Face and eye protection - 186 entries found
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High luminous intensity and protection of visual function in television studio personnel
Povyšennaja jarkost' i zaščita zritel'nogo analizatora rabotnikov telestudij [in Russian]
The luminosity of projectors in colour television studios far exceeds the visual comfort threshold, and is the cause of considerable visual fatigue in exposed personnel. The article reproduces the results of tests with various filters and visual function examinations before and after work with and without filter glass spectacles. Their use is recommended in personnel whose sight is likely to suffer from excessive luminosity.
Svetotehnika, May 1976, No.5, p.9-11. Illus. 8 ref.
Campbell D.L., Collins R.L.
Test of flexible fitting safety goggles.
This report describes tests of flexible fitting safety goggles advertised as meeting the requirements of the ANSI standard Z87.1. An attempt was made to include all models currently available in the United States having clear lenses and direct ventilation. Fifty individual models were tested. A general description of each test is included along with a discussion of the test results. Performance tests covered: impact and penetration; haze and luminous transmittance; flammability; refractive power; water absorption; corrosion; deterioration from routine disinfection. Several variations from the requirements of the standard were noted. The majority of these variations were minor in that they do not relate directly to the safety of the user. There were no failures in the more important impact and penetration tests. Performance tests results are given in tabular form.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-116, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Nov. 1976. 31p. Illus. 8 ref.
Vorpahl K.W., Jordan P.T., Mathews E.J.
Chrome alloy welding fume study.
Breathing zone samples collected inside the helmets of arc welders at a tank manufacturing plant indicated excessive exposure to chromium. A commercially available air-supplied helmet was modified by drilling more and smaller holes in the ring supplying the air. The chromium concentration in the helmet was reduced by 99%. The device is simple to fit to standard helmets, is light in weight, and is supported by the head band and not the face shield.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1976, Vol.37, No.10, p.566-569. Illus.
Anti-flash welding mask
Maschera anti-flash per saldatura [in Italian]
Description of this device, which may be incorporated in a head mask or shoulder-supported mask. An electric signal actuated as soon as the arc is struck passes to an electronic unit, which immediately causes the protective filter window of the mask, which until then is open, to descend. During the 1/10sec required to close the window, or if the window does not completely close, the welding current remains cut. The window does not open immediately when the arc is extinguished, in order to protect the operator's eyes from infrared radiation from the welding pool: the time lag can be adjusted according to the size of the pool.
Sicurezza nel lavoro, July-Aug. 1976, Vol.28, No.4, p.18-19. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive, London.
The Protection of Eyes Regulations.
This film explains the British statutory instrument, and illustrates just why legislation is necessary for eye protection. The Regulations, in force since 1975, impose specific personal protection across a wide range of processes where eyes are at risk. Stringent testing of eye protectors is essential, and the film shows testing in operation. It emphasises that the correct protectors must be used for the job. They must conform to a specific British standard. The film also shows some of the effects of working without proper protection. It is aimed at all levels from middle management to the shop floor, and may be hired from the Central Film Library (£2.00 on issue, plus £0.40 for each additional day).
16mm colour film, optical sound track, 7 min. Central Film Library, Government Building, Bromyard Avenue, London W3, United Kingdom. Price: £21.00.
Protection of the eyes against the harmful effects of radiation and mechanical factors
La protezione dell'occhio contro i danni da radiazioni e azioni meccaniche [in Italian]
After some general remarks, this article contains sections devoted to: protection measures (international standards, ultraviolet and infrared filters), with numerous tables giving transmittance data for welders' filter lenses, ultraviolet and infrared filters, maximum refraction tolerances, requirements for welders' filter lenses in Australia, USA, Canada, Hungary, United Kingdom, Japan, South Africa, Netherlands, Sweden and France, spectral transmittance, etc.
Antincendio e protezione civile, Feb. 1976, Vol.28, No.2, p.117-123. Illus.
Eye protection - tailored to the task and to the user.
