Protective clothing - 429 entries found
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Forsberg K., Mansdorf S.Z.
Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing
This booklet provides recommendations for the selection of chemical protective clothing materials based on published and unpublished test data. The guide does not take into account the intended use or physical demands (resistance to tear, puncture resistance) of the clothing. Colour coded tables indicate the chemical breakthrough performance of 15 protective materials (including glove, boot and suit materials) against over 500 chemicals. An additional table provides a hazard rating for each chemical. The selection and use of protective clothing is also discussed. (See CIS 95-1821 for previous edition).
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10003, USA, 2nd ed., 1993. vi, 99p. 2 ref. Price: GBP 11.99.
Seldén A., Nygren M., Kvarnlöf A., Sundell K., Spångberg O.
Biological monitoring of hexachloroethane
The hexachloroethane concentrations in blood plasma samples from 6 women and 6 men of a white smoke munition plant were measured. The samples were obtained during a production break and after 5 weeks of production of smoke ammunition from hexachloroethane, titanium dioxide, aluminium powder, cryolite and traces of zinc stearate. Despite the fact that the workers wore protective clothing, hexachloroethane levels in blood plasma rose from 0.08 ± 0.14µg/L to 7.30 ± 6.04µg/L. No hexachloroethane was found in a control group and a group of previously exposed workers. It is recommended to monitor hexachloroethane-exposed workers to determine the effectiveness of personal protective measures.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, Suppl.1, p.S111-S114. Illus. 11 ref.
An evaluation of the permeability of disposable polypropylene-based protective gowns to a battery of cancer chemotherapy drugs
This article reports on the testing of several different polypropylene-based protective gown materials for permeability against a battery of four cancer chemotherapy drugs (carmustine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin). Of the eight types of gowns tested, two were completely resistant to the four drugs at all time periods. One other gown sample showed immediate breakthrough in one case, but was otherwise impermeable at all times. Two gowns were permeable to all four drugs. The remaining three gown materials demonstrated some permeability, mostly minimal, for two of the four drugs. As seen in other studies, carmustine was the most permeable of the drugs tested. The results indicate that certain modifications to the polypropylene gown material can produce a gown that offers significant protection to the handler of chemotherapy drugs.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1993, Vol.8, No.9, p.785-789. Illus. 19 ref.
Ohnaka T., Tochihara Y., Muramatsu T.
Physiological strains in hot-humid conditions while wearing disposable protective clothing commonly used by the asbestos removal industry
Seven subjects wearing impermeable protective clothing and air masks were exposed to hot-humid conditions, cool conditions and hot/cool conditions (working in hot conditions and resting in cool conditions). Work was performed on an ergometer according to a work/rest schedule and rectal temperature, heart rate, sweat rate and discomfort sensation were recorded. Thermal stress was linked to work in protective clothing in hot-humid environments, although the physiological strains were significantly reduced by resting between work periods in a cool environment. The idea of a 'cool room' inside the workplace, so as to reduce thermal stress, is proposed.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1993, Vol.36, No.10, p.1241-1250. Illus. 27 ref.
Machado Neto J.G., Matuo T., Matuo Y.K.
Dermal exposure of pesticide spraying workers in staked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cultivation - Efficiency of personal protective equipment
Exposição dérmica de aplicadores de agrotóxicos na cultura estaqueada de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) - Eficiência de equipamentos de proteção individual [in Portuguese]
The protective power of different types of protective overalls made of plastic was compared with that of plastic aprons worn by pesticide sprayers in Brazil. The pesticide concerned was a copper-based fungicide, and exposure levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The plastic aprons reduced dermal exposure of the front part of the body by 83-94%. The overalls reduced it only by 73-78% in the chest and arm area, while they proved to be useless in providing protection of the legs and thighs.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.21, No.79, p.29-38. 17 ref.
Tochihara Y., Ohnaka T., Nagai Y., Muramatsu T.
Survey of physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer
Kaki ni okeru asubesuto bōgo fuku chakuyō sagyō no rōdō futan ni kansuru chōsa kenkyū [in Japanese]
Asbestos abatement projects in schools are planned during summer vacation. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing. Physiological strains in 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatement work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. The workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoe covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6°C and 28.8°C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was the result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces with vinyl sheets, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working periods were 46 and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were 217-605g/h. These values were greater than estimated values for similar work done wearing light clothing. Heart rates did not exceed 150 beats/min where the temperature was 25°C-27°C, but where the temperature was 28°C-29°C one worker's heart rate increased to 170 beats/min. During this work (136 minutes), rectal temperature increased 2.3°C; body weight loss was 1,300g. There is a high risk of suffering from heat illness in asbestos abatement work during the summer.
