Hand and arm protection - 254 entries found
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Health and Safety Executive
Latex and you
Natural latex rubber is commonly used in the manufacture of protective gloves in the health care field, since it provides good protection against infection while at the same time allowing sensitivity and control. There has been a steady increase in the number of reported cases of asthma and skin complaints attributed to natural latex rubber during the 1990s. Possible reasons include greater awareness of the problem and an increased use of natural latex rubber in protective gloves and other health care equipment. This booklet is aimed at health care workers who may be exposed to natural latex rubber in the course of their work, and stresses the importance of consulting a medical practitioner in the event of any symptoms of skin irritation or asthma. Responsibilities of employers under current United Kingdom legislation are also described.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2000. 11p. 5 ref.
01-0061.pdf [in English]
Buhman D.C., Cherry J.A., Bronkema-Orr L., Bishu R.
Effect of glove, orientation, pressure, load and handle on submaximal grasp force
There is an inherent trade-off between safety and performance when using gloves. The objectives of this research project were to examine grasp force at maximal and submaximal exertions, and to address the possibility of a relationship between tactility and grasp force. Experiments were conducted under a variety of performance conditions to examine the effect of glove type, pressure differential and lifted load on grasp force at submaximal exertions and to examine the effect of glove type, handle size, handle orientation and lifted load on submaximal and maximal grasp forces. Findings indicated that grasp force was effected by frictional and load tactile feedback. There was a strong glove effect at maximal exertions. However, the glove effect was marginal at submaximal exertions. This suggests that the neuromuscular mechanisms utilized during maximal exertions are differentially applied and/or different from those used during submaximal or "just holding" types of exertion.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.25, No.3, p.247-256. Illus. 13 ref.
00_570.pdf [in English]
Mäkelä E.A., Väänänen V., Alanko K., Jolanki R., Estlander T., Kanerva L.
Resistance of disposable gloves to permeation by 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethylacrylate
Contact sensitization of dental personnel to acrylic compounds is increasing, in particular due to the increased use of the methacrylates contained in dental materials. Gloves are important in avoiding skin contact with these chemicals, but usually the gloves at dental clinics are not certified for chemical protection. The aim of this study was to find out whether disposable gloves resist permeation by methacrylates, when tested according to the relevant European standard. A test chemical consisting of mixture of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (50%) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (50%) was used. The breakthrough times for typical natural rubber (NR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials were less than 10min. Synthetic elastomers and combinations of polyethylene (PE) or PE copolymers with NR brought the breakthrough times from 13min to more than 8h.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.121-129. Illus. 11 ref.
01-1765.pdf [in English]
Smedley J., Jury A., Bendall H., Frew A., Coggon D.
Prevalence and risk factors for latex allergy: A cross-sectional study in a United Kingdom hospital
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for symptoms related to gloves, and the relation between symptoms and immunological evidence of type I hypersensitivity to latex, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among the hospital's 773 employees. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on symptoms related to gloves and associated risk factors among staff likely to use gloves at work. All who reported symptoms suggestive of type I hypersensitivity were invited for skin prick testing and measurement of specific IgE to latex (RAST). Among the 372 responders, symptoms related to gloves were common, 49% reported redness or itching of the hands, 14% reported urticaria, and 6% reported chest tightness. However, the frequency of positive skin prick tests and RASTs was surprisingly low (only two subjects tested positive). These findings indicate the need for caution in the interpretation of symptoms related to gloves even when they seem to suggest type I hypersensitivity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.56, No.12, p.833-836. 19 ref.
01-0152.pdf [in English]
Chang C.H., Wang M.J.J., Lin S.C.
Evaluating the effects of wearing gloves and wrist support on hand-arm response while operating an in-line pneumatic screwdriver
The effects of wearing a glove and wrist support on hand-arm response while operating an in-line pneumatic screwdriver were evaluated. Responses investigated were triggering finger force, flexor digitorum EMG and hand-transmitted vibration. Four glove levels (barehanded, cotton, nylon and open-finger), and two wrist support levels (wearing, and not wearing) were evaluated. Thirteen healthy male subjects drove screws into a horizontally mounted iron plate with pre-tapped screw holes using an in-line pneumatic screwdriver. Results indicate that wearing a nylon glove and not using a wrist support is the best combination. Wearing a nylon glove reduced 18.2% of the triggering force as compared with the barehanded condition. In addition, wearing a nylon glove had comparatively low forearm muscular exertion, and reduced 16% and 15% of hand-transmitted vibration in the z-axis and the sum of 3-axes as compared with the barehanded condition. The use of a wrist support required a greater triggering force and a 9.9% greater hand-transmitted vibration in the y-axis than when not using a wrist support.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 1999, Vol.24, No.5, p.473-481. Illus. 24 ref.