Effective eye protection programmes include matching the equipment to the hazards, selection of proper equipment, employee acceptance, rules and instructions, enforcement of use, employee awareness of hazards, continuous improvement of equipment, equipment testing, written specifications and cleaning facilities. A selection chart showing hazards and protection is reproduced.
Professional Safety, Aug. 1976, Vol.21, No.8, p.31-34. Illus.
DIN 4646, Teil 1, German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut für Normung), Berlin (Westsektoren), July 1975.
Eyepieces for eye protectors
Sichtscheiben für Augenschutzgeräte [in German]
This standard lays down safety specifications based on the 1968 Act respecting technical equipment in industry. It applies to glass and plastic eyepieces for safety spectacles, face shields, respirators, etc.; definitions of optical conditions and filtering capacity, required characteristics (refraction index, heat resistance, mechanical resistance, qualities of material and qualities of the eyepiece surface), dimensions and marking.
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-7, 1 Berlin 30. 7p. Illus. Price: DM.14.70.
DIN 58210 and DIN 58211, Teil 1 bis 7, German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut für Normung), Berlin (Westsektoren), Dec. 1975.
Schutzbrillen [in German]
Standards prescribing safety specifications based on the 1968 Act respecting technical equipment in industry. Standard DIN 58210 contains definitions of technical terms and general requirements for and characteristics of various eye protectors without specifications concerning their use. The individual parts of DIN 58211 contain additional specifications applicable to goggles designed for protection against impact, against dropping and splashing liquids, dust and gases, optical radiation (e.g. welders' goggles) and optical radiation including thermal radiation (e.g. foundry workers' goggles).
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-7, 1 Berlin 30 (Westsektoren). 3 and 14p. Price: DM.8.70 each standard.
Optical parameters of eye and face protection equipment
Parametry optyczne sprzętu ochrony oczu i twarzy [in Polish]
In the absence of a standard method of assessing equipment for eye and face protection, the author used the standards existing in several countries, publications by specialists, and the methods employed in physical optics, as the basis of his proposal that 3 categories of parameters be considered: visual characteristic (optic power, astigmatism, fluorescence, etc.), spectral characteristic (light transmission and reflection factors, etc.), and design (visual field, reflections observed in this field, etc.). For each of the 25 parameters defined, the author states the requirements that must be satisfied and indicates the most appropriate measurement technique. The data given in the article can be of value to manufacturers in the design of a test bench at which the optic parameters of protectors can be checked.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1975, Vol.25, No.85, p.111-128. 37 ref.
White T., Schütz A., Lundgren K.M.
Effects of a welding helmet and dust respirators on respiration at rest and during exercise.
The influence of welders' personal protective equipment on respiration at rest and during exercise was studied under laboratory conditions. During exercise the devices caused increased ventilation and increased arterial CO2 tension. In the case of the welding helmet the increase was probably a consequence of increased dead space. The physiological effects on respiration are of minor importance in themselves, but they should be taken into account when the degree of exposure to welding fumes is evaluated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1975, Vol.1, No.4, p.249-253. Illus. 6 ref.
Harmful fumes and mist - Measures to prevent the spread of harmful fumes and mist produced during electric welding
Schadelijke dampen en nevels - Maatregelen tegen verspreiding van schadelijke dampen en nevels, welke ontstaan bij het elektrisch lassen [in Dutch]
Every type of arc welding causes large quantities of gases and aerosols to be given off. This article describes, with illustrations, a number of practical measures to eliminate this hazard and to keep the exposure of workers within tolerable limits: general ventilation of premises where welding is carried on; local exhaust ventilation of fumes in a welding booth, over a welding bench, on jobs involving the welding of large-dimension parts, and in confined spaces; combined local exhaust and general ventilation; helmet with built-in air supply; special local exhaust ventilation devices for gas-shielded arc welding.
Lastechniek, Nov. 1975, Vol.41, No.11, p.193-204. Illus.
Programming personal protection - Eye and face.
