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Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found

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CIS 09-175 Murphy W.J., Tubbs R.L.
Assessment of noise exposure for indoor and outdoor firing ranges
NIOSH received a request for a health hazard evaluation from the employees and management of a police department concerned about potential hearing damage from noise generated during weapons training on their indoor and outdoor firing ranges. NIOSH investigators conducted noise sampling with an mannequin head and microphone to characterize the noise exposures that officers might experience during small arms qualification and training when wearing a variety of hearing protection devices provided by the department. The peak sound pressure levels for the various weapons ranged from 156 to 170dB, which are higher than the recommended 140dB exposure guideline from NIOSH. Earplugs, ear muffs and customized hearing protectors provided between 25 and 35dB reduction. Double hearing protection (plugs plus muffs) added a further 15-20dB reduction. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2007, Vol.4, No.9, p.688-697. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 08-1468 Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite biologični riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZP) [in Bulgarian]
Expertprognos om nya mikrobiologiska arbetsmiljörisker [in Swedish]
Ekspertvarsling om biologiske risici i fremvćkst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljř [in Danish]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden biologischen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit (OSH) [in German]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous anaduómenous biologikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [in Greek]
Previsiones de los expertos sobre riesgos biológicos emergentes relacionados con la salud y la seguridad en el trabajo (SST) [in Spanish]
Ekspertprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu bioloogiliste riskide kohta [in Estonian]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä uusia biologisia riskejä [in Finnish]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques biologiques émergents liés ŕ la sécurité et ŕ la santé au travail [in French]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló biológiai kockázatokról [in Hungarian]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi biologici emergenti per la salute e la sicurezza sul lavoro [in Italian]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujos biologinės rizikos, kylančios darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [in Lithuanian]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem bioloģiskiem riska faktoriem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [in Latvian]
Tbassir espert dwar riskji bijoloġiċi emerġenti relatati massaħħa u s-sigurta fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [in Maltese]
Prognose van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde biologische risico's in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca nowo powstających biologicznych czynników ryzyka zawodowego (BHP) [in Polish]
Previsőes de peritos sobre os riscos biológicos emergentes relacionados com a segurança e a saúde no trabalho (SST) [in Portuguese]
Previziunea experţilor privind riscurile biologice emergente legate de securitatea şi sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [in Romanian]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich biologických rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia na pracovisku (BOZP) [in Slovak]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih bioloških tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [in Slovenian]
Odborná prognóza vznikajících biologických rizik souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [in Czech]
About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has raised public awareness of biological hazards, such as anthrax at work due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the threat of avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-06 called on the European Agency for Occupational Safety and Health to set up a risk observatory to anticipate new and emerging occupational safety and health risks. The expert forecast on emerging occupational safety and health biological risks was formulated from the results of three consecutive questionnaire-based surveys using the Delphi method. The full report has been analysed under CIS 08-214. This information note summarizes the contents and the findings of this forecast. It is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2007. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. [in Multilingual]

CIS 08-1277 Blondin-Séguineau C.
Management guide - Occupational safety and health
Guide du management - Santé, sécurité au travail [in French]
This guide presents in detail the regulatory framework, techniques and tools of occupational safety and health management systems (OSH-MS). It refers to the sixteen guiding principles of ILO-OSH 2001 (see CIS 06-58) to address the basic principles of the approach. It also proposes a practical and easy-to-apply method which allows rapid progress towards an improved understanding of safety and the gradual implementation of a management system that is easy to direct. Aimed more specifically at SMEs, it is a companion to the design and implementation of an OSH-MS based on OHSAS-18001.
AFNOR, 11 rue Francis de Pressensé, 93571 La Plaine Saint-Denis Cedex, France, 2007. xviii, 194p. Illus. Price: EUR 39.00.

