Psychological factors - 1,739 entries found
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Cohidon C., Imbernon E., Goldberg M.
Prevalence of common mental disorders and their work consequences in France, according to occupational category
The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of the common mental disorders according to occupational category in France and to describe the consequences of these disorders on their work. The study was carried out from 1999 to 2003. The sample consisted of approximately 36,000 persons aged 18 years and older. Data were collected using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Anxiety disorders were most common (in 17% of men and 26% of women), followed by mood disorders (in 10% of men and 14% of women). Prevalences of disorders were consistently higher among those in the lowest occupational categories. Among those reporting mental disorders, about 50% said that their work was affected. The repercussions on the job varied by occupational category and differently for men and women. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.52, No.2, p.141-152. 49 ref.
Marín A.J., Grzywacz J.G., Arcury T.A., Carrillo L., Coates M.L., Quandt S.A.
Evidence of organizational injustice in poultry processing plants: Possible effects on occupational health and safety among Latino workers in North Carolina
Over 250,000 workers are employed in poultry processing in the United States. These jobs are increasingly held by immigrant workers who frequently lack knowledge of workers' rights to workplace safety or who are reluctant to pursue their rights. This situation creates the potential for organizational injustice, made visible through abusive supervisory practices, and leads to situations in which occupational illnesses and injuries are likely to occur. This article draws on data collected during the research phases of a community-based participation and social justice project. Two hundred survey interviews and 26 in-depth interviews were collected among a representative sample of workers in a community of North Carolina. Analyses describe associations between one aspect of organizational injustice, abusive supervision, and worker injuries. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.52, No.1, p.37-48. 50 ref.
Lohela M., Björklund C., Vingård E., Hagberg J., Jensen I.
Does a change in psychosocial work factors lead to a change in employee health?
The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors at work that promote positive changes in employee health and factors that prevent negative changes in employee health. Data for psychosocial work factors and self rated health were collected by means of questionnaires from 1212 employees of four Swedish enterprises in 2000 and 2003. A modified Poisson regression was used to find factors of relevance for positive and negative changes in health. A negative change in leadership, organizational commitment and job strain increased the risk for negative change in health. Improved leadership and social climate increased the chance for positive changes in health.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.195-203. 36 ref.
László K.D., Kopp M.S.
Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment at work are associated with painful menstruation: Results from the Hungarostudy epidemiological panel 2006
The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between work stress, defined according to the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model, and painful menstruation. Data on 821 pre-menopausal and non-pregnant working women from a Hungarian epidemiological cohort were analysed. The association between work stress and dysmenorrhoea was investigated using logistic regression. After controlling for age, occupational class, education, marital status, parity, unsuccessfully trying to conceive for at least one year, previous miscarriage, smoking, body-mass index, physical activity and depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were associated with an increased risk of menstrual pain (odds ratios 1.42 and 1.07 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.157-163. 48 ref.
Phelps A., Lloyd D., Creamer M., Forbes D.
Caring for carers in the aftermath of trauma
The potential impact on psychological well-being of working in the caring professions in the aftermath of trauma and disaster has been recognized for many years. These stress-related conditions include burnout, compassion fatigue and vicarious traumatization. Although prevalent, these conditions do not affect all workers in the field. Various studies have investigated potential risk and protective factors. It is argued that the outcomes of this research should be used to guide practical interventions in the workplace designed to minimize stress-related problems. A framework that incorporates interventions at the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels is outlined, and research investigating the efficacy of interventions at each of these levels is recommended.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Apr.-May 2009, Vol.18, No.3, p.313-330. 72 ref.
Schubert U., Dijkstra J.J.
Working safety with foreign contractors and personnel
In autumn of 2004 an exploratory study was conducted into working with foreign contractors and personnel in process industries in Northern Netherlands. Ten qualitative interviews were held with safety experts working at multinational companies. The study resulted in the identification of five problematic areas: communication, level of education, cultural differences, specific employment situations and cooperation between principal and contractor. The results of the interviews are described for each problem area individually and are linked to state of the art scientific theory and models. Examples of best practices are included.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.786-793. Illus. 9 ref.
