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Psychological factors - 1,739 entries found

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  • Psychological factors


CIS 74-1793 Moreau F.
Flexible working hours - Their effects on conditions of work, and the psychology and physiology of workers
L'horaire variable ou libre - Ses incidences sur les conditions de travail, la psychologie, la physiologie des travailleurs. [in French]
This MD thesis reviews the experience with this type of work schedule, the use of which is spreading: background, definitions, methods of application, recording and checking of hours worked, applicability, French statutory provisions, stages in the introduction of such schedules in an undertaking, results of experience with flexible working hours as regards the workers and the undertaking, unions' opinions, effects on work in different occupational categories (women, young persons, old or handicapped workers) and on the social and economic environment (leisure time, commuting). In the light of this experience, the effects of flexible working hours on the workers' physiology and psychology, the role of plant physicians and future prospects are examined.
Université de Paris - Val-de-Marne, Faculté de médecine de Créteil, Créteil, France, 1974. 88p. 78 ref.


CIS 79-283 Kearns J.L.
Stress in industry.
This book is the result of an international seminar on industrial stress held in Windsor, United Kingdom, in 1970. Aspects of work stress ranging from the manager's career problems to stress on the factory floor are analysed. Experience from several countries is gathered to show how industrial stress can be tackled at organisation, trade union and national levels. The book can also help doctors to recognise and treat stress illnesses.
Priory Press Ltd.,101 Grays Inn Road, London WCl,1973. Available from Robert Murray Associates, Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1HP, United Kingdom. 160p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: £2.50.

CIS 75-861 Peschl I.A.S.Z.
Studies on the behaviour of large crowds flowing through doors and narrow passageways in panic or crush situations
Recherches sur le comportement des grandes masses humaines qui se pressent pour franchir des portes et des passages resserré en cas de panique ou de bousculade. [in French]
Translation of: Untersuchungen über das Verhalten von grossen Menschenmengen bei der Strömung durch Türen und Engpässe in Panik- oder Gedrängesituationen. Moderne Unfallverhütung, Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1972, No.16, p.49-54. Illus. 4 ref. In panic situations, the rapid evacuation of large premises is possible only if the exits are sufficiently wide to prevent the danger of "arching" of human bodies (as in bins). The design of the transition of the width of the corridor to the width of the door is important. The doors should open outwards and should be easily operated. Experiments with students were filmed and analysed. They showed that there was a clear correlation between "arching" and the width of the door. Arching is considered statically and dynamically. Comparative experiments with steel balls supplement the information obtained, which is summarised in 6 rules listed at the end of the article.
Traduction INRS 84 B-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 15p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-542 Melino C.
Neurosis and railway employment - Results of an analysis of 319 cases of neurosis
Nevrosi e lavoro ferroviario - Risultanze di un'analisi su 319 casi di nevrosi [in Italian]
In-depth survey of 319 cases of neurosis among the administrative and traffic department employees and manual workers of the Italian railways, supplementing a former article of a more general nature. The authors describe the clinical aspects and give the results of psychotechnical tests and of their research into the occupational and non-occupational origins of the neuroses observed. The data collected enable a programme for the prevention of these disorders to be drawn up. To achieve success such a programme should be concerned not only with technical occupational factors, but also with extraneous factors such as family or character problems, etc. which may contribute to the onset of neurosis.
Difesa sociale, 1973, Vol.4, p.61-96. 44 ref.

