Protective clothing - 429 entries found
Your search criteria are
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Men's work clothes for protection against non-toxic substances - Technical rules
Kostjumy mužskie dlja zaščity ot netoksičeskih veščestv - Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1981) concerns clothing for protection against airborne mineral dust (cement, asbestos, soot). Contents: types of garment (jacket and trousers) and head covering (cap or hood), with basic measurements; conditions to be met as regards tailoring and fabrics used; acceptance testing rules; marking, packaging, transport and storage.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 13 Mar. 1980, Illus. 15p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
A protective apron for users of 32P.
An apron constructed of several layers of foam-backed vinyl stopped 94-99% of 32P radiation and weighed about 3lbs. The apron is recommended as additional protection for personnel handling the isotope for biochemical applications. Products used in the upholstery trade as truck-seat or roof-top materials, gave the most effective protection.
Health Physics, Sep. 1980, Vol.39, No.3, p.574-576. Illus. 2 ref.
Nethercott J.R., Pierce J.M., Likwornick G., Murray A.H.
Genital ulceration due to Stoddard solvent.
5 cases are presented of ulcerative and erythematous lesions of the genitals and buttocks occurring in workers whose coveralls were still damp after having been dry-cleaned using Stoddard solvent. Findings were consistent with irritant contact dermatitis. The literature on the commonest dry-cleaning methods is reviewed. Recommendations to avoid the problem are made.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.22, No.8, p.549-552. Illus. 18 ref.
Hettinger T., Eissing G., Bolle D., Urlaub G.
Personal protective equipment - Stress and strain
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung - Belastung und Beanspruchung [in German]
Wearing of protective clothing is a source of stress and strain which may limit the performance of the protected worker. This research report describes some methods for evaluating these effects. Contents: laboratory and field methods; protection against heat; types of physical stress; measurement of physiological parameters; determination of psychological parameters; microclimate measurement; evaluation procedures and experimental results; method for evaluating energy expenditure and heart rate, and relations between these 2 parameters; comparison of physiological and psychological parameters with 4 types of clothing (basic work clothing, aprons, overcoats, fully protective clothing).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 46oo Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 115p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: DM.19.00.
Heat-protective clothing - Purpose, design and use
Hitzeschutzkleidung - Aufgaben, Gestaltung und Einsatzmöglichkeiten [in German]
Heat-protective clothing should both be effective against high tgemperatures and radiant heat and risk of injury, and ensure freedom of movement and thermal regulation of the body. The design should take the characteristics of the workplace, the muscular load associated with thermal stress, and the duration of the work into account (details are given of thermal loads in the vicinity of steel furnaces). The characteristics of flameproof cotton fabrics, and especially the influence of wear, washing and heat radiation on the protective effect, are analysed. In extremely severe conditions of radiant heat combined with the risk of flying molten particles, only aluminised fabrics ensure sufficient protection, but their use aggravates the heat load to which the wearer is subjected. The physiological limits of heat stress are shown.
Sicher ist Sicher, Feb. 1980, Vol.31, No.2, p.76-85. Illus. 3 ref.
Protective clothing and thermal stress.
Controlled experiments with 3 types of garment are reported: chemical/bacteriological suit (moderately thick carbon-impregnated felt); ionising radiation protection (a cotton boiler suit and a plastic coverall in combination with respiratory protection); plastic suit covered with reflective metallised plastic sheeting or with cotton towelling. The considerable thermal stress caused by chemical/bacteriological protective clothing could be lessened by wetting the cloth. Wetting the water-absorbent radiation protective garment extended the time it was possible to work in dry heat. The very limited endurance of a person working in a plastic suit was greatly increased by the use of a wetted cotton oversuit. Reflective protection was moderately effective.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1980, Vol.23, No.2, p.217-224. 5 ref.
Wallerström B., Elnäs S., Holmér I.
Physiological research on clothing - 3. Heat transfer properties of various types of waterproofed clothing
Beklädnadsfysiologiska undersökningar - 3. Värmetransporten i olika typer av regnplagg [in Swedish]
Exercise tests carried out in a climate chamber to determine the thermal insulation properties and water-vapour permeability of 4 fabrics. Values measured: skin temperature, body temperature, weight loss, water-vapour pressure gradient, oxygen intake. Subjective comfort depended on water-vapour permeability. The lower the resistance to this permeability, the wider the possibilities of using the waterproofed clothing.
Undersökningsrapport 1980:10, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 20p. Illus. 9 ref. Gratis (1 free copy only).
Elnäs S., Holmér I.
