Protective clothing - 429 entries found
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Reneau P.D., Bishop P.A., Ashley C.D.
A comparison of physiological responses to two types of particle barrier, vapor permeable clothing ensembles
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on worker productivity of particle barrier, vapour permeable suits based on polyethylene (PE) and on polypropylene (PP). Fifteen male subjects performed four work tests consisting of a walk/arm curl combination, two in a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 26°C and two in a WBGT of 18°C, with subjects wearing each suit once in each environment. No significant difference was observed between the suits at 18°C WBGT, but a significant difference was found between the suits, with the PP having a lower Tre in the WBGT=26°C at the 80th, 100th and 120th min. A significant difference was also seen in the 26°C WBGT with the PP resulting in a lower heart rate (HR) at the 40th, 60th, 80th, 100th and 120th min and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at the 75th, 90th and 120th min. Additionally, a significant difference was seen between PE and PP for Tre, delta Tre, mean skin temp (mTsk), delta mTsk and HR, each regressed against time in the 26°C WBGT. Twelve of the 15 subjects also reported feeling cooler in the PP versus the PE in either WBGT environment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.60, No.4, p.495-501. Illus. 25 ref.
Scholmann J., Siekmann H.
Protective clothing against high-frequency radiation
Hochfrequenz-Schutzkleidung. Eine neue Persönliche Schutzausrüstung [in German]
Experimental work that led to the German draft standard E DIN 32780-100 is described. This involved four methods for determining the radiation shielding provided by clothing designed to offer protection from radiofrequency radiation between 80MHz and 1GHz. These four methods measure the temperature increase, the energy absorption, the internal electric field strength and the electromagnetic field strength. The standard describes a new method for measuring the radiofrequency radiation shielding provided by materials used for protective clothing, whereby magnetic field sensors are specially positioned inside the measuring chamber.
Die BG, Oct. 1999, No.10, p.564-572. Illus. 18 ref.
Engelmann E., Herzberg C.
New insulating protective clothing
Neue schirmende Schutzkleidung [in German]
A new protective multilayer coverall is described which protects workers exposed to strong 50Hz electric fields produced by overhead electric lines with voltages up to 800kV. It consists of an outer layer of nonflammable, tear-resistant fabric and an inner layer of moisture-absorbing soft cotton. Metallised polyamide fabric with the protective effect of a Faraday cage is sandwiched in between the two layers. The coverall protects the entire body from head to toe. A protective helmet with transparent, gold-coated face shield is used instead of the hood for work on or near power lines with voltages above 420kV. Topics: electric fields; high voltage; insulating clothing; live work; materials for personal protection; metallic-scrim fabrics; overhead electric lines; protective clothing; work near electric lines.
1999, EMC-Kompendium, p.294-295. Illus. 2 ref.
Muir I.H., Bishop P.A., Ray P.
Effects of a novel ice-cooling technique on work in protective clothing at 28°C, 23°C and 18°C WBGTs
A new ice cooling suit was tested that permits recharge of the ice cooling system without removal of protective clothing and thus risk of contamination of the wearer. The suit allows for frozen gel packets to be worn in pockets on the outside of the suit. At 28°C and 23°C, mean work times with the cooling system were significantly increased over work times without the cooling system. Mean work times at 18°C were not significantly different. During rest, mean reductions in rectal temperature were greater with the cooling system. Mean heart rate calculated at the same point in both treatments was lower with the cooling system. This new design seemed to provide comparable cooling to conventional vests and also provides greater practicality for field use. Even in experimental form, the suit demonstrated increased productivity due to extended tolerance time. Topics: body-core temperature; chemical protective clothing; comfort criteria; evaluation of equipment; exercise tests; human experiments; protective clothing; thermal comfort.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.96-104. Illus. 24 ref.
Barker D.W., Kini S., Bernard T.E.
Thermal characteristics of clothing ensembles for use in heat stress analysis
The thermal characteristics of a variety of protective clothing ensembles were determined for application in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for required sweat rate, used for the assessment of occupational heat stress. Experiments were carried out using five subjects in four environmental conditions for each ensemble. Metabolic rate, average skin temperature and the environmental conditions were noted at the critical conditions in which subjects were just able to maintain thermal equilibrium. The total insulation was estimated for each ensemble. From these values, the total evaporative resistance and the clothing factors for dry heat exchange and for evaporative cooling were determined. It is suggested that these clothing coefficients can be used in the ISO standard for these clothing ensembles and thus increase the utility of the standard. Topics: comment on standard; energy metabolism; heat load; heat transfer; microclimate; protective clothing; skin temperature; sweat rate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.32-37. 13 ref.