Annals of Physiological Anthropology, 1 Jan. 1993, Vol.12, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Matthies W., Krächter H.U.
Skin reactions to work clothing - What role does the washing procedure play?
Hautreaktionen auf Berufskleidung - Welche Rolle spielt das Waschverfahren? [in German]
The detergent residues in samples of cotton fabrics used for work clothing in hospitals were determined. Fabric samples were sent to 83 laundries. The pH of aqueous extracts of the washed samples was measured. Detergent residues were low in comparison to an optimized laundering method used as control and to laundering in household washing machines. The pH values were lower than in fabrics washed in household washing machines. Patch tests with the fabrics were applied to 50 volunteers, including atopic persons. The 24-hour tests during weather conditions which provoked strong sweating produced no skin reactions.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, July-Aug. 1993, Vol.41, No.4, p.137-144. Illus. 37 ref.
On the need of body cooling for wearing chemical protective clothing
Über die Notwendigkeit der Anwendung körperkühlender Massnahmen bei Trägern von Chemikalienschutzanzügen [in German]
The results of tests on a treadmill ergometer are used to illustrate the rises of temperature and humidity that occur within chemical protective overalls. At an ambient temperature of 23°C and a relative humidity of 30% an increase to 30°C and 85% relative humidity was measured after 30 minutes. The body-core temperature rose to 37.52°C and the pulse rate to 145. A cooling vest worn over a T-shirt or pullover inside the chemical protective overall improved conditions and markedly reduced the physiological responses and the hazard of suffering a heat stroke.
Drägerheft, Jan. 1993, No.353, p.35-38. Illus. 14 ref.
Kenney W.L., Hyde D.E., Bernard T.E.
Physiological evaluation of liquid-barrier, vapor-permeable protective clothing ensembles for work in hot environments
Two vapour-transmitting ensembles were compared with other clothing ensembles previously tested. The evaluation was based on an established experimental protocol that determines the critical values of air temperature and water-vapour pressure. There were no differences between the two vapour-transmitting garments in their effects on worker heat stress. When compared with the results of other studies, the two vapour-transmitting garments had critical environmental characteristics similar to two layers of cotton coveralls and they performed better from a heat stress standpoint than a disposable vapour-barrier suit worn over cloth coveralls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.397-402. Illus. 15 ref.
The effects of various thicknesses of chemical protective gloves on manual dexterity
Twelve men were timed as they performed five dexterity tests while barehanded and while wearing each of three thicknesses of chemical protective gloves. Mean times were best with bare hands and poorest with the thickest (0.64mm) gloves. Performance with the gloves improved over sessions to the extent that the results with gloves approached or surpassed performance levels achieved with bare hands during the early sessions. Findings suggest that selection of the thinnest glove material compatible with protection from the chemical environment and practice working with the handwear will result in relatively efficient manual performance.
Ergonomics, June 1993, Vol.36, No.6, p.687-696. 19 ref.
Taylor H.L., Orlansky J.
The effects of wearing protective chemical warfare combat clothing on human performance
US Department of Defense studies to measure performance decrements associated with wearing chemical warfare (CW) protective combat clothing indicate that heat stress seriously degrades human performance. Even when heat stress is not a significant factor, performance of many combat, combat support, and combat service support tasks is degraded. In most field studies, many crews of combat units became operationally ineffective due to voluntary withdrawal of individual crewmembers. Many combined arms, field studies, and laboratory studies indicate that when CW-protective combat clothing is worn, performance is seriously degraded for the detection of targets, engagement time, accuracy of fire, and manual dexterity tasks, and that a variety of psychological effects are created. Further, the degree of performance degradation varies with the tasks performed. Training in CW-protective combat clothing permits learning to modify procedures and consequently reduce negative effects, provided heat stress is not a significant factor. A growing body of evidence indicates that there is inadequate training in the use of CW-protective combat clothing. A critical need exists for more and better training of skills needed under CW-conditions.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.64, No.3, Section II (Supplement), 41p. 115 ref.
Pal T., Griffin G.D., Miller G.H., Watson A.P., Daugherty M.L., Vo-Dinh T.