CIS 75-283 Chazalette A.
Study of the consequences of alternating shift work and their explanatory factors
Etude sur les conséquences du travail en équipes alternantes et leurs facteurs explicatifs. [in French]
Report of a survey covering a representative sample of shift workers and their wives. This study, an overall sociological approach to the problems of shift workers attempting to discover the various factors affecting their adaptation, comprises a typology formulated on the basis of a computerised programme, and an analysis of the objective and subjective assessments of each case, which enabled the repercussions of alternating shift work on sleep, meals, health, family life, social life, leisure and working conditions to be ascertained. The data collected are analysed and graded; practical guidelines to attenuate the harmful effects of shift work and augment its advantages are suggested.
Groupe de sociologie urbaine, 102 rue Tronchet, 69006 Lyon, France, May 1973. 139p. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 75-281 Röbke R., Schulte B., Thimm K.
Variability of human behaviour as a cause of accidents
Verhaltensvariabilität des Menschen als Unfallursache [in German]
Study to establish bases and develop methods to reduce the number of occupational accidents due to behaviour, by adapting work to human behavioural characteristics. A model of the development of dangerous behaviour is followed by an analysis of 1,044 occupational accidents, revealing the existence of 7 groups of causes: attention and perception failures (50% of cases), violation of known rules and instructions (30%), ignorance of rules and instructions (15%), etc. The study concentrates on the 2 chief causes and the influence of the environment and individual characteristics. Description of the modalities of an analysis of hazards associated with behaviour, to serve as a basis for preventive measures.
Forschungsbericht Nr.113, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Martener Strasse 435, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973. 349p. Illus. 73 ref.

CIS 75-289 Dieterly D.L.
Accident research: The human element in industrial accidents.
Introductory comments concerning the origin and importance of accident research are followed by a discussion of certain aspects of the accident phenomenon (definition of accident, accident model, measurement of accidents). The major part of the paper is devoted to a literature survey in the field of industrial accidents. 3 main categories emerge from this survey: accident proneness studies, studies of the effect of the psychological work environment, and predictive studies. These studies are analysed to determine their relevance and importance to current theoretical work.
Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA, Sep. 1973. 55p. Illus. 61 ref. Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. Accession No. AD 768 342.

CIS 74-2084 Di Naro C., Novaga M., Coletti G., Colli S.
Safety and productivity: influence of technological variables on workers' behaviour
Sicurezza e produttività: influenza delle variabili tecnologiche sul comportamento lavorativo [in Italian]
Description of a survey carried out in a steelworks in the Milan region, as part of the "Community research project on the relations between productivity and safety" sponsored by the Commission of European Communities. The object of the survey was to analyse production methods on the one hand, and to observe human behaviour in the presence of various technological factors in the undertaking, on the other. Field sampling was carried out day and night from a point in the works selected as presenting a typical cross-section of activity (from the cabin of an overhead travelling crane). The research team noted the behaviour of the workers and their supervisors in different working conditions, which they call technological variables, and came to the conclusion that these factors do have an effect on the personnel; for instance, behaviour is different during the daytime (when there are more workers) than at night (when there are less); supervisors appear less frequently at night, even in the most dangerous zones, and they spend less time on each inspection than during the daytime. The survey should be supplemented by further research.
Securitas, 1973, Vol.58, No.7, p.743-756. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 74-1800 McKelvey R.K., Engen T., Peck M.B.
Performance efficiency and injury avoidance as a function of positive and negative incentives.
40 inexperienced subjects (median age 22 years) were paid to operate a modified, foot-operated power press. At the same time, they had to respond to a visual indicator (signal light) of press malfunction and to avoid manipulation errors which could cause accidents. 4 different monetary incentives (both positive and negative) were used in these tests. The experimental procedure and the results are presented and discussed in detail. One of the findings of the study is that pay incentives used to increase production may also increase the number of accidents. These may be caused not only by increased carelessness related to a desire to earn more money, but also by the reduction in ability resulting from overwork and fatigue.
Journal of Safety Research, June 1973, Vol.5, No.2, p.90-96. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 74-1491 Kogan L.A.
Morbidity rates among the workforce of a chemical plant considered in the light of some social, industrial and occupational factors
Zabolevaemost' rabočih himičeskogo predprijatija s učetom nekotoryh social'nyh i proizvodstvenno-professional'nyh faktorov [in Russian]
Analysis of the influence of social and occupational factors (e.g. sex, age, occupation, length of service, working conditions, work organisation, social welfare, housing, quality of medical supervision) on the number of days lost through sickness at a large chemical plant in the USSR. The article contains statistical tables covering a period of 15 years.
Sovetskoe zdravoohranenie, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.42-47.

