Respiratory protection - 688 entries found
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Bronze and lighting ornaments - Chiselling away safely
Lustrerie-bronze - Ciseler en toute sécurité [in French]
Clocks, candelabras, andirons, chandeliers and other objects in bronze, brass or cast iron from French ministries and embassies are renovated in the Paris workshop of the National furniture service. This article describes the tasks carried out in this workshop, together with the prevention of occupational safety and health hazards.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.42-44. Illus.
Lustrerie-bronze.pdf [in French]
Rengasamy S., Miller A., Eimer B.C.
Evaluation of the filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 filtering facepiece respirators by photometric and number-based test methods
N95 particulate filtering facepiece respirators are certified by measuring penetration levels photometrically with a presumed severe case test method using charge neutralized NaCl aerosols at 85L/min. However, penetration values obtained by photometric methods have not been compared with count-based methods using contemporary respirators composed of electrostatic filter media and challenged with both generated and ambient aerosols. To understand the effects of particle charge and detection methods, penetration levels for five filtering facepiece respirators were measured using NaCl aerosols with the aerosol challenge and test equipment employed in the NIOSH respirator certification method, and compared with an ultrafine condensation particle counter method. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.23-30. Illus. 36 ref.
Birkner J.S., Kovalchik S., Fung D., Hinds W.C., Kennedy N.J.
Particle release from respirators, Part II: Determination of the effect of tension applied in simulation of removal
This study evaluated the potential for disposable filtering facepiece respirators (hereafter termed masks) contaminated with 1μm particles to release particles as a result of lateral tension applied to the mask. The lateral tension was designed to simulate the removal of a contaminated mask from a user's head. Four brands of filtering facepieces were loaded with approximately 20 million 1.0μm polystyrene latex microspheres. The respirators were then placed in a test chamber and subjected to lateral tension between 17.8-26.7 for 1-2sec. Findings suggest that neither mask type nor loading condition affects particle release. This supports the hypothesis that when filtering facepiece respirators are properly removed from the head they will not release a significant number of particles. See also ISN 111322.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.10-12. Illus. 2 ref.
Birkner J.S., Fung D., Hinds W.C., Kennedy N.J.
Particle release from respirators, Part I: Determination of the effect of particle size, drop height, and load
In late 2001, some United States Postal Service workers and a few members of Congress were exposed to anthrax spores. This led to an increased effort to develop employable methods to protect workers from exposure to anthrax. This study evaluated the potential for several types of half-mask respirators to release deposited particles. Four brands of the most commonly used filtering facepiece respirators were loaded with 0.59μm, 1.0μm, and 1.9μm polystyrene latex microspheres and then dropped onto a rigid surface. The load conditions were 10, 20, or 40 million particles, and drop heights were 0.15, 0.76 and 1.37 m. Results of these tests were inconclusive. Part II (see ISN 111323) addresses the release of particles when simulating removal of a filtering facepiece from a wearer's head.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.1-9. Illus. 15 ref.
Guide to the selection and testing of respiratory protection
Guía para la selección y control de protección respiratoria [in Spanish]
Contents of this guide to the selection and testing of respiratory protective equipment: introduction; objective; terminology; respiratory protection; selection of respiratory protective equipment; recommendations for the testing of respiratory protective equipment. Appendices include: check list for the selection of respiratory protective equipment; aspects to be considered based on the personal characteristics of users; fit testing recommendations; inspection and storage; description of several types of respirators.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2010, 34p. Illus.
Guía_para_la_selección_y_control_(02)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]
Solans Lampurlanés X., Freixa Blanxart A., Goberna Ortiz R., Moreno Hurtado J.J., Oubiña Albaladejo A.
Quartz agglomerates: Preventive measures during machining operations
Aglomerados de cuarzo: medidas preventivas en operaciones de mecanizado [in Spanish]
This technical information note presents a set of preventive measures for avoiding occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust during the machining (cutting and polishing) of quartz agglomerates, both during workshop operations and during their installation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 5 ref.
NTP_890.pdf [in Spanish]
Cho K.J., Jones S., Jones G., McKay R., Grinshpun S.A., Dwivedi A., Shukla R., Singh U., Reponen T.