Physical research on clothing - 2. A new method for determining water-vapour permeability
Beklädnadsfysiologiska undersökningar - 2. Ny metod för bestämning av beklädnadens ångmotstånd [in Swedish]
Description of a method developed to determine water-vapour permeability, which is closely related to sweat evaporation. Calculation of resistance to this permeability is based on the relation between the water-vapour pressure gradient through the clothing and the heat flow carried by the water vapour from the skin to the ambient air. The heat flow is measured in a climate chamber by weighing (precision 0.1g/min) a subject performing an exercise test. A new method based on measurement of the partial pressure of the oxygen in the air is used to measure the water-vapour pressure gradient.. The air at the skin surface is sampled in an O2 analyser.
Undersökningsrapport 1980:6, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 19p. Illus. 15 ref. Gratis (1 free copy only).
Sansone E.B., Tewari Y.B.
The permeability of protective clothing materials to benzene vapor.
The permeability coefficient of benzene vapour was calculated from the solubility and diffusion coefficients of natural rubber, nitrile, neoprene, natural rubber plus neoprene, butyl rubber, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene membranes determined experimentally. For rubber the permeability coefficient was 4.2 x 10-10cm2/s at a benzene concentration of 10ppm: i.e. a worker completely clothed in 0.0254cm natural rubber suit would be exposed via the skin to 0.3µg benzene over 8h. At low vapour concentrations, exposure via the respiratory tract is likely to be greater than that via the skin if the worker is suitably clothed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1980, Vol.41, No.3, p.170-174. 28 ref.
Study of the absorptance coefficient of aluminised fabrics
Contribution à l'étude du coefficient d'absorption des tissus aluminisés. [in French]
The hemispheric energy absorptance coefficient of reflecting fabrics used for heat-protective clothing is measured by using of a black-body radiator. The results are independent of the type of heat source and the environment. Measurements were made with samples of new and worn aluminised fabrics produced by various processes, which are described. The results permit the best aluminisation procedures and the strongest and most effective fabrics to be identified.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Aug. 1979. 98p. Illus. 13 ref.
Clothing and the working man - The ergonomics of protective clothing in relation to the thermal environment.
Papers read at a meeting held on 13 Dec. 1979 at Loughborough, United Kingdom: selecting and obtaining protective clothing (PC) in industry; physiological problems of PC; design of workwear and PC; development of PC for coke oven workers; PC of underground mineworkers against cold and windy conditions; clothing for crews working beneath operating helicopters on ships at sea.
The Ergonomics Society, 75 Swingbridge Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom, 1979. 150p. Illus. Price: £4.00 (UK); £5.00 (overseas).
Protective clothing for repair work
Specodežda dlja provedenija remontnyh i avarijnyh rabot [in Russian]
Two sets of overalls designed for workers making repairs on gas production plant and thus exposed to condensates having a high hydrogen sulfide content are described. Of airtight construction, one is intended for work in confined spaces, and the other is for work in the open air.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.37-39. Illus.
Gehlbach S.H., Williams W.A., Freeman J.I.
Protective clothing as a means of reducing nicotine absorption in tobacco harvesters.
Cross-over studies were performed on 2 days in 11 subjects. Rubberised nylon rainsuits were worn during the period that the tobacco was wet. The clothing effectively prevented nicotine absorption in those picking wet tobacco. Nicotine absorption was demonstrated in workers who wore non-waterproof clothing.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1979, Vol.34, No.2, p.111-114. Illus. 4 ref.
Sors C., Heintz C., Cabasson B.
Health hazards of asbestos protective clothing
Pathologie de l'amiante et vêtements de protection. [in French]
Two cases of pneumopathy (malignant pleural mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis with calcified pleural plaques) associated with the wearing of asbestos gloves are reported. In both cases the presence of ferruginous bodies with a visible central fibre was established. The hazards of other types of asbestos clothing are discussed. The chief prevention measures recommended are: prevention of release of pathogenic fibres by means of better production methods for fabrics and clothing; discarding of protective clothing as soon as it shows signs of wear. The importance of medical prevention and early detection of pneumopathies associated with asbestos is stressed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Nov. 1979, Vol.40, No.11, p.987-995. 24 ref.
Protective clothing for industrial workers subjected to high temperatures.
Considerations on flame-proof outfits available in West Germany, for protection against normal industrial heat and fire (air temperature 50-200°C, radiation intensity 0.05-0.5cal/min2 with flames of 1,500°C, and where contact heat of 200°C has to be withstood for 3s) and severe industrial hazards (similar values for flames and contact heat, but higher air temperature (100-600°C) and radiation intensity 0.4-1.0cal/cm2). Some flame-proof treatments for fabrics are not wash-resistant (non-permanent), and sweat lessens the amount of protection; other semi-permanent treatments, including "Alfamman" and "Perpregnol", can resist a limited number of washes and dry cleaning. The "permanent" category (resistant to washing and dry cleaning) includes "Proban" and "Pyrovatex", which are resistant to boiling. Reference to International Wool Secretariat flame-proof treatment (Zirko process) where woollen fabrics are treated with mixtures of zirconium and titanium. Considerations on weight of clothing and fabrics used.