CIS 74-1471 6th national preventive medicine days for hospital staff
VIe Journées nationales de médecine préventive du personnel hospitalier. [in French]
Proceedings of this congress (10-12 May 1973, Tours, France) at which 2 reports were presented: Psychological approach among hospital staff (Meau R., Sudre M.C., Paquiet J.); Standards of aptitude to be met by hospital personnel (Doumert J., Barbier C., Cherif S., Jallet M.F., Pigney F., Ronot P.). These reports were supplemented by various communications dealing with the following subjects among others: absenteeism due to psychic factors; psychiatric pathology among hospital staff; psychosomatic disturbances among female hospital staff; psychological difficulties which confront practitioners responsible for preventive medicine among hospital staff; epidemiology and prophylaxis of viral hepatitis in hospitals.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1973, Vol.34, No.12, p.681-781. Illus.

CIS 74-1490 Gürtler H.
Laws and influencing factors of the mental mechanism which relate to the recognition of rare occurrences, in particular accidents with varying consequences
Gesetzmässigkeiten und Einflüsse auf das Merken seltener Ereignisse, insbesondere auf das Merken von Unfällen mit unterschiedlichen Folgen [in German]
This study is based on the hypothesis that accidents occurring in an undertaking are not noted, even repetitive accidents. It presents several series of accidents which occurred in 14 different workshops and which had more or less serious consequences, and reports the results of surveys carried out on all the workers. The incidents and attitudes are analysed in detail. The conclusion is that accidents were noted, but that the hazards were accepted and even considered inevitable.
Forschungsbericht Nr.102, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 25, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973. 156p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: DM.10.50.

CIS 74-1181 Couillault S.
Work humanisation in industry
L'humanisation du travail dans l'entreprise industrielle. [in French]
This book, written by a plant physician who paints a large canvas of the psycho-sociological aspects of modern work, contains sections on: definition, psychological, physiological and sociological basis of ergonomics; study of several means of humanising work (communications, environment, etc.); role of specialised social workers in humanisation of work (plant physicians, safety engineeers and industrial psychologists, welfare officers, nurses); conclusions.
Epi, 68 rue de Babylone, 75007 Paris, France, 1973. 157p. 50 ref. Price: FF.40.00.

CIS 74-1180 Ahlmark A., Axelsson B.
How to prevent harmful psychogenic reactions in everyday work: A great problem for local governments
Hur förebygga skadliga psykogena reaktioner i dagens arbetsliv: en stor kommunal förvaltnings problem [in Swedish]
A number of workposts selected at random in local government agencies in Sweden were visited and their environments analysed. All employees born on the 10th and 20th of each month were requested to fill in a questionnaire. Medical expert opinion on the psychogenic factors originating from the work situation was obtained. Overwork, extremes of skilled and unskilled work, anxiety about changes in the work organisation and difficulties in co-operation with supervisors and other employees proved to be the most frequent causes for psychogenic reactions. Individual factors should also be taken into consideration. A good health care organisation at the workplace is of great importance for the prevention of psychogenic disturbances.
Nordisk hygienisk tidskrift, 1973, Vol.54, No.2, p.85-92. Illus.

CIS 74-885 Science sheds new light on accident proneness.
Examines the possibility of potentially accident prone persons being identified by their physiological or psychological traits. Some accident repeaters are non-accident prone persons who have been involved in 2 or more accidents without any demonstrated responsibility on their part. People subject to physical or emotional stresses temporarily join the ranks of the accident prone. L. Brody limits the congenitally accident prone to a very small group of people with neurological disorders and anatomical deformities and handicaps. He also states that safety attitudes and emotional adjustment are interrelated, and has identified a relationship between accident involvement and abnormally high or low blood pressure. The article refers to current research projects on accident proneness sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; temporary variables such as mental stress, physical danger, health hazards, changes in supervision; the views of a safety director on this subject are given.
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 1973, p.61-64. Illus.

CIS 74-884 Ferguson D.
A study of occupational stress and health.
This paper, delivered at the 9th Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society of Australia and New Zealand (Adelaide, 24-25 Aug. 1971), describes medical and environmental studies carried out among telegraphists employed by an Australian communications organisation, to ascertain impact of occupational stress on health, on the basis of absence records over 2-5 years. Detailed ergonomic and occupational hygiene investigations were also made in the work environment. Absenteeism attributed to neurosis was significantly higher among telegraphists than in other sectors. The author examines the interaction of neurosis, attitudes and habits, job satisfaction, emotional instability and indulgence in habits detrimental to health. Much of the informtion is given in tabular form. He proposes various measures to combat effects of occupational stress on health (scientifically based selection for the task; reorganisation of the work to lessen working group size effects and increase job satisfaction; mental health programmes).
Ergonomics, Sep. 1973, Vol.16, No.5, p.649-664. 26 ref.