Sullman M.J.M., Kirk P.M., Parker R.J., Gaskin J.E.
New Zealand logging industry accident reporting scheme: Focus for a human factors research programme
A voluntary accident reporting scheme is described which has been used to identify the requirements for, and monitor the effectiveness of, interventions within the New Zealand logging industry. Two examples are used: the development of chainsaw cut-resistant legwear, and determinination of the most appropriate color for high visibility clothing. The underlying rationale for each intervention is described and the effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated, based on data drawn from the accident reporting scheme. Topics: case study; chain saws; forestry and logging; leg protection; New Zealand; notification of occupational accidents; protective clothing; visibility.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1999, Vol.30, No.2, p.123-131. Illus. 18 ref.
Kwon O.K., Kwon A.H., Kato M., Hayashi C., Tokura H.
The effects of local cooling on thermophysiological response in participants wearing dust-free garments
This study was designed to find the effects of clean-room garments (A), with, and without (B) a frozen gel strip (FGS), and half-naked clothing (brassiere and shorts; C) on workers' thermophysiological parameters and on the temperature and humidity within clothing. The heart rate, rectal, and skin temperatures, sweat rate and clothing microclimate were measured during 140min in 9 healthy females. Participants also made subjective ratings of thermal, humidity and comfort sensations. The main findings are that physiological parameters such as rectal and skin temperatures (chest and forehead), heart rate and sweat rate were clearly lowest with clothing C, intermediate with clothing A, and highest with clothing B; temperature and humidity within clothing were lower with clothing A than with clothing B; more than half of the participants reported a decreased thermal sensation by wearing clothing A. These results suggest that the usage of FGS could improve the heat load in lightly working participants wearing clean-room garments.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.1, p.57-67. Illus. 11 ref.
Renting of personal protective equipment?
Persönliche Schutzausrüstungen mieten? [in German]
Topics: cleaning; Germany; legal aspects; personal protective equipment; protective clothing; services; waste disposal.
Die BG, June 1998, No.6, p.332-335. Illus.
The validation of a permeation cell for testing chemical protective clothing
The performance of a simple rugged permeation cell for testing chemical protective clothing was compared with the reference cell suggested by the American Society for Testing and Materials and using their validation protocol. The new cell overcomes some of the limitations of the reference cell including ruggedness, low dead space, ease and speed of use, and small sample size. The testing of the new cell was performed under standard conditions using acetone against reference neoprene with an automated test system incorporating a photoionization detector. The performance of the new cell was within the acceptance criteria for normalized breakthrough time and steady state permeation rate. The normalized breakthrough time index was a major impediment to the automated testing of more than one cell at a time, as it required a very low degree of cross contamination between cells, if a shared detector was used. It is suggested that lag times rather than normalized breakthrough times form part of the basis for comparison of permeation cells. The pretreatment of test samples to remove volatile contaminants requires consideration. Topics: acetone; chemical protective clothing; comment on standard; description of equipment; description of technique; detection by photoionization; equipment testing; neoprene; permeability testing.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.12, p.842-851. Illus. 19 ref.
Ha M.A., Tokura H., Yoden K., Holmér I.
A comparison of skin temperatures and clothing microclimate during moderate intermittent exercise in the cold between one and two layers of cotton and polypropylene underwear
Topics: body temperature; cold workplaces; cotton; fabrics for protective clothing; microclimate; polypropylene; protection against cold; protective underwear; skin temperature; sweat rate; thermal comfort.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.3, p.347-362. Illus. 12 ref.
Nag P.K., Pradhan C.K., Nag A., Ashtekar S.P., Desai H.