Mearns K., Yule S.
The role of national culture in determining safety performance: Challenges for the global oil and gas industry
This article addresses the issue of occupational safety and how the process of globalization can potentially influence the beliefs and behaviour of disparate national workforces working across the globe for the same multi-national company. It reviews published literature on cross-cultural differences in attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding safety and presents the findings of a study examining the relationship between cultural value dimensions, safety climate and risk-taking behaviour in workforce members of a multi-national engineering organization operating in six countries. The results suggest that perceived management commitment to safety and the effectiveness of safety measures exert more impact on workforce behaviour and accident rates than national cultural values.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.777-785. 34 ref.
Role of beliefs in accident and risk analysis and prevention
This article discusses the impact of belief systems and culture on safety and accident prevention. It is hypothesized that an understanding of the beliefs people hold about risks and the causes of accidents, as well as their perceptions of the need for safety, are important prerequisites for effectively managing risk and designing preventive measures. This is considered particularly relevant in this era of globalization where workers from different backgrounds are relocating, and increasingly complex technology is being exported. The discussion is supported by examples from both developing and developed countries.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.767-776. 53 ref.
Impact of globalization on human work
This article addresses the phenomenon of globalization in its impact on the nature of work. The factors of the globalization processes which affect most strongly the work of different employment categories, namely management, production workers and knowledge workers, are identified. The organizational consequences of globalization are analyzed with reference to significant changes to workplaces and psychological demands. The concluding section considers the political aspects of globalization.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.727-732. 29 ref.
Otsuka Y., Sasaki T., Iwasaki K., Mori I.
Working hours, coping skills, and psychological health in Japanese daytime workers
This study examined the relationships between coping skills, working hours, and psychological health among Japanese daytime workers. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a randomly-selected sample of 2000 workers, among whom 1821 responded (a response rate of 91.1%). Data were subjected to covariance analyses. Results revealed that working hours were significantly associated with fatigue and concentration levels. High levels of social support and positive reframing were significantly associated with low levels of negative emotions, fatigue and concentration difficulty levels. These findings suggest that improving coping skills such as using social support or positive reframing may mitigate the adverse health effects of long working hours.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.22-32. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_1_22.pdf [in English]
Warming S., Precht D.H., Suadicani P., Ebbehøj N.E.
Musculoskeletal complaints among nurses related to patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors - Based on logbook registrations
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of self-recording musculoskeletal symptoms, patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors by nurses as a means of understanding the complex interaction between these factors. Logbooks were filled for three consecutive days by 148 nurses at a university hospital in Denmark, recording the incidence of low back pain (LBP), neck/shoulder pain (NSP), knee pain (KP), psychosocial factors (time pressure, stress, conscience of the quality of work) and patient transfers and care tasks. The numbers of nurses reporting musculoskeletal symptoms and the level of pain increased significantly during the three working days and decreased on the day off. Stress and transfer tasks were associated to low back pain and transfer tasks with knee pain. Results show that logbooks can be a useful means of understanding the complex interaction between working conditions and musculoskeletal symptoms.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2009, Vol.40, No.4, p.569-576. Illus. 46 ref.
Sociology of risk - Basics and values
La sociologie du risque - Fondements et valeurs [in French]
This article explains sociology of risk, an emerging pluridisciplinary field bringing together sociology and science. It specifically takes into account the various representations and interpretations of risk, bridging the gap between business, ecology and technology on one hand, and the fears and worries of individuals on the other.
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2009, No.103, p.46-47. Illus. 12 ref.
Celik M., Cebi S.
Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents
Despite marine technology improvements and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of accident investigation reports is a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. This article presents a Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation for a quantitative assessment of shipping accidents.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2009, Vol.41, No.1, p.66-75. Illus. 34 ref.
Harling M., Strehmel P., Schablon A., Nienhaus A.
Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians
In this cross-sectional study, the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects having responded to a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and regular medical drug intake. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area (government services, industry). The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.4, No.4, 11p. 35 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-4-4.pdf [in English]
Darby P., Murray W., Raeside R.