00-1469.pdf [in English]
Protection of the hands from wetness and temperature during work in a cold water aquarium
Nässe- und Wärmeschutz für die Hand bei Arbeiten im Kaltwasseraquarium [in German]
A search for gloves that provides better protection of the hands and arms of a female worker from getting wet and cold hands led to latex gloves with long fibre-reinforced polyvinyl chloride cuffs worn over a knitted hollow fibre glove for heat insulation. The gloves protect the entire arm to the axillary. A polyethylene foil attached to the new types of gloves keep the cloth from getting wet. The woman has to regularly clean a 70cm deep cold water aquarium with a temperature below 15°C. She complained of rheumatic problems in her hands because of insufficient hand protection in the past.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, 1999, Vol.49, No.2, p.54-57. Illus. 8 ref.
00-1135.pdf [in German]
Imrhan S.N., Farahmand K.
Male torque strength in simulated oil rig tasks: The effects of grease-smeared gloves and handle length, diameter and orientation
This paper examines the effects of two glove conditions and selected handle and task characteristics on tightening (clockwise) torques on cylindrical handles in simulated oil rig tasks. Ten males exerted MVC torques with the right hand on nine handles with different length-diameter combinations (3.8, 7.6, and 12.7cm in length with 3.8, 6.7, and 8.4cm in diameter) with dry and grease-smeared gloves in two orientations. The results showed a 50% reduction of torque when using grease-smeared glove compared to dry glove; a 15% increase with the long handle compared to the short one, a 25% increase with the medium diameter handle compared to the small one; and a 12% increase with the horizontally oriented handle compared with the vertical one. There were important interaction effects also.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.30, No.5, p.455-462. Illus. 27 ref.
00-1171.pdf [in English]
Muralidhar A., Bishu R.R., Hallbeck M.S.
The development and evaluation of an ergonomic glove
A new glove design for protection against mechanical trauma was developed based on selective protection, whereby protective material was introduced in varying levels over different parts of the glove. Two different prototype gloves incorporating different levels of protection were fabricated and tested using a battery of performance tests and an algometer test for pressure sensitivity. Four dexterity tasks and a maximal voluntary grip strength task were used to assess a number of glove conditions. Results indicate that the performance of both the contour and the laminar prototype gloves were comparable, and that performance times for the two prototype gloves and existing double gloves were not significantly different. For grip strength, the two prototype gloves were better than the double glove. Assembly task performance for the laminar glove was significantly lower than that of the other glove types tested. It appears that gloves of variable thickness can be developed to afford adequate protection at zones of most need.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1999, Vol.30, No.6, p.555-563. Illus. 24 ref.
00260.pdf [in English]
Hayashi C., Tokura H.
The effects of different materials of protective gloves on the thermoregulatory responses
Two kinds of protective glove materials used in pesticide spraying were studied to determine the effects on thermoregulatory response during exercise at ambient temperature of 28°C and relative humidity of 60%. One kind of glove was made of polyurethane (A) and the other of Goretex (B) with cotton lining in each glove. All subjects took part in two sessions of sequences of step exercises, gripping, turning a small screw, and handgrip exercises. Main results can be summarized as follows: (1) during exercise an increase of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in B than in A; (2) skin temperature of the hand was significantly lower in B than in A; (3) absolute humidity and temperature inside the gloves were significantly lower during the period from the gripping bar exercise to the end of the experiment (4) the number of contractions by the handgrip exercise performed immediately after the second turning of the screw was significantly smaller in A than in B. Findings suggest that the gloves made of Goretex material could reduce thermal strain during intermittent work in warm environmental conditions.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.253-261. Illus. 13 ref.
00259.pdf [in English]
Portillo García-Pintos J.
Guantes de protección [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; check lists; chemical hazards; European Communities; mechanical hazards; personal protective equipment; physical hazards; preventive maintenance; protection against cold; protection against heat; protective gloves; safety guides; Spain; training material.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 14p. Illus.
00062.pdf [in Spanish]
Spotlight on going live with the "HV Hot glove" teams
Topics: aerial baskets; conductors; electric power distribution; electrical insulation; hazard evaluation; high voltage; legislation; live work; overhead electric lines; protective gloves; United Kingdom.
