Protective clothing - 429 entries found
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Highly visible working clothes - Safety through the use of colours
Warnkleider-Sicherheit durch Farbe [in German]
Indumenti di segnalazione: Colori vistosi - sicuri di essere sicuri [in Italian]
Vêtements de travail bien voyants - sécurité par la couleur [in French]
Safety guide in the form of a comic strip. It encourages the wearing of highly visible, coloured work clothes by people exposed to traffic, and the supply of such clothing by employers.
SUVA, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1989. 4p. Illus.
Conditioned clothing - The needs of industry and the wearer
The majority of designs for conditioned clothing used for the alleviation of effects of heat and cold were developed for military applications. This paper considers the factors to be taken into account for such clothing to be acceptable to users in industry. Situations requiring precautions against exposure to heat and cold are considered along with factors that militate against the adoption of conditioned clothing. The development of conditioned clothing requires close co-operation between industry and clothing manufacturers. Summaries in French, German and Japanese.
Ergonomics, 1988, Vol.31, No.7, p.987-990. 1 ref.
Proctor T.D., Thompson H.
Setting standards for the resistance of clothing to molten metal splashes
Comparisons are reported between two laboratory methods for assessing the resistance of clothing materials to splashes of molten substances. The methods, ISO DIS 9185:1986 and a modification using calorimeters, were found to rank materials in broadly the same way. Results show that heat transfer occurs due to adhesion of molten substances to clothing and penetration through clothing. Information is given on the extent of adhesion of molten iron, copper, brass, aluminium, slag and the electrolyte used in aluminium smelting to commonly found clothing materials in order to aid selection for specific purposes.
In: Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, ASTM Special Technical Publication STP 989, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA, 1988, p.131-141. Illus. 11 ref.
Mekjavic I.B., Banister E.W., Morrison J.B.
Environmental ergonomics: sustaining human performance in harsh environments
This book containing a selection of papers presented at the 2nd International Environmental Ergonomics Conference, held at Whistler, British Colombia (Canada), on 21-25 July 1986 offers a collaborative approach to the study of human performance in the face of harsh environments such as equatorial and polar regions, ocean floors and outer space, where hot, cold, wet, high- and low- pressure and other extreme conditions affect the body's physiological and cognitive functions to a significant degree.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke Hants RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1988. 412p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 39.00.
Protection from protective clothing
Use of protective clothing is now routine practice in certain industrial situations, although the clothing itself can create its own range of health problems. This article looks at the problems which may arise with the use of protective gloves and suits, eye protection and boots. Since chemical gloves are impermeable to liquids and vapours, the high moisture content within the gloves gives rise to bacterial growth in contact with the skin. Impervious gloves may give rise to burn marks at the wrist. Wearing of chemical resistant suits prevents evaporation of sweat, which in turn can cause a rise in body temperature. Use of a visor in combination with protective goggles may cause problems of fogging and hence obscure vision. Judgement is required in maintaining a balance between realistic risk and overkill protection.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Apr. 1988, No.80. p.11-13. 1 ref. Illus.
Protective clothing design
The increase in the number of injuries following spillage or fire involving hazardous materials had led to a heightened awareness of the need for adequate protective clothing for the emergency services that have do deal with such incidents. The large variety of protective clothing currently available leads to a complexity of choice for the services concerned. Factors to be considered when choosing the correct protection include: compatibility with the hazard - one particular material may not provide adequate protection for the full range of hazardous substances likely to be encountered; compatibility with the size of the wearer; choice between body-only protection or coverall protection; disposable clothing. It is recommended that rather than diversifying the ranges of materials and garments to cope with the increasing range of hazardous substances encountered, manufacturers of protective clothing should concentrate on producing one single but safe garment for use by all emergency services.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Apr. 1988, No.80, p.1-3.
Safe handling of cytostatic agents - Comments on the leaflet M620 issued by the Mutual Accident Insurance Association for Medical and Welfare Services
Sicher arbeiten mit Zytostatika - Anmerkungen zum Merkblatt M 620 der Berufsgenossenschaft für Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege [in German]
Measures for the protection of health personnel, for handling cytostatic agents include: (1) advising the personnel, (2) auxiliary devices such as workbenches, (3) personal protective clothing such as face shields, safety gloves, water-repelling aprons, safety spectacles and (4) check-up examinations.