Applying online driver fleet assessment to help identify, target and reduce occupational road safety risks
The aim of this article was to review the practical application of an online fleet driver assessment program to help identify, target and reduce occupational road safety risks. A large data set collected from online assessment of drivers employed in a telecommunications company in the United Kingdom is analyzed. Data were also collected on driver demographics and their driving and collision history. Analysis of the data revealed that attitude, behaviour, knowledge and hazard perception are highly correlated with self-reported collisions. The influence of these variables on collision involvement was assessed using a Poisson regression model. Both attitude and behaviour scores exhibit a statistically significant association with collision involvement, along with other variables such as mileage driven, driver age and personality.
Safety Science, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.3, p.436-442. Illus. 51 ref.
Håvold J.I, Nesset E.
From safety culture to safety orientation: Validation and simplification of a safety orientation scale using a sample of seafarers working for Norwegian ship owners
Measuring safety performance is becoming increasingly important in high-risk sectors. Based on the safety orientation model and a review of items and scales used in surveys of safety climate and safety culture, a safety orientation scale (SOM) was developed and refined through the use of multivariate statistics. It was then applied in this study with a sample of seafarers sailing on Norwegian-owned vessels. A total of 2558 questionnaires were returned from 141 vessels and 16 shipping companies, giving a calculated response rate of 70%. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.3, p.305-326. Illus. 87 ref.
Torp S., Grøgaard J.B.
The influence of individual and contextual work factors on workers' compliance with health and safety routines
This study investigated the relationships between workers' compliance with occupational safety and health (OSH) rules adopted within the enterprise and psychological demands, decision authority, social support, management support, unionization and the OSH management system. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among 1051 workers and the managers of 102 small- and medium-sized motor vehicle repair shops in Norway. Multilevel modeling was performed to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. At the worker level, high compliance with OSH rules correlated significantly with both social support and OSH-related management support. At the garage level, management support and a well-developed OSH management system correlated significantly with high workers' compliance. Other findings are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar.2009, Vol.40, No.2, p.185-193. Illus. 53 ref.
Paperwork at the service of safety? Workers' reluctance against written procedures exemplified by the concept of "seamanship"
Efforts to reduce accidents in seafaring have led to a proliferation of procedures such as workplace assessments and checklists. Unfortunately, written procedures are perceived by many seafarers as counteracting the use of common sense, experience, and professional knowledge epitomized in the concept of seamanship. Their objections fit the Dreyfus and Dreyfus' model of skill acquisition according to which while novices steadily follow context-independent rules, the expert's behaviour goes beyond analytical rationality, and is situational, experience-based and intuitive. This article discussed the issues raised when written procedures are perceived as a hindrance to safety.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.295-303. 45 ref.
Morel G., Amalberti R., Chauvin C.
How good micro/macro ergonomics may improve resilience, but not necessarily safety
This article examines several ways of improving safety in commercial fishing. Two intervention strategies were tested: a micro-ergonomics strategy offering guidelines based on analyses of the most serious and frequent accident causes (collisions while fishing), and a macro-ergonomics strategy comparing the safety level of large fleets having committed to a TQM approach to that of smaller fleets. Neither of the two strategies resulted in the expected outcomes. The micro-ergonomics anti-collision strategy is misused towards an increase of the fishing objective, while macro-ergonomics strategy results in the largest fleets suffering from a smaller number of shipwrecks, but a much greater number of work-related injuries. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.285-294. Illus. 47 ref.
Chaumet G., Taillard J., Sagaspe P., Pagani M., Dinges D.F., Pavy-Le-Traon A., Bareille M.P., Rascol O., Philip P.
Confinement and sleep deprivation effects on propensity to take risks
This study investigated both confinement and gender effects on risk taking and reaction times during long periods of confinement and extended wakefulness. Four groups of three men and three women were studied for 10 consecutive days including a seven-day confined period or a seven-day baseline condition preceding one control night of normal sleep, one night of sleep deprivation and one recovery night in the laboratory. Risk-taking propensity (EVAR scale) and simple reaction times were monitored at regular intervals. During sleep deprivation, risk-taking propensity decreased and remained stable the following day in the confinement condition while it increased after the baseline period. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.80, No.2, p.73-80. Illus. 25 ref.