CIS 08-1396 Costa K.N.S., Pinheiro I.O., Calazans G.T., Nascimento M.S.
Assessing risks concerning the use of xylene in cytology and pathological anatomy laboratories
Avaliaçăo dos riscos associados ao uso do xilol em laboratórios de anatomia patológica e citologia [in Portuguese]
An evaluation of occupational exposure to xylene used by technicians in cytology and pathological anatomy was carried out in eight laboratories of a region of Brazil. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Emphasis was given to information concerning occupational health and risk perception when using xylene and disposing waste. Results show that personal and collective protection equipment were neglected. Eighty percent of the technicians interviewed had noticed changes in health after they had been exposed to xylene for some years. However, only 6.6% of them went through regular monitoring of urinary methyl hippuric acid, a biomarker of xylene exposure. It was noticed that 76.6% of the people interviewed disposed waste directly into a sink, as there was no proper place for waste disposal. Findings highlight the need for workers' training with respect to occupational and environmental hazards.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.50-56. Illus. 13 ref. [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1377 Fernández García R.
REACH: The new regulation of the European Union relating to chemical substances and preparations (I)
REACH. La nueva normativa de la Unión Europea en materia de sustancias y preparados químicos (I) [in Spanish]
This article discusses the recently-approved European Regulation EC 1907/2006 of 18 December 2006 concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH). Contents: why REACH was needed; the REACH process and the required information. Other topics will be addressed in a second article to be published.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2007, No.179, p.52-69. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-1349 Hignett S., Chipchase S., Tetley A., Griffiths P.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk assessment and process planning for bariatric patient handling pathways
The obese population in the United Kingdom is growing and this group is considerably over-represented in the use of health and social care services. This project aimed to identify and explore the manual handling risks presented by bariatric (severely obese) patients during emergency admissions. Work involved: reviewing public health data to provide an estimate of the current and future bariatric patient population; surveying strategic, clinical and operational policies and procedures for bariatric patient handling; and obtaining case studies of specific incidents and risk management actions. Findings revealed that 40%-70% of health care institutions did not have a bariatric policy. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. xiv, 89p. Illus. 57 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1160 Atkinson G.
Health and Safety Executive
Fire performance of composite IBCs
There have been a number of serious recent fires in the United Kingdom that started or spread as a result of the use plastic intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) for combustible liquids. Following HSE investigations at the scene of these fires, this research project was undertaken to provide data to allow more reliable hazard evaluations for premises using IBCs for liquid storage and to provide recommendations for changes in IBC selection and design.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. 101p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1192 Ferreira J., Smith M.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluating the feasibility of developing assessment charts for high risk pushing and pulling operations
The objective of this project was to better understand pushing and pulling forces that represent a high risk of manual handling injury and to develop a risk assessment chart for pushing and pulling operations. Psychophysical data were reviewed to develop a simple graph showing whole body pushing and pulling forces indicative of a high risk of injuries during two-hand manual handling tasks. An assessment chart was also produced for assessing pushing and pulling operations. Risk factors such as initial force, frequency, travel distance and hand height were selected for inclusion on the basis of the ergonomics literature and the ergonomics approach for assessing pushing and pulling operations in the field.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 41p. Illus. 29 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1032 Zawieska W.M.
Occupational risk - Methodological basis for assessment
Ryzyko zawodowe - Metodyczne podstawy oceny [in Polish]
The notion of occupational risk, as specified in international agreements and national safety regulations, is explained. The factors influencing occupational hazards are described. Finally, the basic rules, methods and tools for hazard evaluation are discussed.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2007. 547p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: PLN 55.00.

CIS 08-1095 Dąbrowski A., Dźwiarek M.
Safety during construction work
Bezpieczeństwo - wykonywania robót budowlanych [in Polish]
The hazards arising during construction work are described, with particular attention drawn to accidents caused by machinery and to the specific nature and diversity of construction work. Guidelines for occupational safety and health are proposed. A checklist is included to enable hazard evaluation and the improvement of occupational safety and health on construction sites.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2007. 118p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: PLN 20.00.

CIS 08-1118 Progress toward safe nanotechnology in the workplace
This document is a report of the progress of the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC) since its inception in 2004 through 2006. Specific chapters address NTRC research contributions in the following areas: toxicology; hazard evaluation; epidemiology and surveillance; engineering controls and personal protective equipment; fire and explosion safety; safe working methods; information and training; applications.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, June 2007. xvii, 177p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1133 Christopher Y., Semple S., Hughson G.W., Cherrie J.W., van Tongeren M.
Health and Safety Executive
Inadvertent ingestion exposure in the workplace
Little is known about the relative importance of inadvertent ingestion of hazardous substances from work activities. This report reviews the relevant scientific literature to help understand whether inadvertent ingestion is an important route of exposure and if yes for which agents. In a first phase of the study, a conceptual model was proposed, taking into account the processes involved in this type of exposure and the possible exposure metrics to be used in occupational settings. A second phase investigated the mechanisms involved based on laboratory experiments, which enabled a refining of the model.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 62p. Illus. 35 ref. (phase I); vi, 96p. Illus. 21 ref. (phase II). [in English]