Krankenhaustechnik, Nov. 1988, Vol.14, No.11, p.18-20, 25. Illus.
Bridge repair - Use and handling of harmful substances
Brückeninstandsetzung - Einsatz und Umgang mit Gefahrstoffen [in German]
Repair work at a road bridge serves to illustrate the safety measures required by law. Synthetic resins are the most important group of harmful substances used. Safety measures include labelling and the wearing of protective clothing and safety goggles to prevent their contact. First-aid measures are outlined.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1988, Vol.100, No.12, p.832-835, 838-839, 841. Illus.
Disposable clothing - A new generation of safety clothing
Die "Einwegkleidung" - eine neue Generation von "Schutzkleidung" [in German]
The disposable safety clothing described is made of dense synthetic felts, which are impermeable to fine dust particles and aerosols. The clothing is primarily suited for wear in clean rooms and for handling harmful substances such as insecticides. The fabric melts at 105°C and burns at 300°C.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1988, Vol.19, No.5, p.38-41. Illus.
Influence of cleaning frequency on wear of protective clothing for welders
Einfluss der Reinigungshäufigkeit auf das Verhalten von Schweisserschutzkleidung [in German]
Changes in flammability, in protection against burns by hot metal droplets, in UV absorption and size due to the washing of protective overalls for welders were studied. A variety of fabrics were used. Among other effects, flame retardant properties diminished markedly after 10 washings in spite of flameproofing after each washing.
Der Praktiker, 1988, Vol.40, No.12, p.601-603. Illus.
White M.K., Hodous T.K.
Physiological responses to the wearing of fire fighter's turnout gear with neoprene and Gore-Tex
Eight healthy men, experienced with the use of respirators and protective clothing, each performed moderate and high intensity treadmill exercise (44% and 71% of maximum work capacity) in a double-blind study at 27.6°C (50% RH) while wearing complete fire fighter's turnout gear (weighing 23kg) with either a neoprene or Gore-Tex barrier liner. Mean tolerance times for the moderate intensity exercise were 27.4(±7.3 S.D.) and 30.9 (±7.9)min, respectively, for the neoprene and Gore-Tex barrier liners and at the high intensity were 7.2(±2.1) and 7.5(±2.3) min, respectively. Significant differences caused by liner were observed in skin temperature (0.6°C higher with the neoprene ensemble). No significant differences caused by liner were seen in tolerance time, heart rate, seat rate or subjective ratings. These results suggest that the physiological benefits normally attributed to vapour permeable garments (such as Gore-Tex barrier liners) are minimised when such liners are used in conjunction with the fighter's turnout gear during sustained moderate to heavy work in a warm environment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1988, Vol.49, No.10, p.523-530. Illus. 33 ref.
Protective clothing systems: A technique for evaluating restriction of wearer mobility
To allow designers to evaluate presently available protective clothing systems (as well as aiding the development of less restrictive systems), it is necessary to develop evaluation techniques to quantify the loss of mobility associated with wearing protective clothing. Using fire fighter turnout gear, this study illustrated the application of the Leighton Flexometer for the measurement of restriction to body movement caused by wearing protective clothing and equipment. Statistical analyses indicated significant differences in restriction to body movement between the designs of protective clothing and equipment configurations tested. Additionally, correlation coefficients between trials established values for test-retest reliability.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 19 ref.
Comparative assessment of protective clothing performance by measurement of dermal exposure during pesticide applications
Protective clothing performance was assessed among 25 workers by adding a fluorescent tracer to spray tanks during high-volume airblast applications and measuring dermal exposure to the tracer with a video imaging system. Three types of protective clothing were evaluated: 50/50 cotton/polyester workshirts, 65/35 cotton/polyester woven coveralls, and nonwoven coveralls (untreated Tyvek). Workers also wore neoprene gloves during all work activities. Most of the exposure beneath clothing occurred near the sleeve and neck openings in the garments. This direct deposition is attributed to air exchange inside clothing due to body worker movements (pumping effects). Hand exposure was measured for all workers and was likely due to contamination during glove removal and handling. Workshirts provided significantly less protection than coveralls during application. No difference in exposure reduction between the two coveralls was demonstrated. The use of coveralls in place of workshirts reduces exposure by 45-77% under these application conditions.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, July 1988, Vol.3, No.7, p.207-213. Illus. 23 ref.