Hilton M.F., Staddon Z., Sheridan J., Whiteford H.A.
The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance
There is a high level of psychological distress in full-time heavy goods vehicle drivers (HGV) in Australia (incidence rate: 4.5% per month). A questionnaire survey was carried out among Australian HGV drivers using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaires (completed answers received: 1324). Depression, anxiety and stress had no significant effect on driver absenteeism or self-rated driving performance. However, where there was severe (1.5%) or very severe (1.8%) depression, there was an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near-miss in the past 28 days, a result similar to that obtained when driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. It is suggested that an action plan focusing on drivers' mental health status be developed in order to reduce accidents and driver fatalities.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2009, Vol.41, No.3, p.453-461. 90 ref.
Kallioniemi M.K., Simola A.J., Kymäläinen H.R., Vesala H.T., Louhelainen J.K.
Stress among Finnish farm entrepreneurs
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of stress among Finnish full-time farm entrepreneurs and to compare the results with those for the general working population. A stratified random sample of 1182 farm entrepreneurs gathered from the farm register was surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviews. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the association with background factors. One third (34 %) of the examined farmers had experienced stress. This amount was lower than among the general working population (44 %). The most common factors associated with farmers' stress were problems in social family relationships and mental support. Physical factors such as the strenuousness of agricultural work, illness and a low estimation of their own working ability were also related to stress. Increased stress was also associated with economic problems. The relatively low level of stress observed may indicate that those who have continued within the agricultural sector have the psychological capacity to deal with stressful situations.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2008, Vol.15, p.243-249. Illus. 30 ref.
Stress.pdf [in English]
Fairclough S., Goodwin L.
Health and Safety Executive
Attention, awareness and occupational stress
Symptoms associated with occupational stress, such as muscular pain and fatigue, are common in the working population. These types of symptoms have been termed idiopathic, difficult to link to a precise physical cause. To complicate matters further, idiopathic symptoms are often associated with psychological variables such as anxiety and depression. Despite these difficulties, idiopathic symptoms represent an important index of occupational health and play a significant role in the decision to seek medical consultation. This project was primarily concerned with the influence of attentional factors on the perception of idiopathic symptoms associated with occupational stress. Attention is fundamentally goal-driven and selective. Persons having negative beliefs about health are inclined to actively monitor bodily signs and symptoms for evidence of illness. A person who is experiencing an uncomfortable or troubling symptom also tends to direct attention internally to the body, at the expense of attending to events in the external world. A detailed literature review is included in an appendix.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. 46p. Illus. + Appendix 43p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
RR644.pdf [in English]
Aguiar Coelho J.
Introduction to the psychology of occupational health - Prevention of psychosocial hazards
Uma introdução à psicologia da saúde ocupacional - Prevenção dos riscos psicossociais no trabalho [in Portuguese]
The psychology of occupational health is a new field which finds its justification in the increase of psychosocial hazards at work. Within the European Union, there exists since 1989 a requirement for the prevention of occupational psychosocial hazards. This publication, which is primarily aimed at psychology professionals and students, presents this new field together with methodologies and techniques for the evaluation of psychosocial hazards.
Edições Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Praça 9 de Abril 349, 4249-004 Porto, Portugal, 2008. 143p. Illus. 84 ref.
Durand E., Gayet C., Laborde L., Van Deweerdt C., Farges E.
Addictive behaviour and work
Conduites addictives et travail [in French]
The consumption of alcohol, cannabis and other psychoactive substances can endanger workers' safety and health, and in particular cause occupational accidents. This article addresses the issues of prevention and management of substance abuse at enterprise level. Prevention involves a collective approach based on a protocol accepted by all parties, specifying the modes of intervention, screening, surveillance, management and decisions to withdraw or maintain substance-dependent workers at their jobs.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd quarter 2008, No.115, p.339-362. Illus. 75 ref.