Permeation measurements of chemical agent simulants through protective clothing materials
Thirteen different chemical protective clothing materials having widely differing compositions were chosen to study the permeation of four different liquid chemical warfare simulants (dimethyl methyl phosphonate, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate, malathion, and dibutyl sulfide). The permeation study involved a newly developed analytical technique employing room temperature fluorescence quenching of an indicator compound, phenanthrene, on filter paper. Various experimental factors such as breakthrough time, rate of permeation and uptake were investigated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan. 1993, Vol.33, No.1, p.123-141. Illus. 9 ref.
Personal protective clothing and equipment
This booklet outlines the criteria for selecting and using personal protective clothing and equipment (PPCE) so that they can be an effective part of an overall safety and health strategy. PPCE include headwear, eye, ear, hand, feet and body protection, and respiratory protection. The needs for workers' training and medical supervision and for developing standard operating procedures for the use of PPCE are outlined. A checklist for assessing the use of appropriate PPCEs at the workplace is provided. Relevant regulations are also mentioned.
Occupational Health and Safety Authority, World Trade Centre, Corner Flinders and Spencer Streets, PO Box 414, Melbourne, Victoria 3005, Australia, July 1992. 20p. Illus.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Harmful substances - Clean air in the workplace - Proceedings of the European Community Conference on 2 July 1992 in Dresden
Gefahrstoffe - Saubere Luft am Arbeitsplatz - Vorträge der EG-Tagung am 2. Juli 1992 in Dresden [in German]
Contents: requirements placed by the European Community on air quality monitoring at workplaces; the major air pollutants at workplaces in the new Länder (states) of Germany; what the chemical industry in the new states is doing against air pollution at the workplace; personal protection against exposure to asbestos fibres during building renovation; emissions by diesel engines used in potash mines and in public transportation in the new states; exposure to wood dusts in both the new and old states and reduction of wood dust emissions; extractive ventilation for the elimination of harmful substances from workplaces as practiced in the new states.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. 152p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 28.00.
Sullivan P.J., Mekjavić I.B.
Temperature and humidity within the clothing microenvironment
Five subjects wearing different types of helicopter personnel suits were exposed to a linear increase in ambient temperature from 20-40°C over a 90-min period, and then remained at 40°C for an additional 90min. Results showed that although clothing microenvironment temperatures were similar among suits and slightly lower than that of the environment, the microenvironment relative humidity and vapour pressure were much greater than that of the ambient air. The study demonstrates the need to discern between ambient conditions and conditions next to the skin when protective clothing is worn.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.63, No.3, p.186-192. Illus. 23 ref.
Antuñano M.J., Nunneley S.A.
Heat stress in protective clothing - Validation of a computer model and the heat-humidity index (HHI)
To validate the suggestion that environmental heat load may be predicted by using the Heat-Humidity Index (HHI), nine men wearing chemical defence clothing were studied under a range of heat-humidity conditions with varying workloads. Physiological variables were recorded. Compared to the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, the HHI offered greater accuracy in predicting tolerance limits of heavily clothed subjects over a considerable range of environmental conditions and workloads.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.63, No.12, p.1087-1092. 14 ref.
Stull J.O., White D.F.
A review of overall integrity and material performance tests for the selection of chemical protective clothing
This paper offers guidelines for selecting chemical protective clothing for two levels of clothing performance, vapour protection and liquid splash protection. Each level of performance is defined by an appropriate clothing integrity and material barrier test available in American Society for Testing and Materials and the National Fire Protection Association standards. Vapour protective performance requires gas-tight integrity as found on totally encapsulating suits with suit materials offering permeation resistance to the chemical of interest. Liquid splash protective performance can be demonstrated by a shower-like test for liquid-tight integrity and suit materials that resist penetration by liquids. Other factors such as durability, strength, comfort, and function should also be considered. The decision for vapour versus liquid splash protection depends on the hazards of the chemical, the duration of exposure, and other work environment factors.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.455-462. Illus. 17 ref.
Moody R.P., Nadeau B.
Effect of the mosquito repellent DEET and long-wave ultraviolet radiation on permeation of the herbicide 2,4-D and the insecticide DDT in natural rubber gloves
Studies were conducted to determine the effect of a commonly used insect repellant, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), on the permeability of rubber gloves used for protection by pesticide applicators. The glove percentage permeation data obtained with 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and DDT showed no significant difference between the chemicals in glove permeability caused by the presence of DEET. Scanning electron microscopy of the natural rubber glove material, however, demonstrated disruption of the surface structure following a 24-hour treatment with DEET. Glove permeation analysis also suggested that exposure of the glove material to long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) radiation enhanced the glove permeability to 2,4-D but had no effect on the permeation of DDT. Because the gloves of pesticide applicators are commonly exposed to solar UVA, this finding may raise safety concerns.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.436-441. Illus. 12 ref.