CIS 08-1154 Bellamy L.J., Geyer T.A.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a working model of how human factors, safety management systems and wider organisational issues fit together
This report describes a working model integrating human factors (HF), safety management systems (SMS), risk control (RC) and wider organizational issues, with a focus on major chemical major hazards. Eight major accidents were analysed. Repeated failure patterns were found which were represented as four specific combinations of components from the HF, SMS, RC and organization taxonomy, each combination defined by a theme. The four themes were: understanding of major accident prevention; competence for tasks; priorities, attention and conflict resolution; assurance. These themes were used for developing chemical hazard stakeholder priorities during a one-day workshop.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 192p. Illus. 97 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1094
Health and Safety Executive
Improving the effectiveness of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994
This report provides the basis for a future evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed revisions to the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (CDM, see CIS 95-13). It describes a study to obtain the views of construction stakeholders on the effectiveness of CDM 1994, and to prepare a series of key indicators of improvement in areas that affect safety and health in construction. Data were gathered from three sources: a literature review, 25 structured interviews and three workshops on factors that influence safety and health in construction. Findings are used to propose changes in evaluation of the revision to the CDM introduced in 2007.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. xiv, 198p. Illus. 26 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1041 Gaskell L., Hickling N., Stephens P.
Health and Safety Executive
The suitability of HSE's risk assessment process and management standards for use in SMEs
This study evaluated the applicability in SMEs of HSE's Five-Step Risk Assessment Process and supporting information, developed for tackling high levels of work-related stress in large organizations. Ten SMEs applied the guidance in a longitudinal study over at least seven months, after which a respondent from each SME answered an interview-administered questionnaire. Overall ratings of usefulness and acceptability of the process were favourable. It is concluded that SMEs can successfully apply the method unaided to conduct a structured risk assessment process and identify improvements that reduce stress and benefit their business.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 131p. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1120 Delgado Saborit J.M.
Measurement of environmental hazards
La medida del riesgo ambiental [in Spanish]
This article describes a new method for evaluating the effects of enterprise activities on the natural environment. It includes an evaluation of the risks of environmental hazards using environmental factors (toxicity, volatility, bio-concentration, adsorption, biodegradability, synergies). This analysis, together with the use of various scenarios, enables the determination of the two main constituents of environmental hazards, namely environmental consequences and the probability of occurrence of accidents.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2007, Vol.27, No.107, p.50-63. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 08-1152 Hedley D., Pritchard D.K., Eaton G.T.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of fire and explosion risks in coating mixing operations
The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (DSEAR, see CIS 03-1035) require a re-assessment of the fire and explosion risks arising from the formation of explosive atmospheres in and around mixing vessels used for the formulation of coatings (inks and paints). Vapour concentration measurements were made during site visits in and around mixing vessels, and ignition tests were carried out in the laboratory on sample coating formulations. The findings are to be used to define HSE's DSEAR Enforcement Policy on coatings mixing operations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 22p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1151
Health and Safety Executive
Review of significance of societal risk for proposed revision to land use planning arrangements for large scale petroleum storage sites
This report considers whether there is a societal risk associated with the setting of land use planning zones around large scale petroleum storage sites and reviews critically the conclusions that Health and Safety Executive has reached in relation to this issue. Some alternative approaches and calculations are also undertaken in order to help clarify the issues and enable reasonably firm conclusions to be reached. It is concluded that any practicable land use planning approach for large scale petroleum storage sites must inevitably be risk based, either explicitly or implicitly. While there are still many uncertainties regarding the off-site risks associated with large petroleum installations, the adoption of a development proximity zone can be considered a precautionary risk based approach.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 32p. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1150 Franks A.
Health and Safety Executive
Revised land use planning arrangements around large scale petroleum depots
Following an incident at an petroleum storage depot in 2005, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) commissioned this study to assist in reviewing HSE's approach to providing land use planning advice in the vicinity of similar installations. This report presents proposals for revised arrangements for provision of land use planning advice. The proposals are based on a review of information on the effect of blast on building occupants, observations of the blast damage in the 2005 incident and a review of some of the justification underpinning certain aspects of the current arrangements. The options proposed would result in greater restriction on development of land in the vicinity of the sites concerned.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 79p. Illus. 15 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-963 Obuchowska A.
Biological factors in the workplace: Risk assessment
Czynniki biologiczne na stanowisku pracy: Ocena ryzyka [in Polish]
This guide explains how to carry out an evaluation of biological hazards at the workplace. The procedures of hazard evaluation are described and examples of assessments at selected workplaces are included, together with the list of hazardous biological factors (sources, occurrence, modes of transmission and possible effects on human health) and Polish regulatory texts.
Ośrodek Doradztwa i Doskonalenia Kadr Sp. z o.o., ul. Obrońców Westerplatte 32a, 80-317 Gdańsk Oliwa, Poland, 2007. 136p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-840 Ivanov I., Kortum E., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Mugagga Kiwekete H., Khamis Msangi Y., Abromeit M., Burton J., Shaw M., Gibson-MacDonald N., Punnett L., Kirsten W., Bakirov A.B., Robinson E., Harris-Roberts J., Sheehan O., Litchfield I., Loughman R., Golubic R.
Promoting and protecting health at the workplace
Contents of this whole issue on the promotion and protection of health at the workplace: protecting and promoting health at the WHO headquarters; development and use of on the occupational risk management toolkit; South-African perspective on protecting and promoting health at the workplace; code of conduct for protecting and promoting workers' health in the cut-flower industry in Tanzania; resources for workplace health in Canada; presentation of the centre for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplaces (CPH-NEW); how to make the business case for health promotion at the workplace; workers' health in the petrochemical and oil-extraction sector in a Russian region; occupational health technicians; hidden costs of poor ergonomics in office environments in Ireland; national register of radiofrequency workers in the United Kingdom; building capacities for primary prevention of occupational hazards, diseases and injuries in New Zealand; report on an occupational health congress held in Dubrovnik, Croatia.
GOHNET Newsletter, Winter 2007-2008, No.14, p.1-44 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref [in English]