Effect of particle size on respiratory protection provided by two types of N95 respirators used in agricultural settings
This study compared size-selective workplace protection factors (WPFs) of an N95 elastomeric respirator (ER) and an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) in agricultural environments. Twenty-five healthy farm workers ranging in age from 20 to 30 years voluntarily participated in this study. Altogether, eight farms were included representing three different types: two horse farms, three pig barns and three grain handling sites. Subjects wore the ER and FFR while performing their daily activities, such as spreading hay, feeding livestock and shovelling. Aerosol concentrations in an optical particle size range of 0.7-10μm were determined simultaneously inside and outside the respirator during the first and last 15 min of a 60-min experiment. For every subject, size-selective WPFs were calculated in 1-min intervals and averaged over 30 min. Results show that the N95 ER and FFR tested in the study provided an expected level of protection for workers on agricultural farms against particles ranging from 0.7 to 10μm. WPFs for the ER were higher than the FFR for all particle size ranges. WPFs for both respirator types increased with increasing particle size.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2010, Vol.7, p.622-627. Illus. 20 ref.
Galland B., Demey T., Henrard J., Martin P.
Efficiency of saturation detectors for organic solvent mask purification cartridges
Efficacité des capteurs de saturation de cartouche de masques épurants pour les vapeurs de solvants organiques [in French]
The real-time measurement of compounds passing through purification cartridges is a way of assessing the efficiency of a respiratory protective device (RPD) for gases and vapours. Resistance-type semi-conductor gas saturation detectors were validated in the laboratory using test benches. Their properties allow highlighting the RPD cartridge saturation phenomenon. This article describes the means of testing developed for this application, provides a comparative survey of detector performance for various exposures to organic solvent vapours and discusses ways of adapting these detectors to RPD-based systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2010, No.221, p.17-24. Illus. 8 ref.
ND 2337-221-10.pdf [in French]
Majchrzycka K., Gutarowska B., Brochocka A.
Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part I: Type of active substance, contact time, microorganism species; Part II: Sweat in the environment, microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol
The results of a study on antimicrobial activity of polymer filter nonwovens produced by needle-punching or melt-blowing with an addition of disinfecting agents are presented in two articles. The first article examines how the type of active agent, the duration of the contact of microorganisms and the type of microorganisms affect the activity of nonwovens. The second article investigates whether an addition of artificial sweat to a bioactive nonwoven has a protective effect on the microbes and whether it changes their survivability. In addition, the sensitivity of bacteria deposited on a nonwoven in the form of a liquid and a bioaerosol was tested. The filtration efficiency of nonwovens against microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol was also tested with a dynamic method. Findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.2, p.263-273. Illus. 23 ref. (Part I); p.275-280. Illus. 5 ref. (Part II)
Harber P., Santiago S., Wu S., Bansal S., Liu Y., Yun D.
Subjective response to respirator type: Effect of disease status and gender
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of respirator type and user characteristics, such as the state of health, on the subjective response to respirator use. The subjective responses for multiple domains were evaluated in 104 volunteers performing work tasks in a simulated work environment. Each used a dual cartridge half face mask and a filtering facepiece respirator. The study population was recruited to include four groups (normal respiratory status, mild asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or chronic rhinitis). Mixed model regression analyses determined the effects of respirator type, disease, gender and age. Half face masks produced more adverse subjective response than the filtering facepiece for most scales. There were significant interactions, such that disease status modified the effect of respirator type. In general, women reported greater adverse ratings than did men. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.150-154. Illus. 32 ref.
Stone tiles and decorative stones - A guide for importers, suppliers and tilers
Many tiles and decorative stones contain significant amounts of silica and other minerals that may pose serious health risks. This leaflet contains guidance on safe work procedures aimed at limiting workers' exposure to airborne silica and mineral dust (wet cutting methods, respirators, exhaust ventilation, cleaning and maintenance of work clothing).
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 2p. Illus.
http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/WorkSafe/PDF/Guides/importers_of_stone_tiles.pdf [in English]
Liu H.H, Yang H.H, Chou C.D, Lin M.H, Chen H.L
Risk assessment of gaseous/particulate phase PAH exposure in foundry industry
Air samplings in several working areas of two foundries in Taiwan were collected to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. The average PAH level in Foundry A was 19.56μg/m3, which was higher than that in Foundry B (8.26μg/m3), whereas the reverse was observed for the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent level (38.81ng/m3 and 46.52ng/m3 respectively). PAH levels in the moulding process, painting area and furnace area are described. The gas phase was the major contributor of total PAHs in the manufacturing areas. Moreover, health risk assessment of PAHs exposure showed that lung cancer risks were important in both foundries. It is recommended that workers use appropriate respiratory masks in painting, melting and pouring areas to limit their occupational exposure to PAHs.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2010, Vol.181, No.1-3, p.105-111. Illus. 29 ref.