Safety Review, Mar. 1999, No.65, insert p.i-iv. Illus. 2 ref.
99-1651.pdf [in English]
Rheker R., Oppl R.
Protective gloves for handling harmful substances
Schutzhandschuhe beim Umgang mit Gefahrstoffen [in German]
Topics: building industry; chemical products; construction industry; decomposition; Germany; harmful substances; mixtures; paints and varnishes; penetration resistance; permeability testing; protective gloves; selection of equipment.
Die BG, Mar. 1998, p.130-135. Illus.
00-1402.pdf [in German]
Evaluating the effectiveness of gloves in reducing the hazards of hand-transmitted vibration
The isolation effectiveness of vibration protective gloves was calculated from the measured transmissibility of the glove, the vibration spectrum on the handle of a specific tool and the frequency weighting, indicating the degree to which different frequencies of vibration cause injury. The method was used to test ten gloves with 20 different powered tools. The frequency weighting for hand-transmitted vibration advocated in current British and international standards greatly influences the apparent isolation effectiveness of gloves. With the frequency weighting, the gloves had little effect on the transmission of vibration to the hand from most of the tools. Only for two or three tools (those dominated by high frequency vibration) did any glove provide useful attenuation. Without the frequency weighting, some gloves showed useful attenuation of the vibration on most powered tools.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1998, Vol.55, No.5, p.340-348. Illus. 14 ref.
00225.pdf [in English]
Protective gloves for handling hazardous substances
Schutzhandschuhe beim Umgang mit Gefahrstoffen [in German]
An improved test method for determining the permeability of protective gloves is described. It takes into account the following facts which affect permeability: 1. most protective gloves on the market are made of layers of different materials; and 2. mixtures of harmful substances are handled more often than single substances. In addition, the method takes into account wear and repeated contact with harmful substances. It closes the gap left by present methods which determine the penetration resistances of gloves made of a single material in contact with a pure substance. Topics: construction work; harmful substances; liquid-penetrant testing; materials testing; mixtures; penetration resistance; permeability testing; protective gloves; service life; technical development.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Mar. 1998, Vol.29, No.3, p.28-32. Illus.
99-1270.pdf [in German]
Sinha A., Harrison P.V.
Latex glove allergy among hospital employees: A study in the north-west of England
In a questionnaire survey of 1,827 employees in two hospitals, 124 (7%) had experienced symptoms strongly suggestive of latex allergy. Of 56 workers who had a radioallergosorbent (RAST) test, 7 (12.5%) tested positive. 17% of affected individuals had already changed their working practice by using latex-free gloves. The study increased awareness of latex allergy at these hospitals. Hospital organizations should encourage staff to seek guidance on this problem and to take appropriate measures to improve working practices. Topics: allergies; health care personnel; hospitals; hypersensitivity; latex; protective gloves; questionnaire survey; radioallergosorbent test; substitution.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.48, No.6, p.405-410. Illus. 21 ref.
99-572.pdf [in English]
Pringalle C., Balty I.
Personal protection - Upper extremities
Protection individuelle - Les membres supérieurs [in French]
Topics: approval; arm guards; chemical protective clothing; comment on standard; directory; finger guards; France; hand and arm protection; hand guards; insulating gloves; legislation; mechanical hazards; protection against cold; protection against heat; protective gloves; radiation protective gloves; selection of equipment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, Mar. 1998. 47p. Illus.
99-110.pdf [in French]
Specification for industrial safety gloves and mittens
Topics: polyvinyl chloride; cotton; description of equipment; directive; equipment testing; industries; labelling; leather; protection criteria; protective gloves; Singapore; standard; synthetic rubber.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1997. 46p. Illus.
00-818.pdf [in English]
Jäger W., Holland U.
Hand injuries and protective gloves
Handverletzungen und Schutzhandschuhe [in German]
Topics: causes of accidents; evaluation of equipment; Germany; hand injuries; personal protective equipment; protective gloves; selection of equipment; statistics.
Die BG, Feb. 1997, No.2, p.62-66. Illus. 2 ref.
98-1716.pdf [in German]
Topics: chain saws; comfort criteria; comment on standard; equipment testing; grinding machines; hand-arm vibration; pneumatic picks; selection of equipment; vibration frequency; vibration measurement; vibration protective gloves; vibration transmission.
Occupational Safety and Health, Aug. 1997, Vol.27, No.8, p.15-21. Illus.