"The finest eye and face protection equipment is worthless if it is carelessly prescribed or is not worn", and this article (the first in a series exploring personal protection) sets out to ensure optimum conditions in this field. The 6 points of the relevant general industrial standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct) are first summarised, with details of additional regulations in OSHAct standards. These standards are at present under review. The need for greater efforts on the part of industry and the unions to make eye protection effective is also stressed, and a suggestion that employees should be penalised for not complying with standards is reported. Vision protection programmes are analysed, and the experience of a successful programme reviewed. A table showing the recommended optimum protection measures according to the operation is included.
National Safety News, Feb. 1975, Vol.111, No.2, p.53-56. Illus.
DIN 58215, German Standards Committee (Deutscher Normenausschuss), Berlin (Westsektoren), Sep. 1974.
Protective filter screens and goggles against laser beams
Laserschutzfilter und Laserschutzbrillen [in German]
This standard lays down safety specifications based on the 1968 Act respecting technical equipment in industry. It applies to protective filter screens against laser beams of 200-1,000nm wavelength. In view of the varied effects on the eye, the wavelength spectrum should be divided into 2 fields: 200-1,400nm and 1,400nm-1,000µm. The specifications are concerned with: spectrum transmission factor; resistance to laser beams, to ultraviolet rays and to radiant heat; properties of materials; and marking of filters and of frames for goggles.
Beuth-Vertrieb GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-7, 1 Berlin 30 (Westsektoren). 4p. Price: DM.7.60.
DIN 4647, Blatt 5, German Standards Committee (Deutscher Normenausschuss), Berlin (Westsektoren), Sep. 1974.
Use of safety lenses for eye protectors - Safety lenses without filtering effect
Verwendung von Sichtscheiben für Augenschutzgeräte - Sicherheitsscheiben ohne Filterwirkung [in German]
This standard lays down specifications based on the Act of 1968 concerning technical equipment. Leaflet 5 deals with the various types of non-filtering lenses (toughened glass, laminated glass, plastic) for safety goggles and other eye protection equipment. It contains standards for mechanical strength, light transmission, and marking. The light transmission factor is in conformity with ISO international specifications.
Beuth-Vertrieb GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-7, 1 Berlin 30 (Westsektoren). 2p. Price: DM.7.60.
ZH 1/192, Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, July 1974.
Data sheet on eye protection
Augenschutz-Merkblatt [in German]
Structure and function of the eye: hazards (dust, chips and splinters, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared and laser radiation; chemical agents; thermal agents); eye protective devices (technical rules, general requirements, safety lenses, filter lenses, safety spectacles, face shields, hoods, visors); protection against solid particles, radiation and chemical substances; individual adaptation and maintenance of eye protective devices; first aid in the event of eye damage. Appendices: list of German (Fed.Rep.) standards; protection classes and use of filter lenses; types of hazard and appropriate protective devices.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 35p. Illus. Price: DM.2.50.
Sutter E., Möller W.
Refractive properties of lenses with no corrective effect
Über die Brechungseigenschaften von Sichtscheiben ohne Korrektionswirkung [in German]
Giving examples from practice, the authors show that certain modern spherically or cylindrically curved lenses cannot be recommended for safety spectacles, face shields or wide-view masks on account of the inacceptable aberrations (astigmatic and prismatic effects) they produce. Calculations of aberrations are given and possible improvements in the lenses are proposed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Aug. 1974, Vol.24, No.8, p.233-238. Illus. 2 ref.
Ho M.T., Mayer A., Salsi S., Danière P.
Safety spectacles - Results of tests. Selection criteria for the user
Lunettes de protection - Bilan des essais. Critères de choix pour l'utilisateur. [in French]
Description of the apparatus and testing methods used and the results obtained with some 400 pairs of safety spectacles commercially available in France in 1974. Classification of lenses by their geometric characteristics and construction material. The different trials investigated strength of construction, resistance to the impact of small projectiles and to flying molten metallic particles, heat stability, flame resistance, resistance to abrasion and scratching, and optical quality. Neutral lenses were found to produce optical aberrations when mounted in certain types of frame. The authors conclude that no ideal glasses offering complete protection and satisfactory comfort in all conditions can exist. Recommendations and a summary table of the main selection criteria permit a choice to be made on the basis of the hazards against which protection is sought and the conditions of use; these criteria are also of interest to manufacturers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1974, No.77, Note No.924-77-74, p.499-520. Illus. 7 ref.