Efficacy of a water-cooled garment for auxiliary body cooling in heat
The efficacy of a water-cooled jacket was examined under a simulated hot environment. The jacket comprised a water re-circulating three-layered vest of cotton fabric lined with 2mm diameter latex tubing and inter-spaced coating of rubberized solution. Tests on four subjects in an environmental chamber showed that the jacket provided auxiliary cooling to maintain comfortable microclimate, skin and body core temperatures. This enabled subjects to sustain comfortable heat balance over 2h heat exposure without any noticeable heat strain. Topics: body-core temperature; evaluation of equipment; heat load; heat protective clothing; hot workplaces; liquid-cooled suits; microclimate; skin temperature; whole-body cooling.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1998, Vol.41, No.2, p.179-187. Illus. 17 ref.
Organisme Professionnel de Prévention du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics
Protective clothing used on building sites and in workshops in the construction industry - Selection and use
Vętements de protection utilisés dans les chantiers et les ateliers du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics - Choix et utilisation [in French]
Topics: approval; chemical protective clothing; comfort criteria; construction industry; construction sites; data sheet; France; heat protective clothing; legal aspects; protection criteria; protective clothing; selection of equipment; supply of personal protective equipment; work clothing.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1998, No.2. 4p. Insert. Illus. 4 ref.
Levine L., Sawka M.N., Gonzalez R.R.
Evaluation of clothing systems to determine heat strain
A methodology is described for evaluating the ability of clothing systems to minimize the hazards of heat strain and to predict the heat strain for persons wearing such clothing. Evaluations include determination of the thermal characteristics (vapour permeability and insulation) of textiles via guarded hot plate tests and assessment of clothing systems via thermal manikin tests. Prediction models are based on manikin and human data. Human physiological testing may be carried out in a controlled laboratory environment and in field trials. Factors to be considered in carrying out the tests are described. Topics: description of technique; heat acclimatization; heat stress assessment; human experiments; materials for personal protection; materials testing; mathematical models; protective clothing; regulation of body temperature; temperature measurement; tests on models.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.557-562. 55 ref.
Anna D.H., Zellers E.T., Sulewski R.
ASTM F739 method for testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials: Critical analysis with proposed changes in procedure and test-cell design
Permeation tests were performed on each of four chemical protective clothing materials with 44 organic solvents in accordance with ASTM Method F739-96. The recommended collection stream flow rate range was in many cases insufficient to accurately determine the steady state permeation rate. Testing at elevated temperatures also revealed temperature gradients within the test system. Recommendations for a modified test cell are put forward. Topics: chemical protective clothing; comment on standard; comparative analysis; description of equipment; description of technique; evaluation of technique; materials for personal protection; organic solvents; permeability testing; protective gloves.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.547-556. Illus. 24 ref.
Heines A., Fleischmann N.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Comfort of low-flammable protective clothing made of linen-containing blends
Trageeigenschaften schwerentflammbarer Schutzkleidung in Verbindung mit Leinen [in German]
Topics: chemical protective clothing; comfort assessment; comfort criteria; fire resistance; flame retardants; flax; Germany; protective clothing; standard; work clothing.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. v, 55p. 11 ref.
Pórszász J., Tasnádi J., Bechara B., Ludván M., Galgóczy G.
Physiological limits of exercise in full-body protective clothing
Topics: body temperature; endurance limit; exercise tests; heat load; protective clothing; pulmonary function; pulse rate.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.3, p.242-257. Illus. 36 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The effect of water leakage on the protection provided by immersion protective clothing worn by man
Topics: body temperature; diving suits; equipment testing; evaluation of equipment; human experiments; leakage testing; leakage; report; tests on models; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. vi, 42p. Illus. 54 ref.
Isler R., Kirk P., Bradford S.J., Parker R.J.
Testing the relative conspicuity of safety garments for New Zealand forestry workers
Topics: logging and forestry operations; New Zealand; protective clothing; safety colours; visibility assessment; visibility.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct./Dec. 1997, Vol.28, No.5/6, p.323-329. Illus. 17 ref.
Asbestos removal: Workers under observation
Retrait d'amiante: opérateurs sous surveillance [in French]
In order to evaluate the stress induced by the use of non-ventilated airtight workclothes, the laboratory of the environmental physiology service of the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) conducted a field study during asbestos removal operations. Measurement of cardiac and physiological stress enabled the formulation of proposed length of exposure. The importance of worker training in asbestos removal is emphasized, and a list of training organizations for this type of work is provided.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1997, No.567, p.38-42. Illus. 1 ref.