TC_121.pdf [in French]
Gallagher L.M., Kliem C., Beautrais A.L., Stallones L.
Suicide and occupation in New Zealand, 2001-2005
Records for 2,024 employed persons having committed suicide in New Zealand between 2001 and 2005 were reviewed. Age- and sex-adjusted suicide rates were calculated for nine major occupational groups. Persons engaged in paid work had one-fourth of the suicide rate of the non-waged. Those working in farming, fisheries, or forestry and trades had higher suicide rates than those in other occupations. Homemakers and persons with office jobs had the lowest suicide rates. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.1, p.45-50. 53 ref.
Present but not accounted for
Discussion of presenteeism in Australia. The phenomenon, which may be due to illness, depression, personal problems or financial stress, is estimated to have cost AUD 25.7 billion to the Australian economy in 2005-2006, about four times the cost of absenteeism.
National Safety - The Magazine of the National Safety Council of Australia, Sep. 2008, Vol.3, No.8, p.42-46. Illus.
Hintsa T., Kivimäki M., Elovainio M., Vahtera J., Hintsanen M., Viikari J.S.A., Raitakari O.T., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Is the association between job strain and carotid intima-media thickness attributable to pre-employment environmental and dispositional factors? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
This study examined whether pre-employment family factors and participants' own dispositional factors contributed to the relationship between job strain and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). It involved 494 male employees in Finland. Parental socioeconomic position and parental life dissatisfaction were assessed at 9-21 years of age and personal behavioural components were assessed at 12-24 years of age before the participants had entered the labour market. Job strain, education and CIMT were assessed at 27-39 years of age when all participants were employed. Certain behavioural components were found to have an effect on the association between job strain and CIMT, but not pre-employment family factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.65, No.10, p.676-682. 45 ref.
Stansfeld S.A,, Clark C., Caldwell T., Rodgers B., Power C.
Psychosocial work characteristics and anxiety and depressive disorders in midlife: The effects of prior psychological distress
This study examines the extent to which the association between work stressors and adult psychiatric diagnoses is explained by earlier psychological distress. It involved the follow-up at 45 years of age of 8243 participants in paid employment from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. It was found that childhood and early adulthood psychological distress predict work characteristics in mid-adulthood but do not explain the associations of work characteristics with depressive episode and generalised anxiety disorder in midlife.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.634-642. 42 ref.
O'Neill E., McNamee R., Agius R., Gittins M., Hussey L., Turner S.
The validity and reliability of diagnoses of work-related mental ill-health
A United Kingdom surveillance scheme for work-related ill-health involving occupational physicians suggests that mental ill-health incidence is increasing by around 13% per year, with anxiety, depression and work-related stress being the most common diagnoses. However, there have been no studies of the validity and reliability of such diagnoses. Given the existence of a large network of psychiatrists also involved in surveillance of work-related ill-health, this study measured the validity and reliability of work-related mental ill-health diagnoses. 100 anonymous summaries of previously-reported cases were sent to five psychiatrists and five occupational physicians, who assigned a diagnosis and judged whether the case was work-related. While there was overall agreement on mental ill-health diagnoses, there were differences on the diagnosis of stress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.65, No.11, p.726-731. 20 ref.
Ertel K.A., Koenen K.C., Berkman L.F.
Incorporating home demands into models of job strain: Findings from the work, family, and health network
The purpose of this study was to integrate home demands into the demand-control-support model to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child younger than 18 years in the household signified home demands. The presence of depressive symptoms was determined based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household. There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Job strain may therefore be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1244-1252. Illus. 39 ref.
Hilton M.F., Scuffham P.A., Sheridan J., Cleary C.M., Whiteford H.A.
Mental ill-health and the differential effect of employee type on absenteeism and presenteeism
This study examined the relationship between employee psychological distress, employee type (white-collar and blue-collar) and productivity. Using the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire in a sample of 60,556 full-time Australian employees, it examined the impact of psychological distress according to the Kessler scale (K6) on employee productivity. High K6 score resulted in a presenteeism increase of 6% in both blue and white-collar employees. Among white-collar workers, there was no statistically significant difference in absenteeism rates by low and high psychological distress. However, the same comparison for blue-collar workers showed that high psychological distress results in an 18% increase in absenteeism rates.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1228-1243. Illus. 85 ref.