Grinshpun S.A., Haruta H., Eninger R.M., Reponen T., McKay R.T., Lee S.A.
Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particulate respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: Two pathways for particle penetration
The protection level offered by filtering facepiece particulate respirators and face masks is defined by the percentage of ambient particles penetrating inside the protection device. There are two penetration pathways: through face-seal leakage and through the filter medium. This study aimed at differentiating the contributions of these two pathways for particles in the size range of 0.03-1μm under actual breathing conditions. One N95 filtering facepiece respirator and one surgical mask commonly used in health care environments were tested on 25 subjects as the subjects performed conventional fit test exercises. The respirator and the mask were also tested with breathing manikins that precisely mimicked the pre-recorded breathing patterns of the tested subjects. The penetration data obtained in the human subject- and manikin-based tests were compared for different particle sizes and breathing patterns. Overall, 5250 particle size- and exercise-specific penetration values were determined. For each value, the face-seal leakage-to-filter ratio was calculated to quantify the relative contributions of the two penetration pathways. The number of particles penetrating through the face-seal leakage of the tested respirator/mask far exceeded the number of those penetrating through the filter medium. For the N95 respirator, the excess was by an order of magnitude and significantly increased with an increase in particle size: approximately 7-fold greater for 0.04μm, approximately 10-fold for 0.1μm, and approximately 20-fold for 1μm. For the surgical mask, the face-seal leakage-to-filter ratio ranged from 4.8 to 5.8 and was not significantly affected by the particle size for the tested sub-micron fraction. Facial/body movement had a pronounced effect on the relative contribution of the two penetration pathways. Breathing intensity and facial dimensions showed some limited influence. Because most of the penetrated particles entered through the face-seal, the priority in respirator/mask development should be shifted from improving the efficiency of the filter medium to establishing a better fit that would eliminate or minimize face-seal leakage.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, p.593-603. Illus. 20 ref.
Gottesfeld P., Nicas M., Kephart J.W., Balakrishnan K., Rinehart R.
Reduction of respirable silica following the introduction of water spray applications in Indian stone crusher mills
Respirable crystalline silica dust generated during stone crushing operations has been linked to chronic lung disease and increased risk of tuberculosis. In India, most stone crushing mills operate without any dust control or containment systems. This investigation in an Indian district demonstrated a reduction in respirable particulate mass following the application of a fine mist of water. Average respirable quartz and cristobalite levels declined 82% and 69%, respectively, after water spray controls were installed. This finding suggests that relatively inexpensive modifications that are available in the local market can be effective at reducing silica exposures. Although average exposure levels, particularly during the dry season, may exceed the permissible exposure limit for silica, the overall reductions observed were substantial. Widespread adoption of this simple control technology by stone crushers in India could have a positive public health impact.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol. 14, No.2, p.94-103. Illus. 21 ref.
Reduction_ of_respirable_silica.pdf [in English]
Kowalski-Trakofler K.M., Vaught C., Brnich M.J.
Expectations training for miners using self-contained self-rescuers in escapes from underground coal mines
NIOSH researchers conducted a study to investigate the human response issues related to wearing a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR). The goal was to develop training to educate miners on what they could expect from their units during an escape. A survey was conducted among miners who had experience wearing SCSRs, equipment manufacturers and researchers. In addition, a literature review was conducted on human response under duress. This article describes the training programme, based on the findings of the survey and on current knowledge concerning normal human response in an emergency.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2008, Vol.5, No.10, p.671-677. Illus. 19 ref.
Zhuang Z., Groce D., Ahlers H.W., Iskander W., Landsittel D., Guffey S., Benson S., Viscusi D., Shaffer R.E.
Correlation between respirator fit and respirator fit test panel cells by respirator size
NIOSH recently completed a study to develop an anthropometric database of the measurements of heads and faces of respirator users. Based on the data collected, researchers developed two new panels for fit testing half-facepiece and full-facepiece respirators. One of the new panels uses face length and face width. The other panel is based on principal component analysis to identify the linear combination of facial dimensions that best explains facial variations. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between respirator fit and the NIOSH panels for various respirator sizes. Based on fit tests with 30 subjects, findings support the selection of the facial dimensions for developing the new NIOSH bivariate respirator fit test panel.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2008, Vol.5, No.10, p.617-628. Illus. 22 ref.
Rengasamy S., King W.P., Eimer B.C., Shaffer R.E.
Filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 and P100 filtering facepiece respirators against 4 to 30 nanometer-size nanoparticles
This study investigated the filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 and P100 filtering facepiece respirators against silver aerosol particles in the diameter range of 4-30nm. A test system was developed and standardized for measuring the penetration of the particles. Findings support previous studies that indicate NIOSH-approved respirators provide protection against nanoparticles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.556-564. Illus. 29 ref.
Respiratory protection recommendations for airborne exposures to crystalline silica: NIOSH Policy Statement
This leaflet summarizes the main points of NIOSH policy for respiratory protection against exposures to airborne crystalline silica. NIOSH recommends the use of half-facepiece particulate respirators with N95 or better filters for exposures to airborne crystalline silica at concentrations less than or equal to 0.5mg/m3. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also specifies the use of at least a 95-rated filter efficiency. The recommendation for a 95-rated filter efficiency reflects the improved filter efficiency of N95 filters over the earlier dust and mist filters.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 3p. 7 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-140/pdfs/2008-140.pdf [in English]
Cossement D., Bellasfar I., Dubois P.D., Bose T.K., Lara J., Drolet D., Lemay F., Fortin Z.
Development and validation of a tool for calculating the service life of organic vapour filter cartridges
Mise au point et validation d'un outil de calcul du temps de service des cartouches filtrantes pour vapeurs organiques [in French]
By studying the filter capacity and service life of respiratory protective cartridges, the IRSST demonstrated in earlier work that in the case of mixtures of pollutants, the use of a mask with saturated cartridges can be more dangerous than no mask at all. Researchers have developed a software that estimates the service life of chemical cartridges that filter the vapours of 145 solvents, most of which are mentioned in the Regulation concerning occupational health and safety. This project also led to the development of a computer tool used to establish a replacement sequence for filter cartridges.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vi, 60p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-542.pdf [in French]
Syamlal G., Doney B., Bang K.M., Greskevitch M., Groce D., Ganocy S., Hoffman W.
Medical fitness evaluation for respirator users: Results of a national survey of private sector employers
A survey was carried out on respirator use and practices in private sector establishments in the United States. Among establishments where respirators were required, 46% did not evaluate employees' medical fitness. Evaluations for fitness increased with establishment size, ranging from 35% in small establishments (1-10 workers) to 95% in large establishments (≥1000 workers). Questionnaire with a follow-up examination, as needed, was the most common method of evaluating medical fitness. Results show that about half of all private sector establishments where respirators are required do not comply with Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements evaluating medical fitness.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.49, No.6, p.691-699. Illus. 23 ref.
Lavoie J., Cloutier Y., Lara J., Marchand G.
Guide on respiratory protection against bioaerosols: Recommendations on its selection and use
This guide is intended, among others, for workers in household waste sorting centres, wastewater treatment plants, agricultural enterprises, food and beverage processing companies and hospitals. It provides a description of the respirators and filtration mechanisms, as well as information on their fit, seal and maintenance. It also provides information on the respiratory protection required for infectious and non-infectious bioaerosols.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. v, 30p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-501.pdf [in English]
Recirculation filter is key to improving dust control in enclosed cabs
Overexposure to airborne respirable silica dust can cause debilitating or fatal respiratory disease. Drillers and operators of mobile excavating equipment such as bulldozers, loaders and trucks at surface mines are frequently overexposed to silica dust. Enclosed cabs with heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are typically integrated into the mining equipment to protect the operator from the outside environment. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) investigated various cab air filtration systems in the laboratory to evaluate their dust protection performance. Findings are summarized in this leaflet. It was found that air filtration performance depends on the efficiency of the air filters, airflow through the filters, dust loading on the filters, exterior air leakage around the intake filter and wind penetration of outside air into the cab enclosure.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Oct. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2008-100.pdf [in English]
Lavoie J., Cloutier Y., Lara J., Marchand G.
Guide on respiratory protection against bioaerosols - Recommendations for selection and use
Guide sur la protection respiratoire contre les bioaérosols - Recommandations sur le choix et l'utilisation [in French]
This guide is primarily aimed at workers in domestic waste sorting centres, wastewater treatment plants, farms, food and beverage processing industries and hospitals. It provides a description of respirators and their filtration mechanisms, together with information on their fit, seal and maintenance. It also provides information on the respiratory protection required for infectious and non-infectious bioaerosols.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal H3A 3C2, Quebec, Canada, 2007. v, 30p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-497.pdf [in French]
Providing effective and appropriate respiratory protection for workers in a contaminated environment can save lives. Contents of this article on selection of respirators: choosing the right respirator; importance of training; qualitative and quantitative fit testing; life expectancy of cartridges; caring for respirators; health surveillance; rules to be followed for implementing a successful respiratory protection programme.