Schneider W., Heim H., Katzmann H.
Development and comparative results of measures to increase safety consciousness in undertakings
Entwicklung und Erfolgsvergleich von Massnahmen zur Beeinflussung des Sicherheitsbewusstseins im Betrieb [in German]
After a review of the literature and information obtained from Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) and undertakings in Germany about the importance attached to safety consciousness, the authors present a pedagogic model the value of which was tested in the particular case of eye protection in lathe operators. The efficacy of programmed learning and audiovisual methods was found to vary considerably (lighting conditions, operators' age). Generally speaking, an increase in the number of operators wearing protective glasses and a decline of 13% in the incidence of eye injuries was achieved.
Forschungsbericht Nr.114, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Martener Strasse 435, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974. 127p. (+40p. appendix) 58 ref. Price: DM.13.50.
Department of Employment, London.
The Protection of Eyes Regulations 1974.
These regulations, made under the Factories Act 1961, entered into force on 10 Apr. 1975. They make provision for the protection of the eyes of persons employed in factories and certain other premises and places to which the Factories Act 1961 applies, while any of the processes specified in Schedule 1 to the Regulations is being carried on. They require the provision of eye protectors or of shields (either worn by a person, held in the hand or independently mounted) for the protection of persons employed in such processes. Eye protectors and, with certain exceptions, shields are required to conform with specifications approved by the Chief Inspector of Factories. Independently mounted shields are required to be provided for other persons employed in positions where their eyes are at risk of injury from particles or fragments thrown off or radiation produced in certain specified processes. Schedule 1 lists a large number of processes, according to whether approved eye protectors or approved shields or fixed shields are required.
Statutory Instrument No.1681 of 1974. 9 Oct. 1974. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom. 9p. Price: £0.14.
Eye protection - Safety afforded by safety spectacles, face shields and hoods
Augenschutz - Sicherheit durch Schutzbrillen, Schilde, Schirme und Hauben [in German]
This article reviews chemical and mechanical eye injury hazards and examines the properties of personal protectors according to the conditions of work: type of glass or plastic to be used for the transparent sections, mechanical resistance of glass for safety spectacles, protection against UV and IR radiation, modern and stylish types of safety spectacles. The corresponding German DIN standards are listed.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1974, Vol.5, No.2, p.63-72. Illus.
Protection of the eyes against the harmful effects of laser radiation
Ochrana očí před účinky škodlivého laserového záření [in Czech]
A short introduction on the effects of laser beams on the eye is followed by a review of West German and U.S. experience with absorbant filters. The necessity of adapting filters to different types of laser is stressed (helium-neon, ruby, gallium-arsenide, neodymium), as well as the importance of the visible light transmission factor. The final section deals with protective goggles.
Bezpečná práca, 1974, Vol.5, No.1, p.28-33. Illus. 25 ref.
The comparative performance of eye protector materials.
Impact resistance data, obtained both from drop-tower and ballistic experiments, is presented for spectacle lens materials and other protective materials, making possible an assessment of performance over the whole range of missile sizes and missile velocities. The paper concludes with a short discussion on suitable materials for occupational eye protection.
In: Vision and its protection. Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973, p.95-103. 11 ref.
Personal eye protectors: Performance requirements and testing.
Performance requirements for personal eye protectors are identified and discussed. Wearer acceptance and material strength are discussed in the contexts of intermittent and day-long use. The best eye protection programmes include the use of high-impact protectors for special operations but are primarily based on the day-long use of properly fitted, optically correct spectacles with lenses of allyl resin or thermally toughened glass. The bulk of the paper is devoted to an examination of the ways in which eye protector strengths are measured. Test procedures are discussed in detail.
In: Vision and its protection. Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973, p.68-76. Illus. 17 ref.