98-1448.pdf [in English]
Geng Q., Chen F., Holmér I.
The effect of protective gloves on manual dexterity in the cold environments
Topics: assessment of working capacity; cold workplaces; evaluation of equipment; manual dexterity; protection against cold; protective gloves; skin temperature.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1997, Vol.3, No.1-2, p.15-29. Illus. 13 ref.
98-899.pdf [in English]
Better understanding of the equipment used for personal protection (body, feet and hands)
Mieux connaître les équipements de protection individuelle (corps, pieds et mains) [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met persoonlijke beschermingsmiddelen (voeten, handen en lichaam) [in Dutch]
Topics: Belgium; falls from heights; foot and leg protection; hand and arm protection; personal hygiene; personal protective equipment; protective clothing; protective gloves; safety footwear; safety guides; training material.
Association nationale pour la prévention des accidents du travail, rue Gachard 88/4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1997. 21p. Illus. 6 ref.
98-90f.pdf [in French]
98-90nl.pdf [in Dutch]
Hazards of powdered surgical gloves
This brief communication describes allergic reactions associated with the use of latex surgical gloves. Type I hypersensitivity to latex proteins is being increasingly reported among health-care workers; several fatal allergic reactions have been reported. Latex proteins have been shown to adhere to the starch powder often used to facilitate the donning of gloves, thereby creating a protein-polysaccharide complex which can act as a potent aeroallergen. It is recommended that the use of powdered gloves and gloves that are high in extractable proteins should be discontinued.
Lancet, 4 Oct. 1997, Vol.350, No.9083, p.973-974. 7 ref.
97-1989.pdf [in English]
NIOSH Alert - Preventing allergic reactions to natural rubber latex in the workplace
Alerta NIOSH - Cómo prevenir reacciones alérgicas al látex de caucho en el trabajo [in Spanish]
This NIOSH Alert concentrates on the following aspects of latex allergy: background information (composition of latex, products containing latex, latex in the workplace); types of reactions to latex (irritant contact dermatitis, chemical sensitivity dermatitis, latex allergy); levels and routes of exposure; persons at risk; diagnosing latex allergy; treating latex allergy; how common latex allergies are; case reports; recommendations for prevention (aimed at employers and workers). Principal recommendations: use non-latex gloves when there is little potential contact with infectious materials; when latex gloves are used, prefer reduced-protein, powder-free gloves and remove latex dust from the workplace; educate workers about latex allergy; provide medical monitoring for high-risk workers, with removal of symptomatic workers from exposure.
Publication Dissemination, EID, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1997. iv, 11p. 49 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/latexalt.html [in English]
97-1655.pdf [in Multilingual]
http://www.cdc.gov/spanish/niosh/docs/97-135sp.html [in Spanish]
These five chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine selected issues in personal protection: review of personal protective equipment (PPE) (risk assessment and the selection and use of PPE, hearing protective equipment, respirators, safety helmets, protective footwear, fall protective equipment, eye protection, protective clothing); clothing for work in the cold; protective gloves; international approach to chemical safety; dangerous chemicals (health hazards, supply of risk information).
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.1, p.683-743. Illus. Bibl.ref.
97-1502.pdf [in English]
Heudorfer W., Gebhardt H., Bulheller S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Cutting resistance of protective gloves
Schnittfestigkeit von Schutzhandschuhen [in German]
Topics: cutting resistance; description of technique; experimental determination; hand and arm protection; materials testing; metalworking industry; protective gloves.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 101110, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 151p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: DEM 29.00.
98-1720.pdf [in German]
Kujala V.M., Reijula K.E.
Glove-related rhinopathy among hospital personnel
Allergic rhinitis among hospital personnel using natural rubber latex gloves. Topics: allergic rhinitis; epidemiologic study; health care personnel; hospitals; hypersensitivity; latex; protective gloves; pulmonary function; serological reactions; skin tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.30, No.2, p.164-170. 28 ref.
98-215.pdf [in English]
Baur X., et al.
Latex allergies - New regulations on natural rubber products.