Pórszász J., et al.
Physiological limits of exercise in full-body protective clothing
Physiological changes during physical exertion in three types of full-body protective clothing with different weight and heat insulation characteristics were investigated. Physiological parameters were measured during physical exercise tests. Results indicated that use of this clothing can lead to extreme physiological strain during exercise. Limitations on exercise were imposed by the extra weight of the clothing and by heat strain caused by impeded heat dissipation mechanisms. The level, type and duration of work carried out by an individual should be closely regulated while working in full-body protective clothing under extreme conditions.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.3, p.242-257. Illus. 36 ref.
Forsberg K., Mansdorf S.Z.
Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing
This guide provides recommendations for the selection of chemical protective clothing materials. Data are provided in the form of colour-coded tables which summarize the chemical breakthrough performance of 16 materials against approximately 600 chemicals. The guide includes an introduction to the selection and use of chemical protective clothing, an index of chemical names and synonyms, a list of relevant standards, and a manufacturers' directory. Replaces 2nd edition (CIS 95-2209).
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 3rd ed., 1997. vi, 118p. 5 ref. Price: GBP 19.95.
Mansdorf S.Z., Henry N., Anderson D., Strong M., Rossi D.
The permeation of substituted chlorosilanes through selected protective clothing
The permeation resistance of a range of glove and suit materials against commercially available chlorosilanes was tested by a standard test method. Breakthrough times are listed for each material. Of the glove barriers tested, Vitonż, 4Hż laminate and Silver Shieldż provided the best breakthrough resistance, in excess of 6h in most cases. All protective clothing barriers provided at least 8h of breakthrough resistance, although there was evidence of degradation. The selection of protective clothing based on performance against the hydrolysis product (hydrogen chloride) was found not to be valid. It appears that chlorosilanes more closely mimic the permeation behaviour of chlorinated organic compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1997, Vol.58, No.2, p.110-115. Illus. 13 ref.
Chen Y.T., Constable S.H., Bomalaski S.H.
A lightweight ambient air-cooling unit for use in hazardous environments
A compact battery-powered beltpack cooling unit was developed to deliver filtered ambient air to the face and body. The device was tested on seven subjects wearing chemical protective clothing who performed exercises in a thermally controlled chamber under different experimental conditions. Intermittent cooling (air conditioned cooling during rest periods but no personal cooling during work cycles) and continuous air cooling (personal cooling during work cycles and conditioned air cooling during rest periods) resulted in significant reductions in rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, and heart rate compared with the no-cooling conditions. The continuous air-cooling trial significantly improved thermal comfort and sweat evaporation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.10-14. Illus. 10 ref.
Griefahn B., Bröde P., Forsthoff A.
On the physiological response to work in a moderately cold environment
Zur thermophysiologischen Situation von Beschäftigten in mässiger Kälte [in German]
The skin temperature on the chest, upper and lower back remained in the comfortable range and the rectal temperature of 6 female and 33 male workers of the food industry remained unaffected by work in temperatures between 0 and 15°C. The insulating clothing worn by the workers had a higher thermal insulation than required by the standard ISO TR 11079. It ranged between 0.7 and 2.3clo. The energy metabolism varied between 99 and 242W/m2. Hand and feet remained below the comfortable range throughout the shift during which the measurements were taken. It is recommended to study the connection of repeated cooling of the extremities with the prevalence of certain diseases such as Raynaud's phenomenon.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Apr. 1996, Vol.31, No.4, p.168-174. Illus. 14 ref.
Gimpel S., Umbach K.H.
Cold-protective clothing and what to wear underneath?
Kälteschutzkleidung und was darunter? [in German]
Thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of underwear and shirts made of 10 different materials were measured. In addition, the parameters determining the skin comfort of underwear were measured. The underwear and shirts made of materials that yielded the best results where used in tests with insulating clothing, in order to find the best cold-protective ensemble. Four different combinations of underwear, shirts and insulating overalls were studied. The length of time during which the ensembles can be worn in an environment of -30°C and 50% relative humidity was determined. The data are provided in a table as a function of energy metabolism.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Mar. 1996, Vol.27, No.3, p.24-29. Illus. 5 ref.
Reneau P.D., Bishop P.A.