Occupational Hazards, Aug. 2006, p.30-33. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Fachausschuss "Metall- und Oberflächenbehandlung" der Berufsgenossenschaftlichen Zentrale für Sicherheit und Gesundheit (BGZ)
Protective measures for spray coating work - lacquer aerosols
Schutzmaßnahmenkonzept für Spritzlackierarbeiten - Lackaerosole [in German]
This code of practice applies to all spray coating work that is performed with spray guns. It does not address the manual application of lacquers and paints. It specifies the requirements to protect workers from the inhalation of lacquer aerosols by installation of a suitable exhaust ventilation system or by the supply of respirators. It provides criteria for deciding which of the two methods of protection is needed in each case.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2006. 15p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.40.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/bgz/entwicklung/pdf_bild/bgvr03_pdf/bgr_231.pdf [in German]
Lui Y., et al.
Respiratory protection from isocyanate exposure in the autobody repair and refinishing industry
This study evaluated the effectiveness of respiratory protection against exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in automobile body repair shops. A total of 36 shops were assessed for respiratory protection programme completeness. 142 workers were measured for respirator fit factor. In addition, 22 painters from 21 shops were sampled to determine the protection factors of negative pressure, air purifying half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapour cartridges and paint pre-filters during spray-painting and priming activities. Findings are discussed. It is concluded half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapour cartridges and paint prefilters provide effective protection against isocyanate exposure in spray and priming operations if workers are properly trained and fitted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2006, Vol.3, No.5, p.234-249. Illus. 58 ref.
Don't let work make you breathless
Ne laissez pas le travail vous couper le souffle [in French]
There are many situations in which workers cannot breathe the ambient air without risks to their health and need to wear respirators. This article discusses the selection of this equipment. Topics addressed: causes of respiratory impairment due to ambient air pollution; definitions of exposure limits, minimum protection factor, odour threshold; types of respirators; selection of the appropriate type of respirator; safe use of respirators.
Prevent Focus, Mar. 2006, No.3, p.4-8. Illus.
Sundblad B.M., Sahlander K., Ek A., Kumlin M., Olsson M., Larsson K., Palmberg L.
Effect of respirators equipped with particle or particle-and-gas filters during exposure in a pig confinement building
This study compared the protective effect of two respiratory protection devices during exposure in a pig confinement building. Thirty-six healthy workers were exposed for three hours in the building, 12 without any protection, 12 with a particle-filter mask and 12 with a mask filtering both particles and gases. Symptoms, body temperature, nasal lavage fluid, exhaled nitric oxide and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were assessed before and after the exposure. Pre- and post-exposure urine and blood samples were collected. Findings indicate that wearing a respirator in a pig confinement building reduces the inflammatory reaction but does not influence bronchial responsiveness. There was no difference between the use of a particle-filter mask and a mask with a particle-gas filter combination.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.32, No.2, p.145-153. Illus. 33 ref.
Room for manoeuvre
Selecting suitable respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is often a key part of planning for work in confined spaces, but so is careful consideration of other activities that may impact on it. This article takes work at height as an example of one such activity, looking at how various types of RPE can interfere with the need to climb into, out of, or within a confined space. Different types of RPE are described and problems of interaction with other equipment such as ladders, scaffolds and safety harnesses. Design and wearability factors of RPE are also addressed.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 2006, Vol.24, No.4, p.60-62. Illus.
Respirators - precious air
Masques respiratoires - Un air précieux [in French]
Given the wide variety of exposure hazards in the building and construction sector, including wood dust, asbestos fibres and solvent vapours, choosing the appropriate respirator is a key factor for ensuring the effectiveness of protection. This article covers the various types of respirators (filtering or insulating), their selection as a function of the tasks to be undertaken, correct use (respirator size suited to the user, user training) and the marking of respirators.
Prévention BTP, May 2006, No.85, p.28-29. Illus. 4 ref.
Martin P., Ferrari P., Pierrel M.