Latex-Allergien - Neue Vorschriften für Naturgummiprodukte [in German]
Severe latex allergies among doctors, nursing personnel and patients in hospitals are on the rise. Latex-containing medical and protective equipment such as latex gloves are the cause. Analyses of air samples taken in hospitals and doctor's offices for the concentrations of allergens stemming from latex equipment were found to range from 0 to 205.4ng/m3. In the past the protein content of latex products was used to determine the risk of instantaneous sensitization. It is recommended to include the allergen content in the risk assessment. A method which measures both parameters is available. The results of concentrations of the proteins and allergens in 1g latex of 20 different types of latex equipment are presented. It is expected that the protein concentrations in latex equipment will soon be limited.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft, Feb. 1996, Vol.56, No.2, p.61-62. Illus. 8 ref.
97-1234.pdf [in German]
Health and Safety Executive
Chain mail and other cut resistant gloves as protection against powered blades in clothing factories
A powered circular blade cut test was developed to simulate the effects of a severe accident with a typical cloth cutting device. The test was used to compare the cut resistance of a range of protective gloves. Chain mail gloves provided a significantly higher level of protection against mechanically driven blades than the other products investigated. Knitted aramid, steel reinforced knitted aramid, leather and aramid reinforced leather, and rubber coated knitted cotton gloves all provided negligible protection. The test apparatus and procedure are described and standard cut resistance tests are reviewed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 26p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
97-1002.pdf [in English]
Mechanical vibration and shock - Hand-arm vibration - Method for the measurement and evaluation of the vibration transmissibility of gloves at the palm of the hand
Vibrations et chocs mécaniques - Vibrations main-bras - Méthode pour mesurer et évaluer le facteur de transmission des vibrations par les gants à la paume de la main [in French]
This standard describes a method of measuring the vibration transmissibility of gloves worn by a test subject. Main contents: scope; normative references; definitions; symbols and abbreviations; measuring principle and equipment; measurement conditions and procedure; evaluation of results; test report. Annexes: mathematical definition of vibration test signals; illustration of handle for measuring gripping force; spectra of test signals; reference to Standard EN 388 (Protective gloves against mechanical risks) and EN ISO 13753 (Method for the measurement of the vibration transmissibility of resilient materials when loaded by the hand-arm system).
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iii, 17p. Illus. 2 ref.
97-0988en.pdf [in English]
97-0988fr.pdf [in French]
Ramsing D.W., Agner T.
Effect of glove occlusion on human skin (II) - Long term experimental exposure
The effect of long-term glove occlusion on normal skin (6h/day for 14 days) was studied and, in addition, the effect of a cotton glove worn under the occlusive glove. Two studies were performed: Study A comprised 19 volunteers wearing an occlusive glove on normal skin for 6h/day for 14 days on one hand only; Study B comprised 18 volunteers wearing occlusive gloves on both hands on normal skin; a cotton glove was worn under the occlusive glove on one hand only. Skin barrier function was evaluated by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration by electrical capacitance and inflammation by erythema index. The gloves used were hypoallergenic, non-latex gloves. Results of Study A: the glove occlusion had a significant negative effect on skin barrier function, as measured by TEWL; results of Study B: the negative effect on skin barrier function from occlusive gloves was prevented by the use of a cotton glove. Gloves may be a substantial factor in the pathogenesis of cumulative irritant contact dermatitis and recommendations as to their use are important.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1996, Vol.34, No.4, p.258-262. Illus. 21 ref.
96-0614.pdf [in English]
Protect your hands
Sauvegardez vos mains [in French]
Contents of this safety guide aimed at protecting the hands from accidental injuries during woodworking: sharpening; protection from and use of band saws, bench-type circular saws, radial saws, surface planers and spindle moulders.
Organisme Professionnel de Prévention du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (OPPBTP), Tour Amboise, 204, rond-point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France, 1995. 21p. Illus. Price: EUR 10.50.
08-0531.pdf [in French]
Lara J., Hetelson H., Drolet D.
Glove resistance to chemical mixtures - Report
La résistance des gants aux mélanges de produits chimiques - Rapport [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in this report on glove resistance to chemical products: solubility and diffusion of solvents through polymeric materials; permeability testing and results of experiments with different solvents (pure and mixtures).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Direction des communications, 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, June 1995. i, 45p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: CAD 5.35 + CAD 15.00 mailing charges.
97-0583.pdf [in French]
Geerissen H., Musanke U., Neffgen B.
Protective gloves for handling epoxy resins
Schutzhandschuhe für Epoxidharz-Systeme [in German]
The penetration of protective gloves by 4 different epoxy resins and 6 different hardeners used in the construction industry was studied in the laboratory. The protective gloves were made of 6 different natural or synthetic rubbers. Only one of the tested materials, made of synthetic rubber, was not penetrated by the epoxy resins or hardeners within a period of 480 minutes. Latex gloves provided no protection of the skin from the epoxy resins.