Valanis B., Vollmer W.M., Labuhn K., Glass A., Corelle C.
Antineoplastic drug handling protection after OSHA guidelines - Comparison by profession, handling activity, and work site
Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued antineoplastic drug handling guidelines in 1986, literature reports indicated that use of protection in the early 1980s did not meet OSHA standards. This study investigated the use of protection by pharmacy and nursing staff in a national sample of facilities. Use of protection by the study sample in 1988 to 1989 is compared with their past use, with use of protection in previous studies, and with OSHA guidelines. In general, pharmacists are better protected than are nurses, and hospital staff are better protected than staff in outpatient settings who also tend to handle more drugs. Although improving over time, protective garment use does not meet OSHA guidelines, particularly among nurses when administering agents or handling patient excreta.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.34, No.2, p.149-155. 23 ref.
Taeger E., Mieck K.P., Banke K.H.
Application of polyozadiazole fibres for protective clothing
Anwendung von Polyoxadiozolfasern in der Arbeitsschutzbekleidung [in German]
The results of resistance tests of poly-p-phenylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole (POD) fibres to heat, fire, water vapour, solvents, ultraviolet radiation, warm acids and alkaline substances are presented. The POD fibre is capable of resisting temperatures above 300°C for short periods of time and temperatures of 200°C and below for long periods of time. It is fire and solvent resistant. The possible applications of the fibres, such as in bag filters for flue gas cleaning or protective clothing, are outlined. In tests of the thermal insulating property of protective gloves made of the fibre, the POD gloves were comparable to those made of asbestos fibre.
Chemiefasern / Textil-Industrie, 1991, Vol.41, No.3, p.T28-T33. Illus. 16 ref.
Mickelsen R.L., Hall R.C., Chern R.T., Myers J.R.
Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films
The standard ASTM method for determining permeation of liquids through polymeric films (F739-85) was compared with a simple weight-loss method constructed of off-the-shelf components. The steady-state flux obtained by using the weight-loss method gave results statistically equivalent to the more analytically complex ASTM method, the latter which required more analytical skill and training and more costly equipment. The weight-loss method needs further improvement and validation but shows promise even in its present form. By using this method, the potential exists for far more chemical protective clothing users to conduct their own low cost permeation testing of candidate protective clothing materials. It is not meant to replace the standard ASTM method but to supplement it as a screening test.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1991, Vol.52, No.10, p.445-447. Illus. 7 ref.
Modern overalls are important - Lead hazard due to sandblasting operations
Moderne Schutzanzüge sind wichtig - Bleigefährdung bei Strahlarbeiten [in German]
Cases of lead poisoning are described. They occurred among workers engaged in the sandblasting of bridge railings for corrosion protection. Blood lead levels and anamnestic details are presented. Blood lead levels reached 178µg/dL. Investigations of the causes led to untight protective clothing and sealing off of the work area to prevent environmental pollution.
Sicher ist Sicher, Mar. 1991, Vol.42, No.3, p.132-134.
Rapid onset of severe heat illness: A case report
This paper reports the physiological responses of an aviator who had been flying a helicopter up to 6 hours a day clothed in full individual protective clothing (IPE) on 6 consecutive days prior to onset of heat illness. His performance during the study was normal, and no clear physiological derangements were noted prior to his symptoms. The sudden appearance of symptoms after a prolonged asymptomatic period illustrates the difficult predictability and inital central nervous system effects of this condition.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.62, No.8, p.779-782. Illus. 10 ref.
Romet T.T., Brooks C.J., Fairburn S.M., Potter P.
Immersed clo insulation in marine work suits using human and thermal manikin data
The immersed clo value of a series of 11 marine work suits was measured using both humans and a thermal manikin. Immersion in turbulent water was found to decrease the immersed clo values of a suit compared to still water; the magnitude of the decrease being dependent on factors inherent in the suit design. The study showed the manikin to be an excellent device for testing in still water, where results were similar to those from humans. In turbulent water the use of the manikin led consistently to an over-estimation of heat loss. Further research is required to produce appropriate correction factors.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.62, No.8, p.739-746. Illus. 11 ref.