Protection, Aug. 1979, Vol.16, No.8, p.27-29 and 38. Illus.
Holmér I., Elnäs S.
Physiological studies on clothing - 1. Determination of thermal insulation power
Beklädnadsfysiologiska undersökningar - 1. Bestämning av beklädnadens värmeisolerande förmåga [in Swedish]
The thermal insulation power of clothing is determined by indirect calorimetry. This is calculated by dividing the temperature gradient skin-ambient air by the heat dissipated by radiation and convection. The heat dissipated results from an equation of the heat balance of the body, taking into account the energy metabolism, physical exertion, heat loss by sweating and exhalation, and heat accumulation in the body. Measurements are done in a climatic chamber.
Undersökningsrapport 1979:28, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 17184 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 20p. 23 ref. Price: Swe.cr.10.00.
Insulated boots - Field and laboratory evaluation.
Description of tests on knee-length insulated fire fighters' boots and aluminised reflective spats to be worn with aluminised protective clothing for aircraft crash fire fighters. These boots incorporate a layer of insulation (urethane foam, wool fleece, or vinyl foam) around the foot and ankle. The boots were evaluated and compared with standard fire fighters' boots for protection afforded, comfort, convenience and durability. Test procedures are described, and heat transfer values of insulated and uninsulated boots are given. Insulated boots are more protective; reflective spats are absolutely necessary if fire fighters are immobilised and exposed to high infrared heat pulses for 30s or longer; heat-reflective surfaces cease to function effectively when soiled (daily cleaning).
Fire Technology, Nov. 1979, Vol.15, No.4, p.283-290. 3 ref.
Irmscher G., Beck B., Schulz P., Thürmer H., Werner I.
Estimation of health hazard of low concentrations of asbestos-containing dust
Beitrag zur Einschätzung des Gesundheitsrisikos durch asbesthaltige Stäube bei niedrigen Staubkonzentrationen [in German]
Studies on contamination of work clothing during work with asbestos where low levels of dust are produced show that asbestos fibres are deposited on and penetrate into the textile, and may be emitted from the work clothes unless washed. The results lay emphasis on the need for regulation of the handling, wearing and cleaning of protective work clothing in asbestos-exposed workers. Short exposures, or exposure to low concentrations of asbestos, are not always without risk. The relation between the maximum admissible concentration and environmental situations where there is no excessive cancer hazard is 1000:1. The limit value for prevention of the carcinogenic action of asbestos is to be found in this range.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1979, Vol.25, No.1, p.26-30. Illus. 45 ref.
Gas protective clothing - Selection of models and design criteria.
Since a general-purpose suit cannot be made, some models of gas protective clothing must be developed meeting the specific requirements. Taking the most important users' requirements and the design criteria into account, 2 suit designs are described with special reference to the selection of materials, the structure and design of the suit material and the quality control standards. The connection of gloves and boots, of heavier design to meet special requirements, to the suit allows easy and rapid replacement. Possibilities of suit ventilation are reviewed; ventilation should be used only when mobility of the suit wearer is of secondary importance. Final remarks on the maintenance and tightness testing of gas protective suits.
Dräger Review - Revue Dräger, June 1979, No.43, p.27-35. Illus.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam).
Fabrics for protective clothing and gloves - Descriptive list with quality indices
Tkani dlja specodeždy i sredstv zaščity ruk - Nomenklatura pokazatelej kačestva [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1981) contains tables with data concerning the resistance and other properties of these fabrics from the industrial hygiene viewpoint, a classification of fabrics according to industrial uses, and data to facilitate choice of fabrics for specific industrial processes.
GOST 12.4.073-79, Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 10 Aug. 1979. 9p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
Bosserman M.W., Barnes T.E.
How to test chemical resistance of protective clothing - Heat- and flame-resistant clothing.
The first of these 2 articles describes a procedure for evaluating the protective qualities of gloves, aprons and suits in relation to potential chemical hazards (simply-constructed test apparatus for evaluating penetration by chemical contaminants; penetration as a function of concentration; penetration curve (diffusion plus chemical interaction); sampling chamber; reproducibility; reporting format; using test results). The second article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of flame-retardant cotton (ammonia treated), aramid fiber, and modacrylic fiber; the self-extinguishing qualities of some fabrics, and extent of damage from molten-metal splash.
National Safety News, Sep. 1979, Vol.120, No.3, p.51-55. Illus. 4 ref.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam).