Die BG, Oct. 1995, No.10, p.532-535. Illus. 4 ref.
96-1401.pdf [in German]
Graves C.J., Edwards C., Marks R.
The effects of protective occlusive gloves on stratum corneum barrier properties
Data suggest that protection from gloves is paradoxically reduced because of effects of occlusion on the skin. The aim of this study was to characterize these effects on physical and functional properties of stratum corneum. Volunteer trials were conducted using patches of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) glove material on the skin. Impairment of barrier function was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Hydration and water sorption-desorption were assessed using skin conductance. The major finding was a short-term impairment of barrier function, measured as an increase in TEWL of 1.7g/m2/h. Temporary increases in hydration and water sorption were also observed. On this basis, the effects of wearing PVC gloves over two days on stratum corneum barrier properties on the dorsum of the hand were studied. TEWL measurements remained elevated by 1.5g/m2/h the day after occlusive glove removal, indicating a possible cumulative effect. These studies demonstrate a potential hazard resulting from the repeated use of protective gloves.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1995, Vol.33, No.3, p.183-187. Illus. 12 ref.
96-0623.pdf [in English]
Gloves for boring operations - An unsolved problem
Handschuhe bei Bohrarbeiten - ein ungelöstes Problem [in German]
In machining of sharp-edged metal sheets with rotating tools such as boring and turning mills, gloves are used to provide protection from cuts. However, the gloves tend to get caught in the machines, causing serious accidents in which fingers or even the hand may be severed. The forces acting on a glove when it gets caught in a boring or turning mill were measured. Gloves made of 14 different materials such as leather or rubber and boring and turning mills with eight different diameters were used in experiments with artificial hands. A total of 667 experiments were conducted using 11 different revolutions per minute. In addition, the forces necessary for tearing off a finger were determined experimentally. The results were used in attempts to develop protective gloves that can be worn without hazard. Results showed that neither the presently available nor the newly developed protective gloves can be used in machining sheet metal without risking the loss of fingers or the hand.
Die BG, Nov. 1995, No.11, p.622-626. Illus.
96-1043.pdf [in German]
Immediate allergic reaction to latex
Soforttypallergie auf Naturlatex [in German]
The following immediate allergies have been reported to be caused by protective gloves made of latex: contact dermatitis, urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma and anaphylactic shock. The frequency rates of immediate allergic reactions to latex among medical personnel are between seven and 10%. Protective gloves made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) rarely cause any immediate allergies. However, due to its carcinogenic properties and for ecological reasons, protective gloves made of PVC are not recommended for use as a substitute for latex gloves. Protective gloves made of synthetic rubbers such as neoprene are recommended instead for use by medical personnel.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Sep.-Oct. 1995, Vol. 43, No.5, p.230. 4 ref.
96-0874.pdf [in German]
Barat F., Castets M.C., Mahieu J.C.
Methods for assessing the resistance of gloves to chemical substances
Méthodes d'évaluation de la résistance des gants aux produits chimiques [in French]
This data sheet shows the results of a study on methods for assessing glove resistance to chemical substances. It presents the testing equipment used and the results which were obtained with thirteen models of gloves. The results of the current study compare well with those of another one previously conducted by the INRS in more than 50% of the cases. Appended are details on the automation of the testing equipment, an example of two recordings, the diagrams of the permeation cells used (according to European and international standards) and the results of the tests with common solvents and some glycol ethers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.160, Note No.1998-160-95, p.373-388. Illus. 10 ref.
96-0263.pdf [in French]
The decision is in your hands
La decisión está en sus manos [in Spanish]
Videotape on the protection of hands against mechanical, physical, chemical and biological agents at work.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Carrera 20, No.39-62, 6839 Bogotá, Colombia, no date. Videotape. Length: 15min. Price: COP 87,500 or USD 100.00 (members); COP 113,500 or USD 125.00 (non-members). ###
Burke F.J.T., Wilson N.H.F., Cheung S.W.
Factors associated with skin irritation of the hands experienced by general dental practitioners
A questionnaire survey of general dental practitioners in England and Wales (1200 respondents) revealed a strong association between the pattern of glove wearing and incidence of skin irritation; routine glove wearers were more likely to suffer skin irritation than occasional glove wearers. Female respondents were more likely to have experienced skin irritation than male respondents. The need for the development of new glove materials which will cause minimal skin irritation is highlighted.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1995, Vol.32, No.1, p.35-38. 21 ref.