Wigglesworth E.C., Cole B.L.
Vision and its protection.
A collection of papers presented to seminars held in Melbourne (1-2 June 1972) and Adelaide (21-22 Aug. 1973) under the joint sponsorship of the Victorian College of Optometry in the University of Melbourne and the Safety Engineering Society of Australia. The publication is intended to serve safety officers and engineers, industrial medical staff, equipment designers and members of management. It provides a systematic account of visual factors in industrial operations and of the means by which vision may be protected. Each paper gives an elementary introduction assuming no specialist knowledge but develops advanced concepts of interest to optometrists and opthalmologists.
Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973. 143p. 119 ref. Price: Aus-$8.00.
Means of eye protection
I mezzi di protezione oculare [in Italian]
This study was carried out because of the numerous eye accidents and injuries sustained by workers, and because of the lack of standardised means of protection adapted to each specific case. Review of cases where protection is necessary: projection of solid particles, molten metal, liquid jets, vapours or gases. Detailed description of available means of protection (goggles, visors and screens), the use of which is recommended depending on the nature of the hazard present. A listing is given of basic requirements common to all means of protection, as well as certain specific requirements for unusual hazards. Study of existing standards in several industrialised countries. The author feels that these varied considerations should be useful for the setting of a standard specifying the means of eye protection.
Securitas, 1973, No.2-3, p.195-234. Illus. 38 ref.
Das Auge und sein Schutz [in German]
This article reviews the various types of hazard to which the eye is exposed, the conditions to be met by personal protective equipment for the eyes, the different types of such equipment (goggles, face guards, masks) and materials for visors and goggles (safety glass, plastics, protective filters against ultraviolet and infrared radiations). Reference to the relevant German standards. Advice on how to use eye protective equipment.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.343-347. Illus. 7 ref.
Assessment of the properties of materials to be used in manufacturing personal protective equipment against sparks, flame and high temperatures
Ocena właściwości materiałów przeznaczonych do produkcji sprzętu ochronnego, zabezpieczającego przed działaniem iskier, płomienia i wysokich temperatur [in Polish]
Study of the properties of plastics used for the production of hard hats, protective screens and shields. Tests carried out include a determination of resistance to flames, water and thermal radiation, as well as for shock and puncturing. From the results, reproduced in many tables and amply discussed, the author proposes using, for the production of hard hats for workers exposed to high temperatures in industry and in coal mines, new self-extinguishing polyester resins and polycarbonates which possess not only good mechanical properties, but also a strong resistance to combustion and very good dielectric properties. He recommends utilising polyester resins reinforced by glass fibres for the production of screens and shields to be used by arc-welders.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1973, Vol.23, No.78, p.277-288. 16 ref.
Sutter E., Zander K.
Requirements for the infrared and ultraviolet transmission factors of eye protection filters
Anforderungen an den IR- und UV-Transmissionsgrad von Augenschutzfiltern [in German]
Using the results of previous radiation measurements in various welding tests and the recommendations of the American standard for the safe use of lasers, the transmission factors of eye protection filters for infrared and ultraviolet regions in German standard DIN 4647 were checked. It is concluded that the DIN requirements for transmission factors should be increased for the infrared spectral region and lowered for the ultraviolet spectral region.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Sep. 1973, Vol.23, No.9, p.275-279. Illus. 7 ref.
Kontaktlinsen [in German]
Verres de contact [in French]
Contact lenses do not protect against physical hazards and may even be an obstruction to first aid in case of eye injury. Wearers of contact lenses should not be employed in work where they are continuously exposed to flying particles or corrosive liquids, gases, fumes or dust. If there is occasional of brief exposure to these hazards, completely enclosed goggles or safety screens should be used. Suggestions are given for first aid. English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada.
Merkblatt 11028, Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Luzern, Switzerland, July 1973. 1p. Gratis.