CIS 08-999 Identify psychosocial hazards - Indicators that will help you
Dépister les risques psychosociaux - Des indicateurs pour vous aider [in French]
The objective of this guide is to help identify psychosocial risk factors based on available data within the enterprise. To facilitate this screening work, a number of indicators are proposed, based on enterprise organizational factors or on the safety and health of employees. This guide will allow further work to be done and to instill a dialogue on the selection and definition of the most relevant screening indicators. This screening work will help implement steps aimed at hazard evaluation and prevention.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Dec.. 2007. 47p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 6.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed6012.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-762
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines
This monograph considers the carcinogenic risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco, including chewing tobacco and snuff. Some studies had suggested that smokeless tobacco may be used for smoking cessation, reducing exposure to carcinogens and risk for cancer. However, these claims are not supported by the available evidence. Occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco may occur during tobacco manufacture, particularly in bidi factories in India, which are often very small-scale industries that have poor working conditions. The workers, mainly women, are exposed to tobacco by dermal contact and to airborne tobacco dust and volatile substances by inhalation. Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the leading malignancies in India and many other countries in South-East Asia, and ranks first in incidence among men and third among women. Tobacco-specific N-nitroso compounds have been detected at high concentrations in snuff and chewing tobacco.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. ix, 626p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge [in English]

