 46.5% to 78.9%, 18.3% to 40.8% and 15.9% to 29.0%, respectively. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.183-187. 18 ref.
Dağdeviren M., Yüksel İ., Kurt M.
A fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) model to identify faulty behavior risk (FBR) in work system
Work system safety is a function of many factors, besides being dynamic and complex. There may be relations and dependencies among the safety factors. Therefore, work system safety should be analyzed in a holistic manner. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the faulty behaviour risks (FBRs) which are significant in work system safety through an analytical network process (ANP), an extension of the analytical hierarchy process which allows the analysis of complex systems. Besides, there are many difficulties and limitations in measuring the faulty behaviour factors. For this reason, the weights of factors and sub-factors necessary to calculate the FBR were determined by using fuzzy ANP, making it possible to improve decision-making processes.
Safety Science, June 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.771-783. Illus. 34 ref.
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