Transparent curtain for separating welding units
Durchsichtige Schweisser-Schutzvorhänge [in German]
To avoid welders being isolated, while ensuring the protection of other workers, a transparent partition should be installed. This article describes practical experiments carried out with a transparent curtain having a tinted layer for protection against radiations. Resistance to welding and abrasive grinding sparks is satisfactory. Opinions differ considerably, however, concerning the degree of transparency and the protection afforded against glare. It was generally admitted that this curtain facilitates supervision of the work and improves safe working.
Sicherheitsingenieur, July 1973, Vol.4, No.7, p.310-312. Illus.
Hübner H.J., Sutter E., Wicke K.
Measurement of radiant power at welding processes and consequences for eye protection against IR radiation.
English translation of: Messung der Strahlungsleistung beim Schweissen und Folgerungen für den Schutz der Augen gegen Infrarot-Strahlung. Optik, Stuttgart, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1970, Vol.31, No.5, p.462-476. Illus. 12 ref. The spectral irradiances produced by different welding processes were measured in the wavelength range from 0.4 to 2.0 µm. These figures were compared with the irradiance caused by solar radiation on the earth, in order to calculate the transmission factor of welding filters in the infrared (IR) band, preserving the eye from damage. The maximum permissible transmission factors of IR filters are calculated on the basis of the spectral distribution on a black body. All these values are much smaller than those allowed up to now. It is concluded that standard specifications for welders' protection and furnace inspection goggles should be more severe.
Technical Translation NRC-TT-1563, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1972. 21p. Illus. 12 ref. Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. Accession No. N72-28510.
Eye, respiratory tract and body protection in various welding processes
Ochranné opatrenia na ochranu očí, dýchacích ciest a tela pri jednotlivých druhoch zváračskej techniky [in Slovak]
A list of welding safety measures presented in tabular form. For each welding and cutting process, the table indicates the hazard factors (radiation, nitrous fumes, metal fumes, etc.), the health hazards and the safety measures required in work in the open air, open workshops, enclosed premises (where each worker has either less or more than 100m3 of air), and during work in tanks.
Zváranie, 1972, Vol.21, No.1, p.28-32.
Plastics with selective wavelength absorption for safety and comfort
A brief review of the hazards of ultraviolet visible and infrared radiation to the human eye, followed by a description of various plastic materials developed to provide protection against welding arcs, laser beams and nuclear flash. Mention is also made of a high-absorption plastic film which acts as a thermal barrier by stopping more than 75% of the solar heat, and of the protection afforded by plastic sunglass lenses.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1972, Vol.33, No.9, p.583-595. Illus. 45 ref.
Van Sandt W., Sharenbroch I.
Modified welder's helmet using spillproof impingers
A welder's helmet was modified by adding a millipore filter holder, a tube for the sampling of carbon monoxide, and a Teflon tube for the sampling of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. The helmet is also equipped with a compressed-air plenum chamber for conducting tests with or without supplied air. The sampling tubes are connected to conventional midget impingers and bubbers modified in order to prevent loss of liquid in certain welding positions. The apparatus, which can be made in any glass-blowing shop, was found to be completely satisfactory in field tests.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.435-437. Illus.
The effect of thermal toughening on the impact resistance of simulated safety lenses
Flat glass specimens, simulating eye-protector lenses, were generated in 7 thicknesses between 1.3 and 4mm. Half the specimens, randomly selected, were heat treated and all were then dynamically tested to destruction. The results show that the effect of the heat treatment was to increase the impact resistance measured in terms of fracture velocity. For all thicknesses, the approximate relationship was found to be V2/V1 = @1t2@1z, where V2 is the fracture velocity of the untoughened specimens and V1 is the fracture velocity of the toughened specimens. The relationship was found to hold for a group of +1.75 diopter spherical meniscus lenses of centre thickness 2mm and edge thickness 1mm and of base curve 6 diopter, similarly treated. The relationship was independent of missile diameter in drop-tower tests (simulating blunt trauma production with large missiles) and in ballistic experiments (simulating penetrating-injury production from small missiles).
Investigate Ophthalmology, Dec. 1971, Vol.10, No.12, p.992-999. Illus. 13 ref.
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