Validation of a personal heat stress monitor
This study is an evaluation of the validity of a personal heat strain monitor in predicting body-core temperature. The rational basis for development of such a monitor is due to the large interindividual variability of workers' responses to heat and because working in heat is hard to manage safely, taking also into account differences in the protective suits. The results are that the validated monitor underestimates rectal temperature prediction for both vapour permeable and vapour barrier suits, but with the latter clothing it is more effective in alerting workers to incipient danger.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.650-657. Illus. 22 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Foundries Industry Advisory Committee
The selection, use and maintenance of molten metal protective clothing
This guide describes the hazards of molten metal processes and outlines methods for controlling the risk. Detailed guidance is given on the choice of correct protective clothing: garments required (typical minimum requirements); type of material (flame resistance, transmission of heat); garment labelling; and clothing design (style, fit, comfort and reliability). Additional protective equipment is briefly described along with training in its use and maintenance, care of clothing, supervision, and financial costs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 30p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
High-visibility clothing for workers and European regulations
Warnkleidung für den beruflichen Bereich unter dem Gesichtspunkt europäischer Regelsetzung [in German]
Proceedings of a conference on high-visibility clothing and European legislation held at Dortmund, Germany, on 19 Sep. 1995. Contents: visibility, perception and recognition of persons on roads and highways; provisions and basic concepts of standard DIN EN 471 on warning clothes; new conception of European harmonization and implications for legislation on equipment safety; comparisons of standards DIN 30 711 (parts 1 to 3) and DIN EN 471; certification of warning clothes; the law on equipment safety.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 75p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: DEM 19.50.
Beaird J.S., Bauman T.R., Leeper J.D.
Oral and tympanic temperatures as heat strain indicators for workers wearing chemical protective clothing
Oral, tympanic and rectal temperatures along with heart rate and mean skin temperature were recorded for 20 subjects walking on a treadmill while wearing chemical protective clothing. No significant differences were observed between oral temperature change and rectal temperature change at the 20-, 30-, 40- and 60-minute intervals, but a significant difference was noted at the 50-minute and final readings. No significant differences were observed between tympanic and rectal temperatures at any interval or the final reading. Results indicate that tympanic temperature has potential as a heat strain indicator for workers wearing chemical protective clothing, but oral temperature does not.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.344-347. Illus. 17 ref.
Reneau P.D., Bishop P.A.
A review of the suggested wet bulb globe temperature adjustment for encapsulating protective clothing
A review is presented of research relevant to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) suggested wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) adjustment to threshold limit values (TLV) for workers in vapour barrier encapsulative protective clothing. This adjustment was recommended to be 10° according to the 1990 ACGIH guidelines but was not included in the 1991 guidelines. Six studies were reviewed comparing heart rate and rectal temperature increase over time. Findings support the suggested WBGT TLV adjustment of 10° when wearing encapsulating protective clothing.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.58-61. 10 ref.
Forsberg K., Keith L.H.
Chemical protective clothing - Permeation and degradation compendium
This manual is derived from the Chemical Protective Clothing Permeation and Degradation Database and provides data on over 750 chemicals and almost 300 different types and models of chemical protective clothing (CPC). The CPC materials and chemicals tested are listed and the use of permeation index numbers is explained. The test data (arranged alphanumerically by chemical) include the name and CAS Registry Number of the chemical, the CPC material name, manufacturer and product information, breakthrough time, permeation rate, permeation index number and bibliographic reference.
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA, 1995. vii, 319p. 94 ref. Price: GBP 85.00.
Adams P.S., Keyserling W.M.
The effect of size and fabric weight of protective coveralls on range of gross body motions
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.333-340. Illus. 29 ref. ###
Thermal comfort of throw-away protective clothing
Thermophysiologischer Tragekomfort von Einwegschutzkleidung [in German]
Forty fabrics used for protective clothing were tested for permeability to water vapour, water vapour uptake, water uptake, heat storage and heat insulation. The fabrics were made of coated or uncoated polyethylene or polypropylene. Measurements were made of the heart rate, skin temperature and sweat rate of volunteers wearing 17 different kinds of throw-away overalls made of synthetic fabrics and two different kinds of cotton fabrics. The climatic conditions and workloads were determined in a questionnaire survey. Activities such as asbestos removal, waste site cleanup, varnishing of vehicles and pesticide application were included in the survey. The thermal comfort of throw-away protective overalls made of synthetic fibres was found to be much lower than that of cotton clothing. Longer periods of wear may lead to excessive increases of body temperature and heart rate.