Crockford G.W., Clark R.P., Thomas N.T.
Recent advances in protective clothing
Proceedings of a conference held at the Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, United Kingdom, on 10 December 1986. All the papers listed are related to the design and use of conditioned garments (air and water cooling and heating; electrical heating).
Ergonomics, July 1988, Vol.31, No.7, Special issue, p.979-1119. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Welding - Protective clothing
Soudage - vêtements protecteurs [in French]
Technical safety information sheet. Aspects covered: flame retardant clothing, safety boots, protective gloves, leather aprons.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 2p. Illus.
Krasny J., Rockett J.A., Huang D.
Protecting fire fighters exposed in room fires: Comparison of results of bench scale test for thermal protection and conditions during room flashover
Heat flux conditions measured in seven room fires are discussed. The conditions varied from just below flashover in a sparsely furnished bedroom to flashover and severe postflashover fire in a typically furnished recreation room. These heat flux conditions are compared with the protection level provided by the fighter turnout coats conforming to NFPA 1971, Protective clothing for structural fire fighting. This standard requires that the turnout coat or pants assembly must protect the wearer against second degree burns when a heat flux of 84kW/m2 (2 cal/cm2s.) is applied to its outside surface for a minimum of 17.5 seconds. The results imply that fire fighters have only ten seconds or less to escape under most flashover conditions. However, the turnout coats provide good protection in many other fire situations. Practical definitions for flashover are given, and possible means for making the TPP test more relevant for research and development work are discussed.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1988, Vol.24, No.1, p.5-19. Illus. 14 ref.
Decree of the Council of Ministers of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Kabol City, No.226 dated 10.11.87 on regulations concerning distribution of work clothes and protective equipment [Afghanistan]
Translation of the Decree (entry into force: 21 Dec. 1987) implementing Articles 117 and 118 of the Labour Code which concern the supply of protective equipment and clothing to workers. It establishes the types and characteristics of such equipment and clothing, the circumstances under which they are to be used and the relevant obligations of employers.
Photocopy, 5p and also in: Official Gazette, 21 Dec. 1987, No.655.
Physiological and hygienic evaluation of winter footwear with electric heating elements (experimental study)
Fiziologo-gigieničeskaja ocenka zimnej obuvi s ėlektroobogrevajuščimi ėlementami [in Russian]
Results of an investigation with 4 male volunteers of different electric heating elements (insoles, slippers, socks) and of footwear possessing a thermal resistance of 0.35°C.m2/W in the rear region and 0.40°C.m2/W in the sole are presented. The study, carried out at ambient temperatures of -10, -15 and 25°C and a wind velocity of 5m/s showed the possibility of improving the general thermal state of the body and local thermal comfort without increasing the specific consumption of materials for clothes and footwear. The advantages of steady heating of the foot are set forth.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1987, No.3, p.46-50. 7 ref.
Forsberg K., Isacsson M.
Development of protective clothing and devices at continuous casting - Guidelines for selection and use of protective clothing
Utveckling av personlig skyddsutrustning och skyddsanordningar vid stränggjutningsarbete - Riktlinjer för val och användning av skyddsbeklädnad [in Swedish]
Report of an evaluation of 32 types of textile and 5 types of plastic materials used for protection during metal casting operations. A standard test method (ASTM F955), measuring heat flow during steel splash, was used. Two textiles showed the greatest resistance against steel splash and these were evaluated through field testing of approx. 50 garments at 8 steel companies employing continuous casting. The new protective garments were developed in collaboration with steel manufacturers. The material tests showed that it is necessary to have two layers in order to obtain sufficient protection against heavy splashes.
Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, Institutionen för Arbetsvetenskap, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 1987. 63p. Illus. 4 ref.
New equipment for mine rescue operations
Neue Wege bei Grubenwehreinsätzen [in German]
The main features of new respirators and heat protective clothing (a vest and a suit) for rescue workers in mines are outlined. The respirators feature cooling of the inhaled air by dry ice or sodium phosphate. The vest is cooled by ice, the suit by a silicon oil.
Drägerheft, 1987, No.339, p.2-6. Illus. 2 ref.