CIS 74-883 Schugsta P.M.
The theory of accident proneness and the role of the Poisson distribution.
A literature review of the development of the theory of accident proneness, with a discussion of the validity of the Poisson distribution as a statistical model for predicting accident occurrences. An accident survey in a pharmaceutical plant with 3,000 employees yielded data which conformed more to the negative binomial model than to the Poisson distribution.. It is concluded that the Poisson model is not effective for predicting accident proneness in a particular group, although it may be valid for the entire world population.
ASSE Journal, Nov. 1973, Vol.18, No.11, p.24-28. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 74-288 Luginbühl H.R.
Safety - Ways of influencing people
Sécurité - Possibilités d'influencer les hommes. [in French]
A large proportion of occupational accidents are caused by unsafe acts since artificial hazards are not considered instinctively in the same light as environmental hazards. Since it is impossible to exert an influence on natural instinct, other means to correct unsafe behaviour must be found: selecting the best qualified personnel for vacant posts; example set by supervisors; informing personnel about accident risks (presented in a clear and convincing manner); offering motives for safe behaviour.
Schweisstechnik - Soudure, June 1973, Vol.63, No.6, p.167-172.

CIS 74-287 Hacker W.
General occupational and engineering psychology - Mental structure and regulation of occupational activities
Allgemeine Arbeits- und Ingenieurpsychologie - Psychische Struktur und Regulation von Arbeitstätigkeiten [in German]
Individual sections are devoted to: working conditions and occupational activities and behaviour from the psychological point of view; motivation; perceptual and intellectual regulation of occupational activities; sensorimotor regulation; improving the mental structure of occupational activities; causes and conditions of mental errors; relationships between occupational activity and personality.
Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, , 1973. 472p. Illus. 439 ref. Price: M.24.80.


CIS 74-1941 Mancuso T.F., Locke B.Z.
Carbon disulphide as a cause of suicide - Epidemiological study of viscose rayon workers.
In a longitudinal epidemiological study of U.S. viscose rayon workers employed during the period 1938-1948 and observed to 1968, a higher rate of suicide was found among 4,899 white males and females aged 25-64 in certain departments and occupations. The results are set out in numerous tables. It is postulated that, in addition to the acute and subacute toxic effects of carbon disulfide, biochemical and pathological changes intiated by carbon disulfide during occupational exposure may persist over a long span of time and that delayed biological effects of abnormal mental and social behaviour may occur in subsequent years in response to further environmental and social stresses. A national study should be carried out to assess the nature and extent of the population at risk, and research to establish the biochemical precursors to mental illness attributable to carbon disulfide should be carried out.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1972, Vol.14, No.8, p.595-606. 44 ref.

CIS 74-290 Potter H.
Man as an accident cause
Der Mensch als Unfallursache [in German]
To prevent accidents, it is not enough to eliminate hazardous situations; one must spread the use of information and psychological techniques. By satisfying fundamental psychological and social needs, one may induce a safety-conscious behaviour. However, such methods may also be a source of risks; the desire to show off or to form part of a group and the need for independence are risk factors. Examples from daily occupational situations are given, and rules of conduct drawn from them.
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, Nov. 1972, Vol.19, No.6, p.1-4 and Jan. 1973, Vol.20, No.1, p.2-4. Illus.

CIS 74-289 Potter H.
Prevention - A management task
Die Unfallverhütung ist eine Führungsaufgabe [in German]
Reasons for the spectacular success of American industry in the field of accident prevention are offered. Since considerably more accidents are caused by unsafe acts than by hazardous situations, it is most important to motivate workers towards safe behaviour; this is a task for management. Usually, a favourable reaction can only be obtained if the satisfaction of psychological or social stimuli is used as motivation. The article describes in detail how to achieve this.
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, May 1972, Vol.19, No.3, p.10-12; July 1972, Vol.19, No.4, p.1-4; Sep. 1972, Vol.19, No.5, p.1-3; and Nov. 1972, Vol.19, No.6, p.16-17. Illus. 71 ref.