Vallerand A.L., Michas R.D., Frim J., Ackles K.N.
Heat balance of subjects wearing protective clothing with a liquid- or air-cooled vest
Three heat exposures (37°C for 150min 1 week apart) were performed on 7 subjects wearing a Canadian Forces helicopter aircrew chemical defence individual protection ensemble (CD-IPE) supplemented with an air-cooled or liquid-cooled vest, or without cooling. Results showed that subjects wearing the CD-IPE under simulated cockpit conditions experienced significant heat stress and could only complete 95min of heat exposure time. The heat strain was significantly alleviated by either cooling vest, with greater improvements being seen with the air-cooled vest, possibly the result of its slightly greater total cooling and very high evaporative cooling.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 1991, Vol.62, No.5, p.383-391. Illus. 28 ref.
Light I.M., Slater P.
Health and Safety Executive
A further in-water performance assessment of lifejacket and immersion suit combinations
A series of trials using a manikin was undertaken to study the self-righting ability and airways protection of immersion suits and lifejackets when used in combination. The objective of the study was to assess the ability of the combinations to passively right an unconscious survivor to a face up attitude and to evaluate the airways protection. Passive self-righting was achieved by 47% of the combinations. In relatively calm testing conditions, 34 combinations provided complete airways protection, although only one combination provided such protection in rougher test conditions. The wearing of an immersion suit and incorporation of a spray shield/visor showed an improvement in airways protection compared to a lifejacket worn with standard clothing. The project has identified design features that are considered to be important in terms of achieving effective protection to survivors.
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 74p. 7 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Fire resistant protective clothing (Nomex suits)
During a fire caused by ignition of a vapour cloud of escaping hydrocarbons at a USA refinery in 1989, a workers suffered burns to the head, hands and leg but was saved from more serious burns to the body by the wearing of flame retardant overalls (Nomex suits). The incident demonstrates the value of fire resistant protective clothing which it is recommended should be made available for all high risk operations.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Aug. 1991, No.100, p.28-30. Illus.
The benefits of flame retardant clothing
This paper briefly describes 3 fire incidents where workers were protected by flame retardant clothing. The examples illustrate that the wearing of such clothing has a role in avoiding or minimising injuries when unforeseen circumstances or equipment failure create a potentially dangerous situation.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Aug. 1991, No.100, p.27-28.
White M.K., Glenn S.P., Hudnall J., Rice C., Clark S.
The effectiveness of ice- and Freon-based personal cooling systems during work in fully encapsulating suits in the heat
The use of cooling garments in conjunction with fully encapsulating suits can reduce heat strain for workers in hot environments. Ice- and Freon-based cooling garments were examined during heat exercises in persons wearing a U.S. Coast Guard chemical response suit (CRS). Responses of 9 healthy men were measured during moderate exercise at 30% of their maximal oxygen consumption in an environmental chamber maintained at 33.9°C and 82% relative humidity. The study describes four randomly assigned experimental conditions. The subjects performed repeated rest/work intervals for 45 minutes, followed by a 10 minute recovery period. Physiological responses were measured at 1 minute intervals during the tests. The study results indicate statistically significant reductions in mean skin temperature and heart rate in the trials where the cooling garments were worn. Significant differences were also seen in lower weight loss and shorter rectal temperature recovery time. However, neither cooling system fully demonstrated an advantage over the other.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1991, Vol.52, No.3, p.127-135. Illus. 24 ref.
Abernathy R.N., Genova S.A.
Measurements of hypergolic fuels' and oxidants' permeation through commercial protective materials. Part II, Nitrogen tetroxide, monomethylhydrazine, and anhydrous hydrazine
Forty materials were tested to determine their relative resistance to permeation by nitrogen dioxide (NO2), monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and hydrazine (Hz) after exposure to the liquid hypergolic propellants dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), MMH, and anhydrous hydrazine (AHz), respectively. A new piece of material was used in each test. The materials were not preconditioned, nor was exposure to the hypergolic propellants repeated. In these tests, the materials were clamped in a static test cell that permitted one side of the fabric to be exposed to the oxidant or fuels, while the other side of the fabric was monitored for NO2, MMH or Hz concentrations with an electrochemical analyser. The materials tested were candidates for use in protective suits, gloves, boots, and hood windows during USA Air Force or National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) propellant loading operations. The most promising materials will be tested further by standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan.1991, Vol.52, No.1, p.20-29. Illus. 26 ref.