Gosudarstvennyj Komitet SSSR po Standartam
Men's suits for protection against high temperatures. Specifications [USSR]
Kostjumy mužskie dlja zaščity ot povyšennyh temperatur. Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1989) applies to suits consisting of pants and a jacket for protection of workers against radiant heat, sparks, splashes of hot metal, contact with hot surfaces (up to 100°C) and convective heat. Classification, marking, sizing, heat-transmission characteristics, construction and materials are defined. Testing, quality control, transport, storage and use are defined by reference to other GOST standards.
Izdatel'stvo Standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva GSP, USSR, 1987. 19p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.05.
Chemical protective clothing: I. Selection and use
The clothing types, permeation theory, and selection of protective clothing based upon permeation data are described. Other factors in the selection process, such as size, dexterity, cut resistance, tear resistance, cost, and heat stress, are discussed. Temperature, thickness, and mixture considerations and their effect on the permeation process are also discussed. Recommendations are made regarding selection and use criteria.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Nov. 1987, Vol.2, No.6, p.222-230. Illus. 29 ref.
Personal protection - 3. Body protection - List of suppliers
Protection individuelle - 3. Corps - Répertoire des fournisseurs [in French]
List of manufacturers of personal protective equipment sold in France. Included are: protective equipment against falls from heights (antifall systems, systems using an absorber of kinetic energy with a tether, safety harnesses); protective clothing (adjustable, non-flammable, heat-resistant, flame-resistant, those providing protection against small and large projectiles, cold-resistant, those protecting against corrosive liquids, weather-proof clothing, special clothing for abrasive-blasting operators, spray-painters, light-reflecting clothing); various kinds of protective equipment and clothing (safety vests, safety aprons for industry and the butchery trade, shoulder-straps, safety belts etc.). List of distributors by region.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 16p.
Perkins J.L., Johnson J.S., Swearengen P.M., Sackett C.P., Weaver C.
Residual spilled solvents in butyl protective clothing and usefulness of decontamination procedures
Small samples of butyl rubber were contaminated with 5µL of various solvents. Several decontamination techniques were tried. In all cases, treatment at 50°C in an oven for 24h removed residual solvents. In the case of toluene, two other techniques were used. Freon treatment removed approximately half the solvent removed by heat treating, whereas detergent removed only one-third of the solvent as compared to heat treating. As indicated by three-dimensional solubility parameter distance, solubility of the chemicals in butyl rubber was directly proportional, in general, to the amount of residual solvents in the polymer. Other results indicated that a 50°C environment for 24h did not affect the butyl polymer, whereas 75° and 100°C did. In addition, there was considerable residual Freon in the butyl rubber after the Freon decontamination.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Sep. 1987, Vol.2, No.5, p.179-182. 8 ref.
Permeation of protective clothing materials by methylene chloride and perchloroethylene
The permeation of methylene chloride and perchloroethylene through 7 protective clothing materials was studied to determine the permeation parameters, and to investigate the effect of solubility (polymer weight gain) and material thickness on the permeation parameters. The materials tested were two different nitrile rubbers, neoprene, Combination (a blend of natural rubber, neoprene and nitrile), two different polyvinyl chlorides, and polyvinyl alcohol. Methylene chloride permeated through all materials, except PVA, with breakthrough times of 2 to 8min, and permeation rates of 1250-5800µg/cm2.min. PVA and unsupported nitrile offered good protection against perchloroethylene with breakthrough time occurring after 2hr. Perchloroethylene permeated through the other materials with breakthrough times of 8 to 36min and permeation rates of 200 to 1600µg/cm2.min. For all material/chemical pairs, an increase in solubility increased the ratio of permeation rate to breakthrough time. An increase in thickness reduced the permeation rate and increased breakthrough time.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1987, Vol.48, No.7, p.646-651. Illus. 22 ref.
Berardinelli S.P., Rusczek R.A., Mickelsen R.L.
A portable chemical protective clothing test method: Application at a chemical plant
This survey evaluated 6 raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisopropylamine, tert-butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals: nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. Aniline has too low a vapour pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1987, Vol.48, No.9, p.804-808. Illus. 9 ref.