CIS 72-2610 What's behind the unhappy trend in accident frequency?
Accident frequency rates, which had reached an all-time low in the USA in 1961, have since increased steadily. A field survey conducted among experienced safety directors indicated that highly skilled workers re-assigned to other, often less skilled jobs as a result of company re-organisation have psychological and other difficulties in adjusting to them and may become temporarily accident prone. Another problem appears to lie in the workers' group under 30 years and their anti-establishment attitude; this calls for a re-appraisal of training and supervisory techniques. It was not felt that the accelerated pace of production and the greater use of hazardous chemicals in industry were responsible for the deterioration of safety records.
Occupational Hazards, Mar. 1972, Vol.34, No.3, p.29-33. Illus.

CIS 72-2400 Fernández Fole F.
Workers' mental attitude during the process of adaptation to industrial work
Posturas mentales del trabajador en su proceso de adaptabilidad a la industria [in Spanish]
Review of various mental attitudes of the worker during his adaptation to industrial work: attachment to tradition, relation with the machine, indifference, aggressiveness towards automation, revolutionary and destructive attitude. Attemps to explain numerous types of conduct which, taken in isolation or in a given context (e.g. economic situation, harmful effects of industrial work, leisure occupations), have a decisive effect on the whole adaptation process and its results (good, inadequate or non-existent adaptation of the worker to industrial work).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1972, Vol.20, No.77, p.25-30.

CIS 73-116 Peschl I.A.S.Z.
Studies on the behaviour of large crowds flowing through doors and narrow passageways in panic or crush situations
Untersuchungen über das Verhalten von grossen Menschenmengen bei der Strömung durch Türen und Engpässe in Panik- oder Gedrängesituationen [in German]
In panic situations, the rapid evacuation of large premises is possible only if the exits are sufficiently wide to prevent the danger of a jam of human bodies. The design of the transition of the width of the corridor to the width of the door is important. The doors should open outwards and should be easily operated. Experiments with students were filmed and analysed. They showed that there was a clear correlation between the formation of jams and the width of the door. Jam formation is considered statically and dynamically. Comparative experiments with steel balls supplement the information obtained, which is summarised in 6 rules listed at the end of the article.
Moderne Unfallverhütung, 1972, No.16, p.49-54. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 73-31 Diekershoff K.H., Kliemt G., Diekershoff S.
Industrial sociological aspects of institutionalised accident prevention in large firms
Betriebssoziologische Aspekte der institutionalisierten Unfallverhütung in Grossbetrieben [in German]
Depending on top management motivation, occupational safety may have a central or peripheral place in plant organisation. A detailed report is given on a survey of executives, managers, shop stewards' committees and safety engineers in 62 large firms, to provide information on the organisation of occupational safety, the evaluation of its efficacity, and on awareness of responsibility for occupational safety and decision making in plant safety systems. There was considerable divergence between attitudes adopted by management and those of shop stewards' committee members and safety engineers.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 370, 46 Dortmund, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1972. 229p. 30 ref.

CIS 73-15 Savenko S.K., et al.
The relationship between accident frequency and individual temperament
Zavisimost' urovnja travmatizma ot individual'nyh kačestv rabotajuščih [in Russian]
Individual temperaments and accident history were studied in 652 miners and factors such as training, age, length of service, type of job and individual reactions to hazard and accident situations were investigated; workers were also classified by temperament into 5 categories (dynamic but unbalanced, dynamic and balanced, calm, passive, dynamic-indeterminate). The number of accidents was broken down on the basis of these categories. The results have made it possible to determine whether given temperaments are suitable for employment on hazardous jobs in different types of work.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Apr. 1972, No.4, p.22-23.