Billings D.W., Cook R.F., Hendrickson A., Dove D.C.
A web-based approach to managing stress and mood disorders in the workforce
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia health promotion programme for the workplace, designed to help reduce stress and the risk of depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 309 working adults were randomly assigned to the web-based intervention group or to a control group. All participants were assessed on multiple self-reported outcomes before and after the intervention. Relative to controls, the web-based group reduced their stress, increased their knowledge of depression and anxiety, developed more positive attitudes toward stress treatment and adopted a more controlled approach to alcohol consumption.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.960-968. 44 ref.
Kuoppala J., Lamminpää A., Liira J., Vainio H.
Leadership, job well-being, and health effects - A systematic review and meta-analysis
The aim of this systematic literature analysis was to study the associations between leadership, well-being at work and work-related health. Altogether, 109 articles were analyzed, with conclusions being based on the 27 articles providing the best evidence. Although there is an overall lack of well-founded prospective studies targeting the association between leadership and employee health, the few available good studies suggest an important role of leadership on employee job satisfaction, job well-being, sickness absences, and disability pensions. The relationship between leadership and job performance remains unclear.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.904-915. Illus. 134 ref.
Duijts S.F.A., Kant I., van den Brandt P.A., Swaen G.M.H.
Effectiveness of a preventive coaching intervention for employees at risk for sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints: Results of a randomized controlled trial
Employees of three health care and educational institutions in the Netherlands were screened for the risk for sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints. Retained subjects were identified and randomized into two groups. The intervention group received the preventive coaching program, while the control group received usual care. No effect of coaching on self-reported sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints was found. However the intervention group reported statistically significant improved health, less psychological distress, less burnout, less need for recovery and an increased satisfaction with life.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.765-776. Illus. 32 ref.
Hilton M.F., Whiteford H.A., Sheridan J.S., Cleary C.M., Chant D.C., Wang P.S., Kessler R.C.
The prevalence of psychological distress in employees and associated occupational risk factors
The employees of 58 large public and private sector enterprises in Australia were invited to complete the Kessler 6 (K6) questionnaire as part of the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire. A K6 score of ≥13 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress. Data on 60,556 full-time employees indicate that 4.5% of employees have high psychological distress of which only 22% were in current treatment. Occupational risk factors identified include long working hours, working in sales and filling non-traditional gender roles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.746-757. 75 ref.
Unterbrink T., Zimmermann L., Pfeifer R., Wirsching M., Brähler E., Bauer J.
Parameters influencing health variables in a sample of 949 German teachers
Using stepwise regression in a sample of 949 German school teachers, this study analyzed the correlation between personal and professional parameters on one hand, and general health, burnout and perceived stress on the other. A significant correlation was found between work-related factors and parameters of state of health. Compared to all other factors considered, verbal insults by pupils had the strongest negative impact. Positive feedback by parents and pupils or support by colleagues and school heads had a significant protective influence. Results show that interpersonal factors play a prominent role with respect to both stress and the protection of teachers' health.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.117-123. 40 ref.
Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., Levy D., David S., Degioanni S., Theorell T.
Study of the validity of a job-exposure matrix for psychosocial work factors: Results from the French SUMER survey
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for psychosocial work factors defined by Karasek's model using national representative data of the French working population. The sample consisted of 24,486 men and women who filled in the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Job title was defined by both occupation and economic activity coded according to detailed national classifications. The JEM was built using the individual scores of demands, latitude and support for each job title. When compared to individual measures, analyses showed a lower validity of JEM measures for psychological demands and social support, and a relatively higher validity for decision latitude. It is concluded that JEM measures for decision latitude may be used as a complementary method of exposure assessment.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.87-97. 46 ref.