Al-ma(had ul-(arabiyy li-ṣ-ṣiḥḥa wa-s salāmat il-mihniyya
Personal protective equipment
Mu(addāt ul-wiqāyat ul-fardiyya [in Arabic]
Review prepared by participants in a seminar on personal protective equipment at the Occupational Health and Safety Institute of the Arab Labour Office (Damascus, 17-21 August 1987). Contents: importance of personal protective equipment; role of personal protective equipment in protection against workplace pollutants; safety helmets; eye and face protection; respiratory protection; hearing protection; hand protection; special clothing for protection of the body; heat-protective clothing; clothing for protection against liquids and chemicals; protection against falls; foot protection; recommendations of the study group.
Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syria, no date. 64p. Illus.
Centralen Săvet na Bălgarskite Profesionalni Săjuzi (Central Council of Bulgarian Trade Unions)
Decision No.3 of 23 Feb. 1987 concerning special work clothing and means of personal protection [Bulgaria]
Naredba No.3 ot 23 fevruari 1987 g. za specialnoto rabotno obleklo i ličnite predpazni sredstva [in Bulgarian]
Technical and administrative provisions on the furnishing, use and maintenance of personal protective equipment in the workplace. The 1981 ordinance on the same subject is repealed.
Dăržaven vestnik, 24 Mar. 1987, No.23, p.10-12.
Special clothing for special jobs
This data sheet covers: food industry, butchery, hot work clothing, clean areas, chemicals, construction sites, asbestos work.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R 0DA, United Kingdom, Oct. 1987. 7p.
Man V.L., Bastecki V., Vandal G., Bentz A.P.
Permeation of protective clothing materials: Comparison of liquid contact, liquid splashes and vapors on breakthrough times
The US standard test method for permeability (ASTM F739-81) involves 3h continuous contact between liquid and material. This may not truly reflect real-world conditions. A simply-modified standard test procedure was evaluated by using 2 suit materials and several common organic liquids. The splash test is an effective method; the wettability of the material is a significant factor.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1987, Vol.48, No.6, p.551-555. Illus. 5 ref.
Paull J.M., Rosenthal F.S.
Heat strain and heat stress for workers wearing protective suits at a hazardous waste site
Heart rates, oral temperature and environmental parameters were measured for five unacclimatised male workers (25-33 years of age) who performed sampling activities during hazardous waste clean-up operations. The protective ensembles included laminated PVC-Tyvec chemical resistant hood suits with rubber boots, gloves, full facepiece dual cartridge respirators and hard hats. For comparison, measurements also were performed when the men worked at a similar level of activity while they wore ordinary work clothes. Wearing the suits imposed a heat stress equivalent to adding 6° to 11°C (11° to 20°F) to the ambient WBGT index. A similar result was obtained by calculating the WBGT in the microclimate inside the suits and comparing it to the ambient WBGT. There exists a significant risk of heat injury during hazardous waste work when full body protective clothing is worn, and present threshold limit values for heat stress must be lowered substantially before extending them to cover workers under these conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1987, Vol.48, No.5, p.458-463. Illus. 16 ref.
Pimental N.A., Cosimini H.M., Sawka M.N., Wenger C.B.
Effectiveness of an air-cooled vest using selected air temperature and humidity combinations
Experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of an air-cooled vest in reducing thermal strain of subjects exercising in the heat (49°C dry bulb, 20°C dew point) in chemical protective clothing. At a metabolic rate of 175W, endurance times were 118min without the vest and 300min with the vest, with the subjects able to maintain a constant body temperature when wearing the vest. At a metabolic rate of 315W, endurance times were 73min without the vest, 242-300min with the vest, but constant body temperature could not be maintained even with the vest.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.58, No.2, p.119-124. Illus. 12 ref.
Mellström G., Carlsson B.
Second Scandinavian symposium on protective clothing against chemicals and other health risks - 5-7 November 1986, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
Papers in the symposium covered: contact dermitis; effects of barrier creams on guinea pigs; intolerance reactions of latex gloves; skin irritation caused by chemical residues in dry-cleaned coveralls; moisture permeability; Nordic standard for measuring thermal characteristics of clothing; defined use gloves; clothing test programme; evaluation of test methods; solubility parameters of protective materials; carbon-14 tracers in permeation studies; importance of polymer compounding and processing; penetration as a function of applied pressure on wicking fabrics; data bases on gloves and OSH; standards in Sweden; standardisation against heat and chemicals; protective suits.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 146p. Illus.