Chester G., Adam A.V., Inkmann Koch A., Litchfield M.H., Tuinman C.P.
Field evaluation of protective equipment for pesticide operators in a tropical climate
In order to extend the practical advice and information on personal protection when using pesticides in tropical climates, a GIFAP-FAO Working Group carried out a study on protective equipment worn by pesticide workers in hot and humid conditions in Thailand. Items assessed included protective garments worn by workers mixing and loading the organophosphorus insecticide formulation Tamaron and by spraymen applying the diluted formulation for several hours per day to a cotton crop with knapsack sprayers. The mixer-loaders also wore nitrile rubber gloves and a faceshield. The protective garments were made up of two pieces, an upper garment of a double apron design and separate trousers. Garments made up of different materials were assessed for their acceptability to the workers, their comfort and durability and their protectiveness against the insecticide. As a result of the study, it is considered that cotton protective garments are appropriate for pesticide workers in these conditions if additional protection is necessary. The nitrile rubber gloves and faceshield were also found to be suitable for mixer-loaders in these circumstances. It is emphasised that the effective use of protective equipment must go hand in hand with safe handling precautions and the adoption of good personal hygiene.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.480-488. 3 ref.
Aspects of occupational medicine concerning manufacture in clean rooms
Arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte bei der Fertigung in Reinräumen [in German]
Health requirements placed on workers in the microchip manufacturing industry who work in clean rooms include absence of respiratory diseases, urinary tract infections, skin diseases, obesity, impaired vision, claustrophobia, epilepsy, frequent migraines and spinal diseases. The importance of abstention from smoking during and 2 hours prior to work in clean rooms and the ability to work in shifts is stressed. Clothing worn in clean rooms must protect against high air velocities.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Sep. 1990, Vol.25, No.9, p.407-408, 413-418. Illus. 6 ref.
Testing of work clothing for forestry workers
Praxiserprobung von Waldarbeiter-Bekleidungssystemen [in German]
New fabrics, such as Gore-Tex, used in the manufacture of weather protective clothing, work clothing and underwear to be worn for forestry and logging operations are described. Beginning in April 1990, 14 different suits were tested throughout the Federal Republic of Germany by 56 workers. The tests were scheduled to last 1 year. Questionnaires and personal interviews will be used in assessing protection against injuries, thermal comfort and wear.
A F Z - Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, 1990, Vol.45, No.17-18, p.409-412. Illus. 5 ref.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control
A guide for evaluating the performance of chemical protective clothing (CPC)
The selection of appropriate chemical protective clothing (CPC) is described in terms of an evaluation of the workplace (chemical identification, contact sequence and location, environmental conditions), obtaining samples of candicate CPC, testing CPC under anticipated work conditions, selection of the best CPC and monitoring CPC use in the workplace. An example of the use of this selection process is given. Product evaluation tests are described along with methods for the measurement of chemical breakthrough times. The decontamination and reuse of CPC are also discussed.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, June 1990. 80p. Illus.
Protective clothing - Protection against liquid chemicals - Determination of resistance of air-impermeable materials to permeation by liquids
Vêtements de protection - Protection contre les produits chimiques liquides - Détermination de la résistance des matériaux imperméables à l'air à la transmission des liquides [in French]
This international standard describes a laboratory test method that enables an assessment to be made of the resistance to permeation by liquids afforded by clothing materials, used for industrial and agricultural applications.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1990. 8p. Illus.
Protective clothing - Assessment of resistance of materials to molten metal splash
Vêtements de protection - Evaluation de la résistance des matériaux à la projection de métal fondu [in French]
This international standard describes a method for assessing the resistance of materials used in protective clothing to molten metal splash. It is important to note that good resistance of a material to a pure molten metal does not guarantee a good performance against slag.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1990. 9p. Illus.
Ilmarinen R., Tammela E., Korhonen E.
Design of functional work clothing for meat-cutters
On the basis of a pilot study comprising a literature review, questionnaires and interviews, work analysis and physiological measurements, different types of work clothing were designed for prolonged use during normal work in meat cutting. Physical material tests and measurements of thermal insulation values were carried out and modifications made based on opinions of meat-cutters and physiological trials in slaughterhouses. The thermal insulation of the final set of clothing together with suitable underwear proved to be sufficient for thermal comfort in moderate work in an air temperature of 10°C. The project showed that the inconveniences of a cold environment in meat-cutting work can be prevented by functional work clothing.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 1990, Vol.21, No.1, p.2-6. Illus. 16 réf.