Die BG, Apr. 1995, No.4, p.178-182. Illus. 5 ref.
Marszałek A., Sołtyński K., Sawicka A.
Physiological method of evaluating protective clothing for work in a cold environment
Three kinds of cold protective clothing were tested on six male subjects performing ergometric exercises in a climatic chamber at -10 and -15°C. Changes in core and skin temperature, pulmonary minute ventilation, heart rate, body mass, and temperature and relative humidity under the clothes were measured. Results show that thermal equilibrium was achieved and maintained throughout the investigated work time (60min) and that the tested clothing may be worn during the whole shift. Changes in thermal stress criteria can be used to determine the maximum duration of exposure for cold protective clothing with unknown thermal insulation.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.3, p.235-243. Illus. 12 ref.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics
Vętements de signalisation ŕ haute visibilité [in French]
Safety data sheet concerning the characteristics of high-visibility work clothing to be worn for by construction workers going about on foot on construction sites in France. Such workers are in fact "obstacles" for normal drivers as well as for the operators of construction equipment and vehicles, which is why they must wear highly visible clothing. Dimensioned designs of such clothing, based on French standard NF EN 471, illustrate the text.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Nov.-Dec. 1995, No.6, 4p. Insert. Illus.
Hafner J., Rüegger M., Kralicek P., Elsner P.
Airborne irritant contact dermatitis from metal dust adhering to semisynthetic working suits
Two workers at an aircraft factory were employed in a plasma spraying unit. Soon after they were equipped with new semisynthetic working suits, they started to complain of pruritic eruptions following heavy exposure to metal dust. Clinical findings consisted of discrete macular and papular lesions on the ventral and medial thighs. Atopy score, IgE level and a standard series of prick tests ruled out atopic disposition. Patch tests revealed no reactions. A diagnosis of occupational airborne irritant contact dermatitis from metal dust was therefore made. To elucidate the role of the working suit, extensive physical investigations of the physical properties of the textile were performed. Microscopic pictures at low magnification showed more dust particles on the semisynthetic working suit, compared with the former pure cotton suit. When use of the semisynthetic overall was discontinued, the patients reported no recurrence. The two reported cases show that the physical properties of the textiles of working suits can be of interest and should be considered in the management of dust-induced irritant contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1995, Vol.32, No.5, p.285-288. Illus. 6 ref.
Study of the reduction of the signalling effect of protective clothing by wearing and cleaning
Untersuchungen zur Minderung der Signalwirkung von Warnkleidung durch Verwendung und Reinigung [in German]
The luminance and reflection of protective clothing with signalling effect was measured after washing at a temperature of 60°C, exposure to rain and to temperatures ranging from plus 50°C to minus 30°C as well as after ironing at a temperature of 170°C and dry cleaning. In addition, the luminance and reflection of protective clothing were measured prior to wearing as well as after 6 and 12 months of wear during work on roads. Using and cleaning reduced the signalling effect of protective clothing. Basic material was found to lose its luminance sooner than reflective material.
Die BG, Jan. 1995, No.1, p.6-10. Illus.
Petri J., Nagel A.
Cleanup of asbestos: Safety criteria for personal protection
Asbestentsorgung: Sicherheitskriterien für Körperschutz [in German]
For the removal of asbestos from buildings, disposable overalls made of polyethylene are recommended for the protection of the personnel. If overalls are used only once, no harmful asbestos fibres will be carried home by the worker, thus avoiding exposure by the family. Polyethylene is recommended as the best material for protective overalls. It is impermeable to asbestos fibres, water and chemicals but permits the exchange of air.
Die BG, Nov. 1994, No.11, p.678-682. Illus. 3 ref.