Day M., Sturgeon P.Z.
Thermal radiative protection of fire fighters' protective clothing
A method for measuring the thermal radiative protection of 11 actual fire fighters' garments to an incident radiative heat flux of 8.4kW/m2 is described. The results indicate the time to pain and to second degree burn as well as the pain alarm time. The thermal inertia of the garments is also mesured on the basis of burn exposure time. Differences in physical properties such as garment thickness, total weight and number of layers are examined in order to establish the existence of any correlations.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1987, Vol.23, No.1, p.49-59. Illus. 15 ref.
Vo-Dinh T., White D.A.
Development of luminescence procedures to evaluate permeation of multi-ring polyaromatic compounds through protective materials
Two practical and simple luminescence techniques were developed to evaluate the efficacy of protective clothing materials against permeation of multi-ring polyaromatic compounds contained in heavy oil and petroleum products. The procedures use a rapid and simple technique based on room temperature phosphorimetry and fluorescence detection in which a portable fibre optic luminoscope was used.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1987, Vol.48, No.4, p.400-405. Illus. 9 ref.
Berardinelli S.P., Moyer E.S.
Methyl isocyanate liquid and vapor permeation through selected respirator diaphragms and chemical protective clothing
Twenty-two chemical protective clothing materials were tested against liquid methyl isocyanate (MIC); only a non-woven Nomex on Teflon can be considered as a candidate material. Viton, polyvinyl chloride and butyl clothing can be considered candidate materials against approximately 800ppm MIC vapour. Four self-contained breathing apparatus diaphragms were tested and all experienced rapid breakthrough when exposed to liquid MIC. Next, 3 SCBA diaphragms were exposed to approximately 800ppm MIC vapour. The SCBA should be worn inside a total encapsulating suit.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1987, Vol.48, No.4, p.324-329. Illus. 4 ref.
White M.K., Kodous T.K.
Reduced work tolerance associated with wearing protective clothing and respirators
Nine healthy men experienced with the use of respirators performed a randomised series of 8 experimental tests. Work was performed on a treadmill at 30% (low work intensity) or 60% (high work intensity) of maximum work capacity for each individual. Four protective clothing ensembles were examined: light work clothing (LIGHT), light work clothing with SCBA (SCBA), firefighter's turnout gear with SCBA (FF) and chemical protective clothing with SCBA (CHEM). Physiological measurements included heart rate, skin and rectal temperature, and minute ventilation. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increases with exercise were greatest with FF, followed in order by the CHEM, SCBA and LIGHT ensembles. Wearing protective clothing and respirators causes significant stress to the cardio-respiratory and thermoregulatory systems, even at low work intensities in a neutral environment. The most stressful responses were observed in subjects wearing the firefighter's turnout gear (the heaviest ensemble). Weight of the ensembles alone, however, did not account for all of the observed differences.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1987, Vol.48, No.4, p.304-310. Illus. 35 ref.
Considerations for design and selection of chemical-protective clothing
The criteria for design of clothing for hazardous chemical monitoring and spill response are discussed. Current and proposed methods and research are described for establishing guidelines for the selection of low-level and high-level protective clothing. Section headings are: defining the problem; suit material compatibility (types of chemical intrusion, limitations of current compatibility information); methods for assessing chemical resistance (degradation, permeation); variables affecting permeation; permeation by chemical mixtures; material testing programme; decontamination of clothing; physical properties of protective materials; encapsulated suit design problems; future trends of chemical clothing selection guidelines; conclusion.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1987, Vol.14, No.2, p.165-189. Illus. 23 ref.
Permeation of polymeric materials by toluene
The permeation of toluene through butyl, butyl-coated nomex, neoprene, and polyvinyl alcohol was tested at 25°C and 45°C with the use of ASTM method F-739. Butyl exhibited breakthrough of 18min at 25°C and 11min at 45°C. Butyl nomex exhibited breakthrough times of 11min at 25°C and 6min at 45°C. PVA showed no breakthrough in 20h. The steady-state permeation rates and the diffusion coefficients were determined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1987, Vol.48, No.2, p.155-159. Illus. 20 ref.