Fabrics and materials for protective clothing - Methods for determining protective qualities and resistance against infrared radiation
Tkani i materialy dlja specodeždy - Metody opredelenija zaščitnoj sposobnosti i stojkosti pri vozdejstvii IK-izlučenija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1981) applies to fabrics and other materials (leather, artificial leather, laminates) intended to protect workers from radiant heat (infrared radiation). It specifies conditions for sampling, test equipment (description with sketch), preparation of samples, test procedures (determination of protective efficiency and resistance), mathematical evaluation of results and safety measures to be observed during tests (earthing of test chamber, wearing of personal protective equipment, maximum temperature of outer surface of test chamber). Annex: determination of maximum temperature of surface of the sample not exposed to infrared radiation, duration of irradiation (circulation formulae).
GOST 12.4.074-79, Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 8 Aug. 1979. 10p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.03.
State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet po standartam).
Isolating clothing - General technical rules
Kostjumy izolirujuščie - Obščie tehničeskie trebovanija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1980) applies to protective clothing which isolates the wearer from contact with harmful agents (air-supplied clothing, self-contained breathing apparatus), but not to diving suits, clothing for high altitudes or underwater breathing apparatus. Specifications for design, manufacture and efficacy (maximum permissible mass, field of vision, air temperature inside the clothing in relation to energy expenditure for work, maximum concentrations of harmful substances in the air inside the hood). Heat stress indices.
GOST 12.4.064-79, Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 13 Apr. 1979. 5p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
Raven P.B., Dodson A., Davis T.O.
Stresses involved in wearing PVC supplied-air suits: a review.
An in-depth summary of the physiological effects of impermeable clothing is given, with emphasis on the thermal balance under conditions of heat stress. A standardised performance test for such equipment is necessary. Recommendations for design of the test are given (evaluation over a wide work-load range, use of an index of evaporative cooling, ambient temperature range 20-50°C, manufacturer specifications, application of Rowlands' thermal index for comparison).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1979, Vol.40, No.7, p.592-599. 32 ref.
Recent research on the resistance of protective clothing against fire, superheated steam and corrosive substances
Neue Untersuchungen über die Widerstandsfähigkeit von Schutzkleidung gegen Feuer, heissen Dampf und ätzende Stoffe [in German]
Results of research aimed at finding materials or fabrics for protective clothing which would give satisfaction from the physiological and safety viewpoints. It is shown that the special finishing intended to afford protection against fire and corrosives usually comes off in the first laundering, a fact which has been substantiated by many accidents (scalds, chemical burns). Leather clothing, however, is found to give adequate protection against corrosives and steam.
Sicher ist Sicher, Mar. 1979, Vol.30, No.3, p.132-136. Illus.
Asbestos fibre release from protective garments during manufacture and use
Vêtements de protection en amiante - Dégagement de poussières lors de la fabrication et de l'emploi. [in French]
Data sheet based on a study "Untersuchungen zum Freiwerden von faserigem Staub beim Verarbeiten und beim Einsatz von Asbestgeweben für Hitzeschutzzwecke unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wirksamkeit des Imprägnierens sur Staubunterdrückung" (Moderne Unfallverhütung, Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976-77, No.21, p.120-126). Account of research carried out under the auspices of the German Staubforschungsinstitut involving: laboratory testing of commercial fabric samples and clothing items; readings taken at workplaces during the manufacture of garments using asbestos-based fabrics (cutting, sewing, stamping); measurement of fibres released by protective asbestos clothing during use in hot temperatures in the iron and steel industry. The results reveal that although non-negligible amounts of asbestos fibres are released in all cases, they rarely exceed the MAK limit value of 2 fibres/cm3 at workplaces.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1201-96-79, p.425-433. Illus. 16 ref.
Cornu J.C., Aubertin G.
Heat-resistant clothing - Measuring the total hemispherical absorption coefficient of aluminised fabrics
Vêtements antithermiques - Mesure du coefficient d'absorption hémisphérique total de tissus aluminisés. [in French]
This data sheet presents an original method for calculating the reflecting power of aluminised fabrics and its deterioration with time. The method, using a radiator consisting of a heated cylinder closed at one end, was applied to a range of marketed fabrics. The results, with accompanying comments, provide useful information for manufacturers and users concerning: the great importance of the mode of applying the aluminised film; the advantages and disadvantages of different aluminisation techniques; the rapid deterioration of the reflecting power due to wear and tear. Appendix: theoretical data regarding heat transfer by radiation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1195-96-79, p.357-371. Illus. 13 ref.
Godenhielm B., Perkiö K., Starck J.