CIS 08-761
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy
Combined estrogen-progestogens used in oral contraceptives and hormonal therapy have many similarities. Consequently, there is a possibility that women who use both during their lifetime may experience risks that are greater than women who use either contraceptives or hormonal therapy but not both. The conclusion that the increased risk for breast cancer returns to background levels 10 years after cessation of use of contraceptives may therefore not apply to women who have begun to use hormonal therapy. Further epidemiological studies of women who have used both contraceptives and hormonal therapy are necessary. Oral contraceptives can increase the risk for cervical cancer in women who have a human papillomavirus infection. Women who use this form of contraception over long periods of time should be encouraged to participate in cervical cancer screening programmes.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. ix, 528p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 08-962
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Human papillomaviruses
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are common sexually-transmitted infectious agents. Although most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared within a period of two years, genital HPV infection can lead to clinical disease, including anogenital warts, cervical neoplasia, cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Of the many types of HPVs, some are classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), others as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) and yet other as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Recent data includes strong evidence of carcinogenicity at sites other than the cervix. Vaccination can reduce the incidence of HPV-related genital diseases. However, such prophylactic treatments require that such vaccines be provided women for whom access to cervical cancer screening services is problematic. Therefore, the development of vaccines that are cheaper and easier to deliver remains highly desirable. Update of the IARC Monograph No.64 on the same subject (see CIS 96-1096).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. viii, 670p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 08-965 Aarnisalo K.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Equipment hygiene and risk assessment measures as tools in the prevention of Listeria monocytogenes-contamination in food processes
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium frequently found in the food industry. Its efficient control requires good manufacturing and hygiene practices, effective means of decontamination, rapid detection of contamination sources and hazard evaluation procedures. This thesis focused on deficiencies in equipment hygiene and hazard evaluation practices with the aim of developing the efficient practices against L. monocytogenes. Hygiene problems in the Finnish food industry were most frequently observed with packaging machines, conveyers, dispensers, slicing machines and cooling machines. Lubricants used in food processing equipment may also act as contamination vehicles of L. monocytogenes. Commonly-used commercial disinfectants against L. monocytogenes were generally found to be efficient at the recommended concentrations and effect times. Other findings are discussed.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2007. 101p. Illus. Approx. 230 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-864 Organa Z.
Analysis and assessment of occupational hazards at automobile repair shop workplaces
Analiza i ocena ryzyka zawodowego na stanowisku mechanika samochodowego [in Polish]
The tasks carried out by mechanics in automobile repair shops are described in a table, together with the physical workload, environmental conditions and occupational hazards involved for each task. A list of applicable standards is included.
Przyjaciel przy Pracy, May 2007, No.5, p.14-17. Illus.

CIS 08-651 Iwata T., Sakamoto M., Feng X., Yoshida M., Liu Y.J., Dakeishi M., Li P., Qiu G., Jiang H., Nakamura M., Murata K.
Effects of mercury vapor exposure en neuromotor function in Chinese miners and smelters
Hand tremor and postural sway were measured in 27 miners and smelters in China occupationally exposed to mercury vapour and in 52 unexposed subjects. Urine samples were collected and total mercury and creatinine concentrations were determined. Data of the tremor and postural sway were analyzed using the fast Fourier transformation. The geometric means of the urinary mercury level (UHg) were 228µg/g creatinine for the exposed workers and 2.6µg/g creatinine for the unexposed subjects. Total tremor intensity and frequency-specific tremor intensities at 1-6 and 10-14Hz were significantly larger in the exposed workers than in the unexposed subjects, but they were not significantly related to the UHg among the exposed workers. In contrast, there were no significant differences in any postural sway parameters between the above two groups, but the transversal sway with eyes open was positively related to the UHg among the exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.381-387. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 08-673 NIOSH HazCom Writer
Employers with hazardous chemicals in their workplaces are required to prepare and implement a written hazard communication program. This includes ensuring that all containers are labelled, employees are provided with access to material safety data sheets and an effective training program is conducted for all potentially exposed employees. This CD-ROM contains software to guide the person responsible for writing a hazard communication plan through the various steps involved in its preparation. The software is also downloadable from the NIOSH web site.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, May 2007. CD-ROM for Microsoft Windows Operating Systems. [in English]

CIS 08-674 Luengo Cuadrado E.
Presentation of sandwich panels
Una aproximación a los paneles sándwich [in Spanish]
This article presents an overview of the characteristics of sandwich panels, which are widely-used materials in the construction industry. It describes their fire behaviour under various standard testing conditions as well as during real fires. Next, it proposes a framework for evaluating the risks due to sandwich panels as a function of the sector of activity, the type of building and their fire behaviour, based on which it is possible carry out a cost-risk analysis to support decisions for the selection of appropriate construction panels.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.27, No.108, p.24-39. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-283 Work in isolation: Communications and alarms
Travail isolé: la communication et l'alarme [in French]
As a consequence of the new forms of work organization which emerged during the 1980s, work in isolation is subject to new developments. Advances in technology and cost constraints - including the use of subcontractors - have indeed caused headcount decreases and offsite employment, but also an increase in the variety of tasks carried out in isolation. This article presents the findings of a study conducted in France by the INRS on the implementation of an efficient communication and alarm system for work in isolation. Contents: definition of work in isolation; accidents; hazard evaluation; means of communication; detection systems; alarm systems.
Prevent Focus, May 2007, No.5, p.6-10. Illus.