Testing the chemical resistance of gloves to four frequently-used glycol ethers
Tests de résistance chimique des gants vis-à-vis de quatre éthers de glycol d'utilisation fréquente [in French]
The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of a set of gloves to four glycol ethers, namely 2PG1MEA (2-propylene glycol 1-methyl ether 2-acetate), EGBE (ethylene glycol n-butyl ether), DEGEE (diethylene glycol ethyl ether) and DEGBE (diethylene glycol butyl ether). The need to test protective gloves in relation to these glycol ethers required developing specific analytical methods implemented within the framework of European standards EN 369 and EN 374 testing procedures. This study led to determining permeation times for the different gloves, enabling users of these chemicals to protect themselves effectively against penetration of glycol ethers through the skin. The results revealed the superiority of two thicknesses (0.45 and 0.65mm) of butyl gloves made by two manufacturers. Permeation measurements for these gloves were interrupted after eight hours of recording without reaching the threshold concentration downstream of the sample. Permeation times for other materials were shorter and less uniform, depending on the glycol ether concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.202, p.23-30. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202242/$File/ND2242.pdf [in French]
Kriegesmann B., Kottmann M., Masurek L., Nowak U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Skills for sustainable employability
Kompetenz für eine nachhaltige Beschäftigungsfähigkeit [in German]
Changing conditions in the world of work raise new questions concerning safety and health protection as well as the development of individual aptitude during the various phases of working life so as to ensure long-term employability. Sustainable employability presupposes being conscious of the importance of preserving one's state of health and good long-term individual management of one's health. Indeed, one needs to be in good health in order to develop professional skills. This report comments on various aspects of long-term employability and highlights certain gaps in German health policies.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 86p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: EUR 11.50.
http://www.baua.de/nn_28516/de/Publikationen/Forschungsberichte/2005/Fb1038,xv=vt.pdf [in German]
Patarroyo Montejo J.R.
Occupational hazards and respiratory protection
Riesgos profesionales y la protección respiratoria [in Spanish]
This article reviews occupational hazards for the respiratory system and provides guidance on the selection and use of respiratory protective equipment. Topics addressed: identification of occupational hazards; factors affecting the effects of contaminants; health hazards; types of respiratory protection; implementation of a respiratory protection programme; maintenance of respirators.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 2005, Vol.51, No.304, p.58-62. Illus. 4 ref.
Respiratory protective equipment
This article outlines the role of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) in a risk control programme. Contents: setting up an effective RPE programme (hazard evaluation, substitution, technical control measures, information of personnel, training, supervision, maintenance); classes of RPE (breathing apparatus, filter devices, performance levels); RPE selection (legal requirements, selecting the type of breathing apparatus or filter device, selecting the device).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.62, No.6, p.423-428. Illus. 10 ref.
Aitken R.J., Apsley A., Hemingway M.
Health and Safety Executive
Performance of organic vapour filters: Effects of discontinuous and multiple vapour exposures
Organic vapour filters are extensively used in respiratory protective equipment (RPE) for providing protection against vapours present in workplace air. The filters eventually become overloaded and allow the vapour to breakthrough and expose the wearer to a toxic hazard. RPE wearers may be using filters that have passed their useful service life. Presently, there is no reliable method of assessing when breakthrough actually occurs in practical usage. The main purposes of this study were to quantify the effect of discontinuous vapour challenges on filter lifetime and to investigate the performance of filters in multiple vapour systems. A secondary objective was to determine to what extent these effects might be incorporated into models of filter behaviour. Vapours tested were isopropanol and cyclohexane. Various recommendations are made based on the findings.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 33p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr322.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Respiratory protective equipment at work - A practical guide
This guide, aimed at employers and the self-employed as well as persons responsible for managing staff health and safety, provides essential guidance for the correct selection and use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) in the workplace in order to comply with the law. It explains when RPE is to be used and presents a step-by-step approach for deciding on the right level of protection for a given hazardous substance and for the selection of the correct RPE for the particular wearer and the work environment. It also describes common misuses of RPE, and explains how to prevent them. Includes advice on how to ensure that the selected RPE keeps working effectively.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2005. iv, 60p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: GBP 10.95.
Hayashi C., Tokura H.
The effects of two kinds of masks (with or without exhaust valve) on clothing microclimates inside the mask in participants wearing protective clothing for spraying pesticides
This study examined the effects of wearing two types of protective mask on the microclimate (temperature, humidity) inside the mask, physiological parameters and subjective sensations. Five healthy female students performed an intermittent step exercise while wearing the mask in a climate chamber at 28°C and 60% relative humidity. One mask was made of non-woven fabric and had no exhaust valve (mask A), and the other had an exhaust valve (mask B). Microclimate temperature, microclimate humidity and cheek skin temperature inside the mask were significantly lower in mask B than in mask A. Body temperature also increased more slowly with mask B. Mechanisms of heat loss are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.77, No.1, p.73-78. Illus. 16 ref.