Effect of helmet underhats on the attenuation of earmuffs
Kypärän alushupun vaikutus kuulonsuojainten toimintaan [in Finnish]
3 types of earmuffs and cloth and fur underhats were studied by using 13-15 chain saw operators. The difference in attenuation with and without the underhat was measured as the change in the hearing threshold of the subject with Békésy audiometry. An artificial ear (IEC 318 standard) was used for measuring the 1/3 octave band noise at -10° to -20°C. The attenuation of the earmuffs was determined at 20° and -15°C by a miniature microphone attached to the ear tip. The cloth underhat decreased the attenuation by 5dB and the fur hat decreased it to almost zero at frequencies below 1.5kHz. At higher frequencies there was some attenuation with the fur hat and it increased about 15dB/octave. When the earmuffs were against the skin under the hat, the attenuation increased about 24dB compared to the attenuation with earmuffs and without the hat. In the cold environment the attenuation increased at low frequencies and decreased at high frequencies. English summary.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia 148, Institute of Occupational Health (Työterveyslaitos), Helsinki, Finland, 1979. 39p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: Fmk.20.00.
The wonder of wool.
This article reports on recent evaluations by the International Wool Secretariat on the thermal protection offered by two-layer assemblies of wool, synthetic and blended fabrics (7 flame-retardant outerwear woven fabrics in various combinations with 6 knitted wool or aramid fabrics). The outerwear fabrics were 100% flame-retardant wool, 85% flame-retardant wool/15% glass fibre, 100% aramid, 100% flame-retardant rayon and 100% novoloid. Nearly 90 combinations were subjected to a test similar to the draft American Standard Test Method for heat protective clothing. Protective clothing consisting of flame-retardant wool assemblies gave better protection against convective heat from flames than other flame-retardant fibre combinations of similar weight and construction. Wool gives the longest pain/blister alarm time between the onset of pain and receipt of a second degree burn. The pain/blister alarm time for Zipro wool fabric was 24.6s compared with 5.9s for novoloid, 5.2s for flame-retardant rayon, 3.3s for aramid and 1.5s for flame-retardant cotton.
Occupational Safety and Health, Mar. 1979, Vol.9, No.3, p.30-31. Illus.
Use of a ventilating hat.
A hat designed to reduce the heat stress of outdoor workers exposed to solar radiation is described. It is made up of a double sheet forming a soft crown, with a lining and 2 openings for ventilation. A disk with a wet pad on it is attached to the top of the hat producing a chimney effect. Experimental and field tests showed the ventilation effect to be positive in terms of increased air flow rate between the hat and the head, and of the slower increase of inside temperature.
Journal of Human Ergology, Sep. 1978, Vol.7, No.1, p.90-92.
Dolcourt J.L., Hamrick H.J., O'Tuama L.A., Wooten J., Barker E.L.
Increased lead burden in children of battery workers: Asymptomatic exposure resulting from contaminated work clothing.
Lead transmitted into the home on contaminated work clothing was the probable source of excessive lead exposure in 40 (69%) of 58 children whose mothers worked in a battery factory. Blood lead levels were highest in children under 3 years, and declined with age. All children were asymptomatic and showed normal physical findings. There was gross contamination of the home environment.
Pediatrics, Oct. 1978, Vol.62, No.4, p.563-566. 14 ref.
Survey of work clothing and protective clothing
Enquête sur les vêtements de travail et de protection. [in French]
This report was prepared on the basis of replies to a questionnaire from the member institutions of the Section in Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Finland, France, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and Venezuela. Information supplied on the following points is summarised in 6 tables: general data; quality of fabric and form of clothing; colour; position of pockets and form of collar; closing by zip fastener, buttons, etc.; special features (belts, padding, etc.); mechanical and general properties. Appendix: extracts from the Belgian General Labour Protection Regulations (work clothes, protective clothing).
Report E5, ISSA International section for the Prevention of Occupational Risks in the Construction Industry, Association des industriels de France contre les accidents du travail, 10 rue de Calais, 75441 Paris Cedex 09, France, Sep. 1978. 40p.
Gol'dštejn D.S., Gal'perin G.B., Vyležnin I.A.
Cleaning of protective clothing contaminated by mercury
K voprosu o metodah očistki specodeždy, zagrjaznennoj rtut'ju [in Russian]
Results are reported of tests to develop an effective method of eliminating traces of metallic mercury in the clothing of electrolysis workers, using fabrics contaminated with 203Hg. The best method was washing in 0.15-0.3% surfactant for 15min. at 25°C; 0.5% hydrochloric acid with 0.2% sodium hypochlorite for 15min at 15-18°C; 0.15-0.3% surfactant with 0.3% anhydrous sodium carbonate and 0.2% sodium silicate for 15min at 100°C. The fabric is rinsed in water 2-3 times after each treatment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1978, No.12, p.56-57. 3 ref.
Usol'cev V.I., Konkina L.F., Šišenina V.I.