Design, formation and production of personal protective equipment [Norway]
Konstruksjon, utforming og produksjon av personlig verneutstyr [in Norwegian]
Directive on the Norwegian requirements pertaining to personal protective equipment. It is harmonized with European directives 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381), 93/95/EEC (CIS 94-778) and 93/68/EEC (CIS 94-751); it came into force 19 Aug. 1994. Procedures for evaluation of compliance and marking are described. The requirements cover the performance of the equipment, and are of a general nature. Examples of equipment dealt with are: protection against falls, hearing protection, vibration protection, protection against heat and cold, protection against drowning, protection against radiation, protection of respiratory organs, protection of skin and eyes.
Tiden Norsk Forlag, Postboks 8813 Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway, 19 Aug. 1994. 34p. Illus.
Test method and assessment of heat-resistant gloves against contact heat - Possible extension of the method to gloves protecting against radiant or convection heat and against cold
Méthode d'essais et d'évaluation des gants de protection contre la chaleur de contact - Possibilité d'extension aux gants de protection contre le rayonnement, la chaleur convective et le froid [in French]
Correlations of pain threshold time ranging from 10 to 590s versus constant heat flow were determined on the thenar eminence (part of the palm) of 3 subjects. These data show that hands behave thermically as semi-infinite solids in the range 25 to 590s. The method consists of assessing the pain threshold time from the temperature rise which the surface of a semi-infinite solid would experience versus time. In the first version of the method the skin temperature rise is calculated from the recording of heat flow through the sample versus time under the same heat load. In the second version, the surface temperature rise of a block of nylon is measured. The skin temperature rise is 1.48 times less than the temperature rise of the block. Pain threshold was assumed to be reached at a skin temperature rise equal to 12°C. Both versions allow pain threshold time to be assessed directly in the range of 25 to 590s. For a time less than 25s, corrections using the correlation of Stoll and Greene are necessary. The first version of the test method can be extended to the gloves for protection against cold and the method of interpretation of results to the gloves for protection against convection or radiant heat.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.157, Note No.1972-157-94, p.423-441. Illus. 29 ref.
Fricker C., Hardy J.K.
The effect of an alternate environment as a collection medium on the permeation characteristics of solid organics through protective glove materials
A method was developed for the determination of permeation of glove materials by organic solids. A study of the effect of a saline environment on permeation characteristics such as breakthrough and steady state permeation was performed at ambient temperature. The study used a 0.85% saline solution as the collection medium in a stainless steel permeation cell designed exclusively for solids. Materials of five commercially available gloves were exposed to nine organic solids. Natural rubber latex yielded the shortest and nitrile the longest breakthrough times. Overall, breakthrough times were comparable to a method using a helium collection medium, but in many exposures the saline collection medium yielded longer breakthrough times. The polarity of the glove material may be a factor that reduces measured permeation rate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.738-742. Illus. 13 ref.
Peter C., Bohne-Matusall R., Hoting E., Egmose K.
Material testing of protective gloves for hairdressers
Materialprüfung von Arbeitsschutzhandschuhen für den Friseurberuf [in German]
Most of the protective gloves used by hairdressers are made of natural or nitrile latex. The breakthrough times and permeation rates of the hair dye constituents ammonium persulfate and paraphenylenediamines as well as of glyceryl monothioglycolate, used in permanent waves, were determined. The glove made of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber was impermeable to all chemicals tested for the testing period of 60 minutes. The natural latex glove was impermeable to glyceryl monothioglycolate for the 60-minute period but was penetrated by the other chemicals after 24 and 38 minutes.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol 42, No.1, p.10-14. Illus. 34 ref.
Tortured hands - Occupational skin diseases in the hospital
Geplagte Hände - Berufsdermatosen im Krankenhaus [in German]
The symptoms of skin diseases diagnosed among hospital personnel are described. Of all the skin diseases affecting the hands of the hospital personnel, allergies account for 90%. Skin contact with disinfectants such as formaldehyde is the primary cause for the allergies. It is recommended to use alcohol-containing disinfectants as substitutes and allergen-free, disposable gloves for protection of the hands.
Krankenhaustechnik, Aug. 1994, Vol.20, No.8, p.32-35. Illus.
Mital A., Kuo T., Faard H.F.