Croidieu S., Charbotel B., Vohito M., Renaud L., Jaussaud J., Bourboul C., Ardiet D., Imbard I., Guerin A.C., Bergeret A.
Call-handlers' working conditions and their subjective experience at work: A transversal study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe call-centre working conditions and call-handlers' subjective experience of their work. It was carried out by means of interviewer-administered questionnaires by 47 occupational physicians during routine occupational medicine examinations. Psychosocial risk factors were explored by three dimensions of the Karasek questionnaire, decision latitude, psychological demands and social support. The sample consisted of 2,130 call-handlers from around 100 different companies. The population was 71.9% female, with a mean age of 32.4 years. Findings are discussed. This study confirmed the high rate of psychosocial constraints for call-handlers and identified work situations that may lead to risk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.67-77. Illus. 27 ref.
Wada K., Arimatsu M., Yoshikawa T., Oda S., Taniguchi H., Higashi T., Aizawa Y.
Factors on working conditions and prolonged fatigue among physicians in Japan
The objective of this study was to determine the working condition factors associated with prolonged fatigue among physicians in Japan. A questionnaire on working conditions and fatigue was mailed to 478 physicians (377 men and 101 women) with more than three years of experience in clinical practice. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the multivariate relationship between the variables and prolonged fatigue. High workload was positively associated and better career satisfaction was negatively associated with prolonged fatigue. Prolonged fatigue was negatively associated with better relationships with other physicians and staff for male physicians. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.59-66. Illus. 40 ref.
Cho J.J., Kim J.Y., Chang S.J., Fiedler N., Koh S.B., Crabtree B.F., Kang D.M., Kim Y.K., Choi Y.H.
Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine which components of occupational stress or job characteristics were associated with depression among Korean workers. It involved a nationwide sample of 8522 workers, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographics, job characteristics, depressive symptoms and occupational stress. Multivariate analyses show that inadequate social support (odds ratio (OR) 1.58) and discomfort in occupational climate (OR 1.25) were more important risk factors for depression than organizational injustice, job demand and job control. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.47-57. 63 ref.
Buddeberg-Fischer B., Klaghofer R., Stamm M., Siegrist J., Buddeberg C.
Work stress and reduced health in young physicians: Prospective evidence from Swiss residents
This study on young physicians investigated their perceived job stress, its association with the amount of working hours and its impact on self-reported health and overall satisfaction during residency. A cohort of Swiss medical school graduates was followed up from 2001. In their second and fourth years of residency, 433 physicians assessed their effort-reward balance, overcommitment, physical and mental well-being and overall satisfaction. Findings are discussed. Stress at work in young physicians, especially when being experienced over a longer period in postgraduate training, has to be a matter of concern because of its negative impact on health and overall satisfaction and the risk of developing symptoms of burnout in the long run.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.31-38. 47 ref.
Tabanelli M.C., Depolo M., Cooke R.M.T., Sarchielli G., Bonfiglioli R., Mattioli S., Violante F.S.
Available instruments for measurement of psychosocial factors in the work environment
The objective of this literature survey was to provide an overview of the variety of instruments available for the evaluation of work-related psychosocial factors. A total of 33 instruments were identified (26 questionnaires, 7 observational), many (11 questionnaires, 5 observational) linked to national institutions or initiatives. The accessibility of relevant information (on the internet or elsewhere) regarding the instruments varied widely.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.1-12. 55 ref.
de Graaf R., Kessler R.C., Fayyad J., ten Have M., Alonso J., Angermeyer M., Borges G., Demyttenaere K., Gasquet I., de Girolamo G., Haro J.M., Jin R,, Karam E.G., Ormel J., Posada-Villa J.
The prevalence and effects of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative
To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an ADHD screen was administered to 18-44-year-old respondents in 10 national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Participants included 7075 employed persons, with response rates of 45.9-87.7% across countries. An average of 3.5% of workers was estimated to meet DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD. ADHD was more common among men than women and less common among professionals than other workers. ADHD was found to be a relatively common condition and is associated with high work impairment. This impairment, in conjunction with the low treatment rate and the availability of cost-effective therapies, suggests that ADHD would be a good candidate for targeted workplace screening and treatment programs.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.65, No.12, p.835-842. 51 ref.