CIS 73-175 Nitsch J.R.
Biological rhythm and work
Biorhythmus und Arbeit [in German]
Human physiological and mental functions vary in accordance with a distinctly biphased curve which peaks out during the day and reaches its lowest point during the night. Research has shown that sleep, work, and eating do not significantly effect this circadian rhythm. The effect of periodic environmental factors and the biological nature of the circadian rhythm are discussed. The second part of this study deals with the practical significance of circadian functional variations with special reference to appetite for work and circadian output peaks. A brief reference is made to conclusions relating to personnel selection and work organisation.
Sicherheitsingenieur, June 1972, Vol.3, No.6, p.252-257 and July 1972, No.7, p.322-325. Illus.

CIS 73-42 Régnier J.
Introduction of human factors into automated-installation design and use
Introduction des facteurs humains dans la conception des installations automatisées et de leur exploitation [in French]
An automated installation, together with its attendants, forms a system, the reliability, output and safety of which are dependent on both the equipment and human behaviour. The author proposes a systems-analysis method which makes allowance for ergonomic factors and also makes it possible to delegate functions to men or automatic machine systems, to best suit the capacities of each. Operating processes are presented in flowchart form which facilitates careful analysis, and logic diagrams help in forecasting the consequences of operating incidents. Objectives in operator training are also dealt with.
Metra, 1972, Vol.11, No.1, p.67-85. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 73-354 Taylor P.J., Pocock S.J., Sergean R.
Shift and dayworkers' absence: relationship with some terms and conditions of service
As a complement to a previous investigation in 29 firms (see CIS 73-368) which showed that although shiftworkers had less absence overall than their daywork counterparts, some inconsistencies existed between individual firms, this paper examines some factors in the work situation with which such inconsistencies might be associated: type of company sick pay schemes; detailed arrangement of working hours; length of the working week; and average weekly earnings. No evidence was found to associate sick pay or details of the rota with the ratio of shift-to-day absence. An association was found between gross pay and frequency of certified sickness absence such that the more highly paid the shift worker relative to the day worker, the less satisfactory his absence record. Sickness absence was also related, though less closely, to hours of work: the shorter the shift workers' hours relative to those of day-workers, the better the attendance. The implications are discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1972, Vol.29, No.3, p.338-340. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 73-219 Jovićević M.
Medical and psychological problems in accident prevention
O nekim medicinsko-psihološkim problemima zaštite na radu [in Serbocroatian]
This information sheet, intended for all persons involved in occupational safety organisation, contains the following sections: Part 1 - medical and psychological aspects of occupational accidents (medical and psychological causes of accidents; personality and accidents; allowance for faulty adaptation during accident investigation; effect of mental trauma and conflict situations on accidents; psychosociological and training factors); Part 2 - the psychological element in vocational training (correct personnel selection; intellectual ability, alcoholism and work; personality disorders as an important accident cause; motivation and observation of safety rules).
Jugoslovenska i inostrana dokumentacija zaštite na radu, July 1972, Appendix No.7, 47p. 45 ref.

CIS 73-798 Swensson Å.
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Night and Shift Work - Slanchev Bryag, 20-24 September 1971
This symposium, which was organised by a subcommittee of the Permanent Commission and International Association on Occupational Health, took place at Slacev Brjag (Bulgaria). The papers, which are all reproduced in English, deal mostly with psychological and sociological problems arising from night and shift work. The final statement suggests three lines of approach to diminish or eliminate the various inconveniences and ailments which may be caused by night and shift work: (1) careful selection of the individual shift workers and proper information to avoid negative attitudes; (2) study of different shift systems in order to adopt the system which causes least inconvenience and least affects established circadian rhythms; (3) more research to elucidate the adaptation of families to shift work, more information and community planning to ensure undisturbed daytime rest for shift workers.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Stockholm, Sweden, 1972. 116p. Illus. 97 ref.

CIS 73-686 Sessa T.
Psychological aspects and psychotechnical testing of underwater workers
Aspetti psicologici e valutazione psicotecnica dei lavoratori subacquei [in Italian]
Psychological factors in underwater workers are radically different to pleasure-driving motivation and vary in relation to the type of work (caisson work, constant volume suit diving, SCUBA diving). The author considers the effects of pressure on mental faculties, with reference to the literature, the sensory isolation syndrome and the neuropsychic depth syndrome, and the necessary mental qualities (which vary between caisson workers, constant-volume divers and SCUBA divers); he considers psychotechnical testing essential and indicates the form it should take. Safety measures are reviewed (inclusion of psychotechnical testing in periodic medical examinations, electroencephalography, cerebral theography, psychotechnical-examination card to form part of the driver's personal medical record, compulsory training, health education).
Folia medica, Dec. 1971, Vol.54, No.12, p.265-280. 24 ref.