Methner M.M., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications. Part I: Dermal exposure reduction due to directional ventilation and worker training; Part II: Chemical permeation through protective clothing in contact with treated foliage
Workers conducted benchtop handgunning spray operations in commercial greenhouses with the ventilation system either on or off. Both video-imaging analysis and patch sampling indicated that when spray painting occurred with ventilation on rather than off, dermal exposure was reduced for experienced applicators, but increased for inexperienced applicators. No difference was observed between the two groups with ventilation off. Protective clothing performance was evaluated with particular reference to the hazard of contact with wet or treated foliage. Breakthrough times for four commercially available garments are reported. It was concluded that none of the garments can be considered chemical resistant under the use conditions observed. Contact with treated foliage represents a special hazard during greenhouse applications, and many chemical protective clothing products in current use are inadequate for worker protection. These products should be redesigned and field-tested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.560-574. Illus. 49 ref.
O'Leary C., Parsons K.C.
The role of the IREQ index in the design of working practices for cold environments
For any cold environment a calculation can be made of the minimum clothing insulation required by workers (IREQ). Two studies are reported which investigated the role of the IREQ index in the design of working practices for cold indoor environments. The two studies suggest that the use of the IREQ index alone as a working practice may not be adequate to provide thermal comfort. The IREQ index was suggested as adequate initial protection against the strain induced on a worker in a cold environment. The design tool included the IREQ index as an initial indicator of cold stress; subsequent application of local clothing adjustment, followed by suitable general working practices were then required to achieve thermal comfort.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1994, Vol.38, No.5, p.705-719. Illus. 10 ref.
Armstrong I.J., Bennett-Smith S.C., Coleshaw S.R.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Performance of immersion suit and lifejacket combinations at sea
The performance of lifejackets and lifejacket/immersion suit combinations was measured at sea using a marine manikin; self righting ability and airways protection were considered. Both the insulated immersion suit and the inflatable immersion suit provided excellent airways protection; lifejackets with high buoyancy, a high proportion of the buoyancy behind the head, and a single chest lobe performed better than others. Lifejackets with a single chest lobe and high buoyancy also performed well in self righting tests. Wearing of an uninsulated immersion suit substantially improved the airways protection offered by the lifejackets and did not impair self righting performance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. iii, 89p. 16 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Design, formation and production of personal protective equipment [Norway]
Konstruksjon, utforming og produksjon av personlig verneutstyr [in Norwegian]
Directive on the Norwegian requirements pertaining to personal protective equipment. It is harmonized with European directives 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381), 93/95/EEC (CIS 94-778) and 93/68/EEC (CIS 94-751); it came into force 19 Aug. 1994. Procedures for evaluation of compliance and marking are described. The requirements cover the performance of the equipment, and are of a general nature. Examples of equipment dealt with are: protection against falls, hearing protection, vibration protection, protection against heat and cold, protection against drowning, protection against radiation, protection of respiratory organs, protection of skin and eyes.
Tiden Norsk Forlag, Postboks 8813 Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway, 19 Aug. 1994. 34p. Illus.
Moreau A., Dompmartin A., Castel B., Remond B., Michel M., Leroy D.
Contact dermatitis from a textile flame retardant
A case study is presented of a painter with contact sensitivity to Flammentin ASN® following use of a protective cotton cap treated with this flame retardant. The painter presented with eczema of the forehead and face at the sites of cap contact. Patch tests with the treated cap and flame retardant were positive. The case is compared to other published reports.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1994, Vol.31, No.2, p.86-88. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Personal protective equipment (PPE) - High visibility clothing for airport workers
This information sheet provides guidance on the use of high-visibility (HV) clothing for airport workers for reducing the risk of being struck by moving aircraft or vehicles. Advice is given on risk assessment, selection of HV clothing according to the job, type of risk and relevant standards, special requirements of certain workers and duties of employers and employees.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1994. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.
Aptel M., Didry G., Moreau D.
Hot-entry suits - Efficiency of three models tested in the field
Scaphandres de protection contre la chaleur - Trois modčles testés in situ [in French]
The efficiency of three models of hot-entry suits was tested in a paper-mill drying shop by three subjects for a maximum duration of 30min in an enclosure with a dry air temperature of 75°C. Rectal and mean skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured, and the subjects filled in questionnaires for each suit. While wearing hot-entry suits does not significantly modify the subjects' thermoregulation, it does cause a significant increase in heart rate, depending on the type of equipment tested and the physical condition of the wearer. None of the suits tested provided fully satisfactory heat insulation according to the test criteria; duration limits for each exposure case seem to be needed. Guidance on risk prevention when working in hot environments is proposed. Annex: self-assessment questionnaire.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.156, Note No.1966-156-94, p.307-314. Illus. 16 ref.