Radiation protection - Clothing for protection against radioactive contamination - Design, selection, testing and use
Protection contre les rayonnements - Vêtements de protection contre la contamination radioactive - Conception, choix, essais et utilisation [in French]
This standard gives the characteristics of clothing (both ventilated-pressurised and unventilated-unpressurised garments) protecting the wearer against all kinds of radioactive contamination. Annexes provide standard test methods for the determination of respiratory protection levels against aerosols provided by ventilated-pressurised garments, and for the measurement of leak-tightness and air supply flow rate of these garments. Annexes not forming integral parts of the standard provide information on internal ventilation systems, exhaust devices and on the selection and condition of use of this type of clothing.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1 June 1987. 14p. Illus.
Thermophysiological properties of work and protective clothing
Termofysiologiska egenskaper hos arbets- och skyddskläder [in Swedish]
The evaporative resistance and thermal insulation of different types of work and protective clothing were determined from measurements made on human subjects and on a thermal manikin. Similar and comparable insulation values were obtained with the 2 methods. The insulation of clothing is influenced by body posture, movements, wind and moisture. During motion, insulation is reduced by 18-35% compared to when a person is seated. Protective suits generally have a high evaporative resistance, which increases heat stress. Some new waterproof fabrics have low evaporative resistance, which increases the wearer's performance ability and thermal comfort in bad weather conditions. New climate indices which account for the thermal properties of clothing, improve the possibilities to predict the thermal impact on humans of different climatic conditions. They also provide a guideline for the establishment of specifications for clothing for different climates and for the selection of adequate clothing for any given set of ambient conditions.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 62p. Illus. 79 ref.
Work in heat while wearing protective equipment. Physiological reactions to smoke by fire fighters
Arbete i värme med skyddsutrustning - Fysiologiska reaktioner hos rökdykare [in Swedish]
The physical work performance of 8 fire fighters wearing fire brigade uniforms and carrying breathing apparatus was assessed. They were tested in a climate chamber at 15°C and 45°C. The test was performed with and without the equipment on a treadmill at 3.5km/h. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, skin and deep body temperature were measured. The subjects estimated perceived physical exertion and perceived temperature. Carrying fire fighting equipment increased oxygen uptake by 0.4L/min. Heart rate at the end of the experiments reached near-maximum levels at 45°C with equipment, and deep body temperature increased to an average of 38.7°C. The subjects' ratings of perceived exertion were highly correlated to heart rate. The loading induced by heat and protective equipment reduced the ability to perform strenous work. The combination of thick clothing and heavy breathing apparatus had a significant limiting effect on the endurance of fire fighters.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 18p. Illus. 15 ref.
Filenkov V.G., Frenkel' F.Z., Fursa A.V., Karnauh N.G., Zerkal' L.I., Kuznecov V.S.
Protective clothing for miners who handle explosives underground
Specodežda dlja gornorabočih, kontaktirujuščih s vzryvčatymi materialami v šahtah [in Russian]
Description of half-long overalls with apron which are made from a cotton fabric covered with a plastic film and designed to protect against trinitrotoluene dust. These overalls are made to be worn over the work clothing. To facilitate their demonstration, they are manufactured with a minimum of seams. Ventilation openings are provided below the armholes. Practical tests have shown that the overalls offer good protection against skin contamination with trinitrotoluene dust without prejudice to the regulation of the body temperature.
Gornyj žurnal, July 1986, No.7, p.58.
Leinster P., Bonsall J.L., Evans M.J., Lloyd G.A., Miller B., Rackham M.
British Occupational Hygiene Society Technology Committee, Working Party on Protective Clothing
The development of a standard test method for determining permeation of liquid chemicals through protective clothing materials
A comparison of techniques used in the measurement of breakthrough time and permeation rate of chemicals through protective clothing materials resulted in the modification of a standardised test method and the development of a standard test cell. Using the test method, good inter-laboratory agreement was achieved for measurements of breakthrough times of chemical/material combinations in the absence of significant interactions (such as swelling or distortion of the membrane). The agreement in the amount permeating through the material was not as good, but still sufficient to assign materials into categories based on order of magnitude differences. The standard test method is described in detail in the appendix.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1986, Vol.30, No.4, p.381-395. Illus. 7 ref.
Beckett W.M., Davis J.E., Vroman N., Nadig R., Fortney S.