A quantitative evaluation of gloves used with non-powered hand tools in routine maintenance tasks
The influence of a variety of commercially available gloves on the force/torque exertion capability of workers using wrenches and screwdrivers was determined. Peak torque and muscle activity were recorded for workers using seven different hand tools and nine varieties of gloves while exerting peak volitional torques on a simulated workpiece. Results indicated that muscle activity did not differ significantly between the glove and no-glove situations and the peak torque exertion capability of individuals generally increased with gloves. The magnitude of torque exerted on the workpiece was different for different gloves.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1994, Vol.37, No.2, p.333-343. Illus. 28 ref.
Rapid increase in latex allergies
Health hazards of some chemical substances used in medical care are outlined along with protective measures. Hazards discussed include: cytostatic drugs; anaesthetic gases; formaldehyde; eczema caused by working with water and chemicals; disinfectants. Protective gloves of natural rubber can cause contact urticaria and a rapid rise in latex allergies among health care personnel has been reported. Latex dust in the air can also cause asthma and other symptoms of allergy.
Forskning & Praktik, 1994, No.3, p.15-18. Illus. 3 ref.
Wrangsjö K., Osterman K., van Hage-Hamsten M.
Glove-related skin symptoms among operating theatre and dental care unit personnel - (1) Interview investigation
An investigation of glove-related skin complaints was carried out among 233 hospital and dental care employees. 87 workers (37%) reported skin symptoms related to glove use. Four workers (2%) reported localized contact urticaria provoked by latex gloves, 23 (10%) hand eczema and 56 (24%) unclassified skin intolerance from gloves. A further four workers (2%) reported facial irritation from gloves. Glove-related skin symptoms were thus reported by more than one-third of the personnel while the reported glove-provoked urticaria constituted 5% of the intolerance reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1994, Vol.30, No.2, p.102-107. 24 ref.
Zellers E.T., Sulewski R.
Modeling the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone permeation through butyl- and natural-rubber gloves
Study of breakthrough time of N-methylpyrrolidone for butyl and natural rubber gloves. The gloves were tested at four temperatures from 25-50°C. The butyl rubber glove did not show any breakthrough after four hours. The natural rubber gloves showed permeation rates applying well with the Arrhenius relationship. Extrapolation of the temperature to 70-93°C gave breakthrough values of less than 0.5-2 minutes. Experimental values were compared with permeation models. The Fickian diffusion equation gave values of breakthrough time and steady-state permeation time within 23 and 50% respectively of the experimental values.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1993, Vol.54, No.9, p.465-479. Illus. 52 ref.
Chatté M., Grange F., Prost G.
A new case of asthma due to latex: Prevention by the use of hypoallergenic gloves
Un nouveau cas d'asthme professionnel au latex: intérêt de la prévention par l'utilisation de gants hypoallergéniques [in French]
A new case of asthma due to latex after using latex gloves is reported. The responsibility of latex was based upon measurement of latex-specific IgE and realistic provocation tests. The use of hypoallergenic latex gloves treated by successive washings to eliminate the allergen alleviated the asthma. The generalization of their use is recommended as well as the inclusion of this allergy in the French Schedule of Occupational Diseases.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.411-413. 15 ref.
Olsen R.J., Lynch P., Coyle M.B., Cummings J., Bokete T., Stamm W.E.
Examination gloves as barriers to hand contamination in clinical practice
A study was made of 137 procedures during which a health care worker's gloved hand was in touch with a patient's mucous membranes and was thus potentially contaminated. 86 of the 135 gloves cultured after use had gram-negative rods or enterococci on the external surface and microbial contamination of the health worker's hand occurred in 11 of these 86 events. Glove leaks and hand contamination were more frequent with vinyl than with latex gloves. Results show that under conditions of routine use, gloves effectively function as a protective barrier even when leaks are present.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 21 July 1993, Vol.270, No.3, p.350-353. 23 ref.
The effects of various thicknesses of chemical protective gloves on manual dexterity
Twelve men were timed as they performed five dexterity tests while barehanded and while wearing each of three thicknesses of chemical protective gloves. Mean times were best with bare hands and poorest with the thickest (0.64mm) gloves. Performance with the gloves improved over sessions to the extent that the results with gloves approached or surpassed performance levels achieved with bare hands during the early sessions. Findings suggest that selection of the thinnest glove material compatible with protection from the chemical environment and practice working with the handwear will result in relatively efficient manual performance.
Ergonomics, June 1993, Vol.36, No.6, p.687-696. 19 ref.
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