Measures for the prevention of lead contamination in radiological services
Mery po predupreždeniju zagrjaznenija svincom rentgenovskih kabinetov [in Russian]
The authors examined 2,500 rubbings from radiation protection clothing, and from the palms of personnel employed in 112 radiology services. The air of 92 X-ray rooms was monitored. Considerable quantities of lead were detected on door handles and on gloves and other personal protective equipment. There was a direct relationship between the level of lead contamination, on the one hand, and the amount of lead-containing protective equipment used and how long the equipment was kept in use, on the other. The following preventive measures are proposed: compliance with the specified service life of protective equipment, wearing of cotton gloves when using lead/rubber protection, enamelling (2 coats) of lead surfaces, thorough washing of hands and wrists on coming off duty.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1978, No.12, p.87-89. 1 ref.
Sosnova T.L., Loseva E.I., Solomatina N.M.
Visibility of the colours of materials used for the manufacture of conspicuously coloured protective clothing
O cvetnosti materialov, ispol'zuemyh djla signal'noj specodeždy [in Russian]
Report on more than 500 sensorimeter tests to determine the visibility of different samples of pigments and fabrics used in manufacturing orange and yellow jackets for railway workers. The evaluation was made by 25 persons having 0.8-10 visual acuity and normal colour perception, using a progressive-opacity photometric wedge. The visibility depends on the chromatic characteristics of the objects viewed and the background against which they stand out. Poorest visibility was observed against a yellow background, and best visibility against a green background. The maximum visibility index for any background was obtained with objects having a wavelength between 587.5 and 590nm.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1978, No.12, p.80-82. 4 ref.
Ažaev A.N., Dobrunov A.M., Košeleva O.S.
Determination of the thermal insulation provided by clothes cooling the body surface by conduction
Obosnovanie teploizoljacii odeždy pri kondukcionnom ohlaždenii poverhnosti tela [in Russian]
Report of a research programme, in which a number of young volunteers participated, to investigate the physiologically tolerable limits of heat loss from some cooled areas of the body surface (chest, back, lumbar region, proximal regions of the thighs) and to calculate the required thermal insulation. These zones were cooled or heated by attaching rubber jacketting (surface area: 500cm2) filled with water at temperatures of 10-35°C. Total compensation for heat loss by local cooling was observed at a skin temperature of 29°C, heat flow being 90W/m2. Partial compensation was observed at skin temperatures above 20°C, and after heat flow had increased to 170W/m2. The thermal insulation provided by the water-cooled suits in the body areas studied should correspond to 1clo when the temperature of the cooled zone is 25°C, and 4clo when the cooled zone temperature is 10°C.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1978, No.11, p.12-16. Illus. 5 ref.
Ignition hazard of work clothes in the electric arc
Brandgefahr von Arbeitskleidung im elektrischen Lichtbogen [in German]
Tests on the behaviour of textiles exposed to fire (see also CIS 78-195) with samples of pure cotton or polyester-cotton (65%/35%) are reported. Combustion and extinction characteristics of these fabrics are different. A 65% polyester content slows down combustion of the fabric and improves the extinction characteristics, but has the disadvantage of melting, with resulting aggravation of burns. A blended fabric is as suitable as pure cotton for work clothes for routine use. In the event of high risk, the use of personal protective equipment is recommended.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Sep. 1978, No.9, p.503-506. Illus. 9 ref.
GOST 12.2.035-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet po standartam), Moskva, 23 Oct. 1978.
Diving equipment and accessories for diving work - General safety rules
Vodolaznoe snarjaženie i sredstva obespečenija vodolaznyh spuskov i rabot - Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard, effective 1 Jan. 1980, concerns the equipment required by divers working at depths above 60m for less than 24 consecutive hours. Contents: general safety rules for diving equipment (anthropometric design and intrinsic safety of diving suits and helmets, design of valves, weights, belt, face mask, air hose, signal line, thermal insulation clothing, gloves, fins, knife, means for emergency surfacing, breathing apparatus); general safety rules for accessories (winches, electrical equipment, noise and vibration control, air supply compressors and pumps, flexible tubing and connections, ladders, decompression chambers, means of communication, safety devices, safety colours, etc.); safety rules for underwater cutting, welding and use of electric tools; pressure vessel safety. Appendix: rules for the microclimate in decompression chambers.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 55p. Price: Rbl.0.20.
Hausman A., Petit J.M.
Physical work in a hot environment in coal mines
Travail physique en ambiance chaude dans les charbonnages. [in French]
Neither rationalisation of ventilation nor air conditioning can solve all the problems in coal seams where there are severe climatic conditions. In the case of an effective temperature of less than 35°C and a low velocity air flow (0.5m/s), merely stirring the air by ordinary ventilation is enough to improve conditions considerably. With temperatures above 35°C, however, either the air blowing on the individual worker must be cooled, or else the worker must wear cooled clothing. Research in this field has shown that priority must be given to cooling the head and trunk, that cooling by dry ice is very effective but is ergonomically unsatisfactory, and that the simplest and most effective solution is to issue workers with a hooded jacket of double sponge fabric soaked in cold water (15°C). This article is illustrated by many tables and graphs showing, in particular, pulse rate variations when different types of cooled suits were worn.