Protective clothing for use with pesticides
Papers presented at a seminar on protective clothing for use with pesticides, held in Coventry, United Kingdom, 15 September 1989. Topics covered: UK legislation affecting protective clothing for use with pesticides; proposed European Directives affecting the standards, use and marketing of personal protective equipment in Europe; test methods and selection criteria for types of coveralls; factors in the design of clothing for use against agricultural pesticides; legal requirements of pesticide manufacturers to provide appropriate information on their products and adequate guidance on protective measures.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, May 1990, Vol.11, No.4, p.237-283.
Spurny K.R., Schoermann J., Opiela H.
Aerosols and protective clothing
Materials used for aerosol protective clothing need to be sufficiently porous to allow adequate ventilation of the body, but must also provide a barrier against particles, vapours, gases and liquids. Such materials require testing for their filtration and adsorption properties. This study investigates the applicability of electron microscopic testing procedures normally used to characterise filters and filtration processes. Two types of asbestos aerosols were also used for material testing, and the test methods are described in detail. These procedures allow penetrations <10-6 to be measured. Electron microscopy can be used very successfully for testing protective clothing with different aerosols, especially asbestos dust.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1990, Vol.51, No.1, p.36-43. Illus. 41 ref.
Protective clothing - Protection against liquid chemicals - Determination of resistance of materials to penetration by liquids
Vêtements de protection - Protection contre les produits chimiques liquides - Détermination de la résistance des matériaux à la pénétration des liquides [in French]
This international standard specifies the test method for the measurement of the penetration of a liquid chemical product through protective clothing material.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1990. 4p. Illus.
Forsberg K., Mansdorf S.Z.
Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing
This booklet provides recommendations for the selection of chemical protective clothing materials based on published and unpublished test data. The guide does not take into account the intended use or physical demands (resistance to tear, puncture resistance) of the clothing. Colour-coded tables indicate the chemical breakthrough performance of 11 generic materials against approximately 450 chemicals. An additional table provides a hazard rating for each chemical.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1989. iv, 60p. 2 ref.
Crown E.M., Rigakis K.B., Dale J.D.
Systematic assessment of protective clothing for Alberta workers
Describes the procedures and results of a project aimed at developing a systematic approach to the assessment of protective clothing. A comprehensive set of evaluative criteria was developed by means of a literature review, interviews and questionnaire survey. Wear studies and laboratory tests were conducted to determine which criteria and which tests would be best for predicting performance of clothing in the field. A full-scale instrumented mannequin and data interpretation system was also developed for the measurement of thermal protection in accidental situations such as flash fires. The report concludes with a series of recommendations both for industry and further research. A separate appendix provides a literature review on thermal injury.
Occupational Health and Safety Heritage Grant Program, 5th Floor, 10709 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T5J 3N3, Canada, 1989. 101p. + Appendices. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Taking acceptance into account - Criteria for the selection of disposable protective clothing
Akzeptanz berücksichtigen - Kriterien für die Auswahl von Schutzkleidung mit begrenzter Tragedauer [in German]
Outlined criteria for the selection of disposable protective clothing include: impermeability to harmful dusts (e.g. asbestos) and liquids (e.g. acids) at the workplaces, good fit to move freely and comfortable to wear. Clothing made of polyethylene and polypropylene felts is said to be alkali and acid resistant and impermeable to asbestos fibres with a diameter of 5µm.
Maschinenmarkt, 1989, Vol.95, No.38, p.58-60, 62. Illus.
Better labelling of flameproofed protective clothing
Erweiterung der Kennzeichnung für ausgerüstete Schutzkleidung [in German]
Tests of flameproofed fabric for heat protective clothing revealed that some had lost their protective properties after 20 wear and cleaning cycles and one never had any. Gaps in labelling are blamed for the problem. Present labelling practices are illustrated by examples. It is recommended to include name of manufacturer, batch number and manufacturing date of the flame retardant on the label of each fabric to avoid use of unsuitable material for heat protective clothing.
Die BG, Dec. 1989, No.12, p.820-822. Illus. 1 ref.
Experience with the use of disposable protective clothing
Erfahrungen bei der Anwendung von Einweg-Kleidung [in German]
This review shows that disposable protective clothing protects well against harmful substances in the solid state, such as asbestos and radioactive dust. It provides hardly any protection against heat and harmful gaseous or liquid substances. The safety requirements to be met by this type of protective clothing and its efficiency according to the substances and exposure are given in a table.