CIS 73-1198 Nöbauer F.
Personal electrocution-protection methods - Releasing oneself from the live conductor
Methoden der persönlichen "Elektro-Abwehr" - Selbstbefreiung aus dem Stromkreis [in German]
Electrical accident victims might expect to survive in certain cases but there is usually nobody present to come to their aid. The author describes, with illustrations, various methods based on the acquisition by training of reflexes which activate the necessary defence or release movements. These methods apply only to voltages up to 220V and vary according to the current pathway through the body. A basic principle is, when holding a piece of metal-sheathed electric equipment in the right hand, to ensure that the left hand is free in order to prevent the flow of current from one hand to the other since this may prove fatal.
Betriebssicherheit, 1972, No.5, p.4-7. Illus.


CIS 72-2697 Powell P.
2000 accidents - A shop floor study of their causes based on 42 months' continuous observation.
An in-plant study carried out on the shop floor on 2367 minor and serious accidents which occurred in 4 different types of industrial workshops over a 1-2 year period, aiming at demonstrating how present knowledge about human behaviour can be applied to accident prevention. It illustrates the multiple nature of accident factors; however, many factors which act in the laboratory-type situation were scarcely perceptible in the 4 workshops studied. There is evidence to support the view that accidents are built into most industrial work and that work-design changes will significantly improve accident experience. Operator experience has a noticeable effect on accidents and operator training will improve safety. A wider use of ergonomics knowledge is needed in work-system design to eliminate built-in accident factors. Courses are proposed for the safety specialist, the engineer, the designer and the manager.
Report No.21/1971, National Institute of Industrial Psychology, 14 Welbeck Street, London W1M 8DR, United Kingdom, 1971. 189p. 39 ref. Price £3.25.

CIS 73-273 Tollenaere C.
How to instill safety consciousness into workers
Comment initier le personnel d'une entreprise à l'esprit de sécurité? [in French]
The author describes the work of a Belgian accident-prevention consultancy service which has several decades experience in this field: contacts with top managers who have to be convinced of the value of greater safety; statistical surveys on accident types and causes in plants; instruction of line managers on the part they should play in accident prevention; the role of the safety officer and the safety committee; permanent contact with the workers, and safety training on first employment, change of job, following an accident, when found indulging in dangerous practices, and during safety campaigns. (For the proceedings of this Congress, see CIS 73-267).
VIth World Congress on the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases, Vienna, 10-15 May 1971, Wilhelm Maudrich, Buchhandlung für medizinische Wissenschaften, Alserstr. 19, 1081 Wien, Austia, 1971, Vol.2, p.509-513.


CIS 07-1250 Human factors and safety
Menschliche Faktoren und Arbeitssicherheit [in German]
Les facteurs humains et la sécurité [in French]
This information note explores the role of human factors in relation to accident risk and occupational safety. Topics covered: safety criteria; individual characteristics related to accident risk; personality traits and accident risk; industrial safety and the human environment.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, May 1967. ii, 84p.


CIS 07-1105 Parmeggiani L.
Automation and occupational health
Gesundheitschutz und Automation [in German]
Hygiène du travail et automation [in French]
This information note examines the general effects of automation on working conditions and explores the impact of automation on the mental health of workers and the role of occupational health in automation.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Sep. 1966. 18p. 18 ref.

CIS 07-1046 Grimaldi J.V.
Management and industrial safety achievement
Erfolgreiche Unfallverhütung - ein Anliegen der Betriebsführung [in German]
La sécurité du travail: responsabilité de direction [in French]
This information note presents a paper on the issue of adverse human behaviour in the promotion of occupational safety. It reviews developments in occupational safety efforts in the UK and the USA and argues that effective safety achievement requires a disciplined approach to risk evaluation and control.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, June 1966. 10p. 5 ref.

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