Annales des mines de Belgique - Annalen der Mijnen van België, Nov. 1978, No.11, p.1109-1129. Illus. 8 ref.
Birnbaum R.R., Crockford G.W.
Measurement of the clothing ventilation index.
The volume of air flowing through protective clothing has an important influence on heat loss from the body and thus on thermal comfort. A new procedure is described for estimating, under working conditions, the air flow through a garment assembly. It is based on 2 techniques, one giving a measure of the volume of the microenvironment, the other using a tracer gas to measure the rate of air exchange. Multiplication of the results yields the air exchange in l/min. This ventilation index is proposed as a descriptor of garment performance.
Applied Ergonomics, Guildford, United Kingdom, Dec. 1978, Vol.9, No.4, p.194-200. Illus. 12 ref.
Radiation safety - Part 1. Radiation sources - Part 2. Personal protection.
This article is intended for safety personnel and particularly for fire fighting and fire prevention staff confronted with emergency situations. Part 1: the nature of radiation; types of radiation and health hazards; definitions; maximum permissible dose: 5 rems over 12 months (3 rems at one incident or within 13 weeks); dosimeters; non-personal survey meters; radiation exposure during training not to exceed 0.1 rem per week. Part 2: exposure time, distance from source, shielding; radiation intensities; examples of calculation of dose rate; measurement of nuclear energy in MeV; protection afforded by different types of shielding; protective clothing and respirators; day-to-day emergency planning; decontamination.
Safety Surveyor, Sep. 1978, Vol.6, No.3, p.17-20, and Nov. 1978, No.4, p.15-17. Illus.
Tanaka M., Brisson G.R., Volle M.A.
Body temperatures in relation to heart rate for workers wearing impermeable clothing in a hot environment.
Under conditions of high environmental temperature, the addition of a vapour-impermeable clothing barrier may greatly increase the heat stress for the wearer, and heat exhaustion may rapidly occur. Under such conditions, skin temperature in 10 healthy male volunteers reached 37.2±4°C after 30min at rest. Walking increased the rectal and skin temperature to 38.4 and 38.°C respectively after 30 min, and the heart rate was 162 beats/min. These responses did not reach a plateau after 30 min, and rectal temperature continued to rise after the subjects stopped walking. If rectal temperature is used as an index of work safety, a low rectal temperature is required when impermeable clothing is worn in a hot environment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1978, Vol.39, No.11, p.885-890. Illus. 20 ref.
GOST 12.4.045-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 11 May 1978.
Clothing for protection against high temperatures - Menswear - Technical conditions
Odežda special'naja dlja zaščity ot povyšennyh temperatur. Kostjumy mužskie - Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1979) applies to protective jackets and trousers for workers exposed to high temperatures and radiant heat. Contents: types of garment, measurements; technical specifications (fabrics used, appearance, tailoring); conditions for approval; marking, packaging, transport and storage. Appendix: maximum allowable durations of exposure to high temperatures (up to 40°C - 15 min). [A similar standard for women's clothing exists (GOST 12.4.044-78).]
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 13p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.03.
GOST 12.4.036-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 9 Feb. 1978.
Clothing for protection against acids - Men's clothing - Technical specifications
Odežda special'naja dlja zaščity ot kislot. Kostjumy mužskie - Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1979) concerns jackets, trousers and caps made of acid-resistant materials. Contents: types of clothing, measurements; technical conditions to be met by clothing (classified by acid concentrations), appearance and make of clothing; conditions for approval; marking, packaging, transport, storage. Sketches and diagrams showing pattern and cut are appended. A similar standard (GOST 12.4.037-78) is available for women's work clothing affording protection against acids (coat, trousers, cap).
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 19p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
GOST 12.4.038-78, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 7 Feb. 1978.
Clothing for protection against injury due to mechanical agency, water and caustic substances - Men's clothing - Technical specifications
Odežda special'naja dlja zaščity ot mehaničeskih povreždenij, vody i ščeločej. Kostjumy mužskie - Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan 1979) applies to protective jackets and trousers (resistance to caustic substances at concentrations less than 20%). Contents: dimensions (tables showing chest and waist measurement and tailoring and cutting measurements with patterns); requirements to be met by materials, and specifications for outward appearance and finishing (synoptic table of approved fabrics with their official designation, etc.); conditions for acceptance of delivery and test methods (reference to pertinent standard); marking, packaging, transport and storage.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1978. 9p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.03.
The cooled jacket - A further step in humanisation of working life
Die Kühlweste - ein weiterer Schritt in der Humanisierung des Arbeitslebens [in German]
Wearing of a cooling jacket is necessary in all cases where air conditioning is not feasible or too expensive: manual work deep mines and the metallurgical industry; maintenance work on blast furnaces and boilers, fire fighting and mine rescue operations. The design and operation of a liquid-cooled jacket for the head and upper part of the body is described briefly. The physiology of heat regulation is reviewed, with details of calculation of heat exchanger capacity, and construction and operation of the liquid pump and the gas motor, which form a functional unit. The jacket contains plastic tubing carrying the cooling liquid, a silicone oil.