Die BG, Oct. 1989, No.10, p.680-683. Illus.
Vahdat N., Delaney R.
Decontamination of chemical protective clothing
This study explored decontamination procedures for removing some organic solvents from protective clothing. The permeation experiments were performed on new and decontaminated specimens in 7 polymer/chemical pairs. The decontamination methods investigated were thermal decontamination and air drying at room temperatures followed by detergent washing. Breakthrough time and steady-state permeation rate were determined by two different methods for new and decontaminated materials. The results showed that unless the contamination is limited to the outside surface of an elastomer or the chemical has a very large diffusion coefficient in the material, aeration and washing with detergent may not be an effective decontamination procedure for the type of solvent studied. On the other hand, thermal decontamination was shown to be effective in removing the contaminant from the matrix of the elastomers, and the decontaminated materials had permeation parameters similar to the new materials.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1989, Vol.50, No.3, p.152-156. 10 ref.
Harville J., Que Hee S.S.
Permeation of a 2,4-D isooctyl ester formulation through neoprene, nitrile, and Tyvek protection materials
Tyvek (laminated saranax) and unsupported nitrile gloves gave protection from penetration against formulation concentrates and aqueous emulsions of Esteron 99 [isooctyl ester of(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid)] under conditions simulating extremes of field conditions. Neoprene gloves, whether unsupported or supported, lined or unlined, were permeated much more than unsupported nitrile gloves. An initial penetration was observed for all the materials. Degradation occurred in the neoprene and supported golve materials. The selection procedure was sufficient to predict correctly that nitrile would protect better than neoprene; however, direct experimental confirmation was necessary to select the type of nitrile material which provided optimum protection.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1989, Vol.50, No.8, p.438-446. Illus. 24 ref.
Heat stress in protective clothing. Interactions among physical and physiological factors
Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics (Helsinki, 8-12 August 1988). Data from experiments on animals and humans have supported the development of computer models that predict human response to various combinations of the three main heat stress factors work, clothing, and environment. However, recent application of such models shows that the validity of their output is limited in part by the need to represent more faithfully the interactions among the primary heat stress factors and certain physiological variables. Examples of such interactions include the weight and stiffness of protective outfits increasing the metabolic cost of a task, profuse sweating that wets clothing and alters its heat transfer characteristics, task-related movements altering air exchange rates through clothing, individual aerobic capacity affecting thermoregulatory response to a given metabolic load, and sweat retention in clothing raising skin wettedness and possibly including sweat suppression.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1989, Vol.15, Supp.1, p.52-57. Illus. 33 ref.
Thoma P., Bittner G.
Test and evaluation of eye protection spectacles and of protection garments against microwave radiation
Microwave protection afforded by safety spectacles and overalls was studied with the help of dipole and discone antennas at 2.45 and 10.0GHz. Safety spectacles protected eyes at X-band frequencies but not at 2.45GHz. Of the 3 overalls, only 1 offered good protection. Thermographs of the spectacles and overalls taken seconds after termination of irradiation revealed gaps through which radiation penetrated.
PTB Mitteilungen - Forschen und Prüfen, 1989, Vol.99, No.3, p.168-171. Illus. 8 ref.
Sarner S.F., Henry N.W.
The use of detector tubes following ASTM method F-739-85 for measuring permeation resistance of clothing
The use of detector tubes as the analytical method for the measurement of permeation according to ASTM method F-739-85 has been investigated. This analytical method is rapid, can be run with multiple samples simultaneously, and has the advantage of not requiring elaborate or expensive analytical equipment which requires calibration. The systems investigated were neoprene/methanol and neoprene/acetone. It is concluded that detector tubes provide an analytical method for permeation testing which can be expected to give results comparable to those from gas chromatographic analytical systems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1989, Vol.50, No.6, p.298-302. Illus. 6 ref.
Highly visible working clothes - Safety through the use of colours
Warnkleider-Sicherheit durch Farbe [in German]
Indumenti di segnalazione: Colori vistosi - sicuri di essere sicuri [in Italian]
Vêtements de travail bien voyants - sécurité par la couleur [in French]
Safety guide in the form of a comic strip. It encourages the wearing of highly visible, coloured work clothes by people exposed to traffic, and the supply of such clothing by employers.
SUVA, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1989. 4p. Illus.
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