Payne W.R., Portier B., Fairweather I., Zhou S., Snow R.
Thermoregulatory response to wearing encapsulated protective clothing during simulated work in various thermal environments
This investigation assessed the thermoregulatory impact of performing simulated tasks normally encountered during chemical accident clean-up while wearing chemical protection clothing under various representative thermal loads. Three different types of suits were compared under three different temperatures. Non significant differences were observed for both the average heart rate and sweat rate. Significant differences were found for mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, and temperature within the suit cavity. Suit type did not significantly affect rectal temperature, which also failed to exceed the American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' standard of 38.0°C.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.529-536. Illus. 29 ref.
Firefighters - Protective Equipment: Ontario Regulation made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act [Canada - Ontario]
This Regulation requires firefighters to wear protective equipment when certain hazards are present. It also provides for the inspection and testing of "chassis mounted aerial devices" and for certain standards to be adopted for new fire trucks.
Ontario Gazette - Gazette de l'Ontario, 3 Dec. 1994, Vol.127, No.49, p.4312-4314.
Constable S.H., Bishop P.A., Nunneley S.A., Chen T.
Intermittent microclimate cooling during rest increases work capacity and reduces heat stress
Eight subjects performed treadmill walking alternating with rest periods under three conditions: control, light clothing only; chemical protective ensemble (CPE); and CPE plus a personal cooling vest to allow for intermittent cooling by circulation of chilled liquid. Under the control condition, relatively modest changes in rectal temperature were observed. CPE wear resulted in a progressive rise in temperature and early fatigue. The addition of intermittent cooling during each rest cycle significantly attenuated heat storage and work capacity was at least doubled. Intermittent personal cooling provides a useful means of enhancing work productivity during heavy work in hot environments.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1994, Vol.37, No.2, p.277-285. Illus. 10 ref.
Body protection equipment - List of suppliers
Protection individuelle du corps - Répertoire des fournisseurs [in French]
List of manufacturers of personal body protective equipment sold in France. Included are: survey of relevant legislation and standards in France; protective equipment against falls from height (antifall systems, systems using an absorber of kinetic energy with a tether, safety harnesses); heat and flame protective clothing; protective clothing against cold and bad weather; protective clothing against chemical hazards; protective clothing against mechanical hazards; protective clothing against various risks. Suppliers by region in France. For each type of equipment, standards and regulations applicable in France are listed.
Institut national de Recherche et de Sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1994. 49p. Illus.
Solomon J., Bishop P., Bomalaski S., Beaird J., Kime J.
Responses to repeated days of light work at moderate temperatures in protective clothing
This study assessed workers' ability to sustain work output over four consecutive workdays in encapsulating protective clothing (PC). Six subjects wearing a two-piece PC ensemble cycled at a work rate of 38W in a 29/22°C (dry/wet bulb) ambient temperature. Work continued until rectal temperature (Tre) reached 38.3°C or fatigue forced the subject to stop. Subjects then rested without PC in a 21°C room until Tre reached 38.0°C to simulate micro- or macro-environmental cooling during rest. Work was alternated with rest for a total time of four hours. Contrary to expectations, mean work time did not diminish on succeeding days. Subject responses to the repeated exposures were highly variable and in no case changed significantly from day one to day four. Subjects tolerated well repeated four hour exposures with controlled elevations in Tre. There was no clear evidence of either increased or decreased tolerance of this work-rest paradigm across days.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.16-19. Illus. 15 ref.
Forsberg K., Mansdorf S.Z.
Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing
This booklet provides recommendations for the selection of chemical protective clothing materials based on published and unpublished test data. The guide does not take into account the intended use or physical demands (resistance to tear, puncture resistance) of the clothing. Colour coded tables indicate the chemical breakthrough performance of 15 protective materials (including glove, boot and suit materials) against over 500 chemicals. An additional table provides a hazard rating for each chemical. The selection and use of protective clothing is also discussed. (See CIS 95-1821 for previous edition).
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10003, USA, 2nd ed., 1993. vi, 99p. 2 ref. Price: GBP 11.99.
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