Heat stress associated with the use of vapor-barrier garments
When workers use vapor-barrier coveralls, work practices or WBGT limits may need to be revised to prevent heat-related injuries. Two case studies illustrate how this type of clothing, impermeable to sweat, may result in elevation of body core temperature.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1986, Vol.28, No.6, p.411-414. 4 ref.
Leonard R., Lechien P., Vo Chi T., Brogniaux L.
Ergonomic study of protection against flames and molten metal splashes
Etude ergonomique concernant la protection contre les flammes et les projections de métal en fusion [in French]
A study of burn accidents among blast-furnace workers of a steel plant allows an understanding of the circumstances and location of accidents, and an analysis of the comfort and effectiveness provided by presently used means of protection. Materials used in protective clothing and equipment (aluminised or non-aluminised) were tested in a laboratory and in the field. Prototypes of protective clothing were made and tested objectively and subjectively. A complete set of protective clothing and equipment, providing a good combination of protection and comfort to foundry workers, is described and recommended.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1986, Vol.23, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 41 ref.
Clothing and thermal environments
Thermal environment factors, heart rate, skin temperatures and thermal sensation votes were recorded in 19 workers in different types of cool-environment industries. 45 workers from the same workplace completed questionnaires. Transient thermal conditions were prevalent. After exercise chill, progressive cooling of the body during the working day, and cooling of hands and feet were general problems. Local cooling of certain body areas was found to be a trade-specific problem. Commonly used work clothing was insufficient for thermal comfort. Proposals for a more suitable choice of work clothing are given.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 1986, Vol.17, No.1, p.47-57. Illus. 25 ref.
Epstein Y., Shapiro Y., Brill S.
Comparison between different auxiliary cooling devices in a severe hot/dry climate
7 different cooling devices were compared under the same hot and dry climatic conditions (50°C, 30% relative humidity). 8 male subjects tested water or air-cooled garments, ice-bag vests, zone cooling or a fan for their beneficial effects on physiological variables. A strain index (SI), computed from sweat rate, rectal temperature and heart rate was used for the evaluation. The ice-bag vest had the highest cooling capacity (SI=0.55). Cooling the torso either by a water or air cooled vest or by zone cooling were found to have the same effect (SI=1). Fan cooling was the least effective (SI=3.11). The results are discussed with respect to the interaction between the cooling capacity of the devices, evaporative heat loss and environmental conditions.
Ergonomics, Jan. 1986, Vol.29, No.1, p.41-48. Bibl.
Code of Practice for protective clothing for fire fighters [Manitoba, Canada]
Code of Practice issued under the Workplace Safety and Health Act (1976). It provides a minimum standard, whose non-observance is not in itself an offence under law.
Queen's Printer, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Feb. 1985. 6p.
Kokšarskaja M.P., Rastorgueva L.I., Morozova N.L.
New warm multilayer material for protective clothing for persons working in the Far North
Novyj utepljajuščij paket specodeždy dlja rabotajuščih v uslovijah Krajnego Severa [in Russian]
A new warm material for protective clothing consists of six layers: outer material, 2 layers of wool batting, a windbreak layer, a layer of sheared reindeer hair and 2 coarse calico layers. Its thermal resistance is high and close to that of natural fur due to the use of the reindeer hair. The new material withstands temperatures lower than -60°C for wearing periods up to 18 months. Jackets, waistcoats and half-overalls made of this material meet all functional, protective and economic requirements for protective clothing used in the Arctic climate.
Published in: Aktual'nye voprosy ohrany truda, Profizdat, ul. Kirova 13, 10100 Moskva, USSR, 1982. p.56-58. Illus. Price: Rbl.1.60 (whole volume).
Personal protective equipment
Sredstva individual'noj zaščity [in Russian]
Descriptions of new products presented at the "Labour Protection 84" exhibition. The protective clothing includes suits for protection from harmful substances, arctic cold and glass fibres. The footwear includes boots for work with livestock, boots for protection against physical and chemical factors, and shoes for protection from hot surfaces. Head and face protection includes a helmet with a transparent mask and a skirt for neck protection, and safety spectacles for protecting the eyes from 300-400nm ultraviolet radiation during defect detection with luminescent dyes. A lightweight respirator for protection from dust and gas, and a skin cream for neutralisation of aliphatic amines are also featured.
Mašinostroitel', Apr. 1985, No.4, p.22-24. Illus.
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