Effective protection of the respiratory system against organic vapours and gases
Efektywna ochrona układu oddechowego przed parami i gazami organicznymi [in Polish]
This handbook examines the use of air-purifying respirators for protection against organic vapours and gases. It also describes the characteristics of porous solids used for air cleaning and the principles of vapour absorption.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2004. 54p. Illus.
Palmberg L., Larsson B.M., Sundblad B.M., Larsson K.
Partial protection by respirators on airways responses following exposure in a swine house
Exposure to swine dust leads to intense airway inflammation and increased bronchial responsiveness. This study evaluated the effect of respirator use during exposure in a swine confinement building. 22 subjects, of whom 11 wore respirators, were exposed. Before and seven hours after exposure, symptoms and body temperature were recorded, and a nasal lavage and a bronchial methacholine challenge were performed. For exposure assessment, a nasal sampler was evaluated. The subjects wearing respirators showed an attenuated inflammatory nasal response. An increase in bronchial responsiveness was observed in both groups, significantly greater in the unprotected group. The use of respirators reduced endotoxin exposure by more than 90% (assessed by nasal samplers).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.363-370. Illus. 29 ref.
Martin P., Rousseau R., Brand F.
Performance determination of dust-removing respirators with standard filtration media
Détermination des performances des masques anti-poussières à média filtrant classique [in French]
The objective of this study was to develop laboratory test methods for dust-removing respirators that best reproduce true conditions of use. Three series of tests were carried out: leakage and pressure tests for ventilated devices; pressure measurements at various flow rates for supplied-air masks; leakage and pressure tests for negative pressure masks. The findings will facilitate the further development of new methods for the laboratory validation of respirators that are more representative of true conditions of use, rendering it possible to carry out a critical analysis of test methods used for their certification.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2004, No.197, p.21-29. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202218/$File/ND2218.pdf [in French]
Nadeau D., Perrault G.
Medical evaluation of users of respirators
Evaluation médicale des utilisateurs d'appareils de protection respiratoire [in French]
The Occupational Safety and Health Institute of the Canadian Province of Quebec (Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail - IRSST) set up a working group of experts to develop guidelines on the medical evaluation of users of respirators and to identify the approach that would be the most practical and efficient in the context of Quebec. The objective was to facilitate the selection of respirators that is most suited to the workers. Three aspects of this issue are presented in this report: defining the principles of the medical evaluation of workers' capacity to use respirators; defining the decision algorithm based on these principles; description of a functional test that supports the application of the algorithm.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iii, 52p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-360.pdf [in French]
Lazure L., Cloutier Y., Gravel R.
Report on the use of Gilmont and Allegro rotameters for the evaluation of the airflow of ambient air pumps
Mémento sur l'utilisation des rotamètres de marque Gilmont et Allegro pour l'évaluation des débits d'alimentation des pompes à air ambiant [in French]
Rotameters are frequently used to measure the flow of air to positive supply respirators. Depending on where they are mounted on the air supply system, their reading needs to be corrected. This report presents the evaluation of two rotameters for the purpose of establishing the precision of the readings, validating the flow correction equations to be applied and specifying the methodological framework to be used during field measurements. Results clearly show the need for taking temperature and pressure parameters into account for obtaining the true airflow,
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Apr. 2004. v, 77p. Illus. 4 ref. Price of print version: CAD 26.75. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-371.pdf [in French]
Selkirk G.A., McLellan T.M., Wong J.
Active versus passive cooling during work in warm environments while wearing firefighting protective clothing
This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the study. Subjects walked at 4.5km/h with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50min) and rest (30min) schedule. Work continued until rectal temperature reached 39.5°C or heart rate (HR) reached 95% of maximum or exhaustion. One of three cooling strategies, forearm submersion in water, mister, and passive cooling were employed during the rest phases. Findings suggest that there is a definite advantage when utilizing forearm submersion compared with other methods of active or passive cooling while wearing FPC and SCBA in the heat.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2004, Vol.1, No.8, p.521-531. Illus. 42 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Selection of suitable respiratory protective equipment for work with asbestos
This guidance is aimed at employers and self-employed contractors in the building industry, at persons working with asbestos-containing insulation materials and at safety representatives. It provides advice on selecting the appropriate respirators and making sure they are used correctly and maintained in good condition. Contents: why respirators are necessary; when they should be provided; control measures to be applied before resorting to respirators; selection of respirators; evaluation of expected exposure concentrations; protection factors; facepiece fit testing; consulting employees; maintenance, training and supervision; common misuses of respirators when working with asbestos. Replaces CIS 03-352.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., 2003. 25p. 13 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg288.pdf [in English]
Han D.H., Choi K.L.