Widerszal-Bazyl M., Warszewska-Makuch M.
Employee direct participation in organizational decisions and workplace safety
Managers from 192 Polish enterprises filled out a questionnaire measuring employees' direct participation in organizational decisions. Workplace safety was expressed by the number of accidents, the number of employees working in hazardous conditions, accident absenteeism and sickness absence. Results showed that the two latter indicators were significantly related to some parameters of direct participation. Companies that used face-to-face individual consultation had lower accident absenteeism than ones that did not. Similar effects were observed for group consultation and group delegation. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.367-378. 20 ref.
Counsellor wellbeing as an OSH issue
This article presents the results of a research project designed to protect the wellbeing and prevent burnout among social workers. Key issues identified included the lack of recognition of their wellbeing as an OSH issue; the impact of occupational stress on their home life; burnout; organizational factors, including the role of managers and supervisors. Recommendations are made for reducing the exposure of social workers to psychosocial risk factors. The article offers both employers and social workers ideas to help manage job stress.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2008, Vol.24, No.4, p.353-363. 42 ref.
Hing N., Breen H.
Gambling problems among gaming venue employees: A preliminary survey
Numerous workplace factors can enhance the attractiveness of gambling for gaming venue employees. This article reports on a survey of 56 gaming venue staff investigating workplace influences on the gambling behaviour of employees. The results indicate high rates of problem gambling. The opportunity therefore exists for gaming venue employers to better protect their employees by limiting staff gambling in the workplace, raising awareness of the risks of gambling, assisting any staff with gambling problems, and better promoting employee wellbeing.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2008, Vol.24, No.4, p.329-341. 25 ref.
Pead J., Fletcher S., Creamer M.
Ten challenges in post-traumatic mental health
This article outlines ten key challenges associated with managing the mental health of persons having been exposed to traumatic events. Three relate to individual needs, including causation, recovery and early problem recognition. Four relate to best practice interventions, including psychological debriefing and other immediate responses, evidence-based treatment, finding effective health practitioners and maintaining quality of care. The final challenges relate to outcomes, emphasizing physical, social and occupational goals in the context of mental health treatment. Solutions for each of these key challenges are described.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.531-539. 20 ref.
Maguire P., Raphael B., Martinek N.
Health workforce: Challenges for occupational mental health
Nursing personnel, which constitutes the bulk of the health workforce, is exposed to many risk factors for their mental health and wellbeing. These include burnout, long hours, violence, feelings of helplessness, stress associated with increasing and new demands, an ageing workforce and high expectations from the public. A range of issues also confront medical practitioners, both in general practice and hospital-based care sectors. This article proposes key principles for protecting the mental health of health workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.519-530. 61 ref.
Cleary C., Hilton M., Sheridan J., Whiteford H.
Organisational barriers preventing the initiation of mental health programs
Despite strong evidence of the usefulness of mental health programmes in the workplace, their adoption rate by organizations has been slow. This article analyzes the reasons provided by 58 large organisations in Australia for not adopting such programmes. The primary reasons provided include: logistics and costs; organisational structure; adverse union or media repercussions; not an organizational priority. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.507-517. 65 ref.
Sherman M.F., Gershon R.R., Samar S.M., Pearson J.M., Canton A.N., Damsky M.R.
Safety factors predictive of job satisfaction and job retention among home healthcare aides
Although many work characteristics associated with job satisfaction in home health care have been documented, a unique aspect of the work environment of home health care aides that might also affect job satisfaction is the fact that their workplace is a household. To obtain a better understanding of the potential impact of the hazards within the household environment on job satisfaction and job retention in home care, a risk assessment study was conducted. Data from a sample of 823 New York City home health care aides were obtained by means of questionnaires and analysed. Household job-related risks, environmental exposures, transportation issues, threats, verbal and physical abuse and violence were significantly correlated with home health care aides' job satisfaction and job retention. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1430-1441. Illus. 20 ref.
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