Drägerheft, Jan.-Apr. 1978, No.310, p.17-24. Illus. 6 ref.
Flameproof clothing for rescue teams
Vêtements antiflammes pour sauveteurs. [in French]
Research was carried on in laboratories in France, Germany (Fed.Rep.) and Belgium to develop protective clothing for mine rescue teams, capable of being worn for at least 1h in high temperature conditions and affording protection against certain types of explosions. A first selection between available fabrics was made by laboratory tests to determine, for a constant heat flux, the resistance of the material to the flame and to the heat flux. Tests for portability and wearing qualities in actual rescue work conditions enabled a second choice to be made. Finally, explosion tests in mine galleries (14m2 and 5m2 section) showed that at present the best equipment in ambient temperatures below 30°C was an outer garment of Baumwoll-Moleskine worn over a suit of "Doppel Frottee (Schiesser)", and that for temperatures above 30°C the same inner garment should be worn, but soaked in 400% of its weight in water. Appendices: rescue worker's fatigue index, list of fabrics tested, test results.
Annales des mines de Belgique - Annalen der Mijnen van België, May 1978, No.5, p.537-580. Illus.
Reischl U., Reischl P.
Safety limits for a firefighter proximity suit
A standard one-piece firefighter proximity suit (without supplemental air or cooling) was tested under simulated "standby" conditions for heat accumulation and hood compartment ventilation. Large increases in temperature of the skin and the air in the hood were recorded. Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels indicated hypoxic conditions. Time exposures allowed for firemen entering various ambient conditions were calculated: the shortest permissible exposure periods predicted suggest limited usefulness and the need for immediate improvements in the design of the suit.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1978, Vol.39, No.7, p.563-569. Illus. 6 ref.
Atterbom H.A., Mossman P.B.
Physiological effects on work performance of vapor-barrier clothing and full-face respirator.
Work performance with impervious clothing and full-face respirator was studied during maximal and submaximal (40-60%) bicycle ergometer effort. Heart rate, oxygen consumption and skin and rectal temperature were monitored during 5 exercise protocols. Work performance, aerobic metabolism and tolerance time were all reduced. It is planned to establish safe physiological guidelines for work tolerances at higher energy levels in impermeable suits.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1978, Vol.20, No.1, p.45-52. Illus. 9 ref.
Coletta G.C., Schwope A.D., Arons I.J., King J.W., Sivak A.
Development of performance criteria for protective clothing used against carcinogenic liquids.
These criteria are the first intended to assist in the manufacture, selection, and testing of materials to protect workers for at least 60min against the hazards. A simple test was developed to evaluate permeation resistance of natural and synthetic rubbers, polyethylenes, fluorinated and vinyl plastics. Other tests challenge the strength, chemical ageing, thermal resistance, flexibility and cleanability of clothing materials. The carcinogenic substances used were trichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, coal-tar creosote, benzene, ethyleneimine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 2-nitropropane, β-propiolactone and hexamethylphosphoramide. Many present materials did not meet the criteria. The report recommends the set of test methods described to be adopted as standards by which protective clothing used against chemicals are evaluated, and that in the case of clothing used against carcinogens a minimum time of protection of 60min (8h for clothing used in emergency situations) be adopted as standard. Other recommendations concern dissemination of information on protective materials, and use of solubility tests as screening procedures. Appendices contain properties, uses and exposures of the carcinogens; test method details.
DHEW(NIOSH) Publication No. 79-106, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Nov.1977. 151p. Illus. 80 ref.
Mairiaux P., Nullens W., Fesler R., Brasseur L., Detry J.M.
Evaluation of the effects of a cooling garment on adapatation to prolonged effort by miners at high temperatures
Evaluation des effets d'un vêtement refroidissant sur l'adaptation aux efforts prolongés réalisés à haute température par des ouvriers mineurs. [in French]
To improve working conditions of miners at high temperatures, the efficacy of a cooling garment consisting of a jacket and hood of towelling material soaked in cold water was studied. Eight miners underwent effort tests in a climate chamber under simulated mine conditions. Wearing the garment reduced the heart rate to 104 beats/min after effort as compared with 125 without the garment, rectal temperature to 38.3 as against 38.8°C, and weight loss to 1.5 as against 2kg. Further, the vest was evaluated positively by all subjects, who finished the tests without undue fatigue.
Revue de l'Institut d'hygiène des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1977, Vol.32, No.3, p.99-122. Illus. 28 ref.
< previous | 1... 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 | next >