Facial dimensions and predictors of fit for half-mask respirators in Koreans
This study investigated the relationship between facial dimensions and the fit of half-mask respirators using fit factors and selected good facial dimension predictors of fit for designing respirators for Korean workers. Three different brands of half-mask respirators were fit-tested on 112 men and 38 women. Before fit-testing, 10 facial dimensions were measured. Data were analyzed and facial dimensions to be preferentially considered when designing a half-mask respirator for Korean workers were identified.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.6, p.815-822. Illus. 18 ref.
Zhuang Z., Coffey C.C., Jensen P.A., Campbell D.L., Lawrence R.B., Myers W.R.
Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry
This study investigated the protective effect of good and poor-fitting half-facepiece, air-purifying respirators at a steel foundry and examined the correlation between workplace protection factors (WPFs) and quantitative fit factors (FFs). Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. Each subject was fit-tested with two respirator models in three sizes. Each worker wore the respirator twice per day (at the beginning of the shift and following the lunch break) for two days. WPFs were measured by collecting ambient and in-facepiece air samples simultaneously. WPF values were significantly correlated with the FFs. Respirator fit-factor was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.6, p.730-738. Illus. 25 ref.
Respirators and health care services
Appareils de protection respiratoire et métiers de la santé [in French]
In order to protect the respiratory tract of health care workers exposed to infectious agents, one needs to select appropriate personal protective equipment. However, there is often confusion as to whether surgical masks or respirators are best suited. The purpose of this information sheet is to clarify the issue. Written in the form of answers to frequently-asked questions, it explains the selection and use of respiratory protective equipment under the specific conditions that prevail in the health care environment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2003. 4p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/01AC988717C10766C1256E280043D7A7/$FILE/ed105.pdf [in French]
Bertrand J.P., Bourgkard E., Chau N., Pham Q.T.
Use of masks, respiratory symptoms and lung function among coal miners
Port du masque, symptômes respiratoires, fonction pulmonaire des mineurs de charbon [in French]
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of masks, respiratory symptoms and lung function among coal miners. Subjects consisted of 395 miners aged between 28 and 42, exposed for more than five years to coal dust and whose pulmonary radiograph was classified 0/0 according to the 1980 ILO international classification of pneumoconiosis. Methods included administering the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) questionnaire, evaluating cumulated dust exposure and conducting lung function tests. Four groups were determined according to their degree of mask use. It was found that the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was not significantly linked with the degree of mask use. However, the proportion of miners with chronic bronchitis was lower among miners who had a high degree of mask usage.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.7-8, p.495-501. 16 ref.
Ziegler M.G., Hauthal W., Köser H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Development of end-of-service life indicators for gas filter cartridges
Entwicklung von Indikatoren zur Anzeige des Gebrauchsdauer-Endes von Gasfiltern (Machbarkeitsstudie) [in German]
The report reviews the current practices with respect to the replacement of gas-removing respirator cartridges at the expiration of their service life, together with development activities aimed at determining the service life with the help of sensors. The general requirements of German and United States regulations concerning the use and the exchange procedures of gas filter cartridges are discussed. Various principles of existing and developmental gas sensors are presented and their ability to detect the end-of-service life of the respirator elements is discussed. Computer-assisted tools proposed by filter manufacturers for estimating the end of service life are presented.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 158p. Illus. Approx. 300 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Performance tests on filter materials for the use in regenerative bag filters
Einungsuntersuchungen an Filtermaterialen für regenerierbare Taschenluftfilter [in German]
Commercially available bag air filters can in principle be regenerated with pneumatic pulses. However, in practice, the loose non-woven filter materials are often damaged, which makes their re-use impossible. This report describes work undertaken with selected needle-punched non-wovens characterized by high air permeability together with good stability during pneumatic pulse regeneration. The behaviour of the filter materials was characterized by pressure loss, reduced service life and loss of integrity of the bag air filter. It was concluded that polyester needle-punched non-wovens with high air permeability were suitable for use in bag air filters with gradual pneumatic pulse regeneration.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 84p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: EUR 10.00.
The protection factor - A basis for selecting respirators
Wskaźnik ochrony - podstawowe kryterium doboru sprzętu ochrony układu oddechowego [in Polish]
This article presents the concept of the "protection factor" and discusses its application for selecting respirators. It presents the results of studies conducted in the European Union and in the United States, as well as a method for determining the protection factor for different types of respirators.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.25-27. Illus. 10 ref.
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