CIS 08-486 Kouabenan D.R.
Uncertainties, beliefs and safety management
Incertitudes, croyances et management de la sécurité [in French]
Risky situations are situations mostly characterized by uncertainty. This review article starts with a description of the link between the notions of risk and uncertainty by stressing the fact that uncertainty is an important component of risk appraisal, and shows that what is called risk is in fact a social construct. It then shows that risk appraisal and accident explanation are opportunities particularly favourable to the expression of beliefs and causal inferences. The role of such beliefs and inferences is to fill the gap in scientific knowledge regarding risky situations. In face of this gap, people tend to use heuristics in order to reduce the uncertainty and to facilitate risk assessment. But many factors (cognitive, motivational, affective) lead to distortions in risk perception and accident explanation. They are either linked to the characteristics of the risk itself or to the characteristics proper to the perceiver or the explainer. These factors create illusions and false certainties in risk perception and accident explanation, which may lead to unsafe behaviours. Investigating these beliefs could be useful to design preventive messages and to influence more efficiently individual behaviours in favour of safety.
Travail humain, Apr. 2007, Vol.70, No.3, p.271-287. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 08-274 Substitution of dangerous chemical agents
La substitution des agents chimiques dangereux [in French]
The substitution of dangerous chemicals is a preferred means of protection against occupational hazards. Besides lowering the risks to workers and improving their working conditions, a successful substitution also results in advantages for the enterprise, such as the changing of a process in favour of newer technology, lowering the costs of waste disposal and personal protection, and an improved image. This leaflet summarized the responsibilities of employers together with the approach to be followed for the successful substitution of dangerous chemicals.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2007. 8p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$File/ed6004.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-462 Le Bâcle C.
Biological hazards in occupational settings
Les risques biologiques en milieu professionnel [in French]
Protection against biological hazards within the enterprise remains hindered by several obstacles. Their effects being generally neither immediate nor spectacular, they are not considered as having the same priority as other more visible hazards. There is insufficient understanding of these hazards among persons responsible for occupational safety and health. This article presents a concise overview of these hazards and proposes an approach to safety and health based on the type of risk (infections, toxins, immuno-allergies, cancer) and the sector of activity (health care, agriculture, food industry, waste disposal).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.85-96. Illus. 19 ref.$File/PR28.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-374 Diébold F.
Cutting fluid aerosol metrology
Métrologie des aérosols des fluides de coupe [in French]
Cutting fluids used in the machining of metals are known to cause skin pathologies including dermatitis and cancer, as well as respiratory diseases. These risks justify the adoption of preventive measures. The complex nature of these fluids and the large diversity of the resulting pollutant emissions considerably complicate the task of occupational hygienists responsible for evaluating the exposure of workers to these products. This article describes the methods used in France, the United States, Germany and Great Britain for the quantitative analysis of aerosols in cutting oils.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.7-11. 11 ref.$File/ND2267.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-305 Mathieu S.
Benchmarks of progress - 100 questions to understand and act upon
Les référentiels de progrčs - 100 questions pour comprendre et agir [in French]
Benchmarks of progress consist of reference documents that enable the implementation of an improvement programme and/or demonstrate the ability to comply with certain specified requirements. This publication presents several benchmarks of progress in the following fields: quality management, environmental management, management of occupational safety and health, integrated management, global management and sustainable development.
AFNOR, 11 rue Francis de Pressensé, 93571 La Plaine Saint-Denis Cedex, France, 2007. x, 213p. Illus. Price: EUR 24.50 (without VAT).

CIS 08-492 .
New evaluation of psychosocial hazards
Una nueva evaluación de riesgos psicosociales [in Spanish]
This article presents a new approach developed by the Spanish Ergonomics Institute of the MAPFRE Foundation for evaluating psychosocial hazards. Following a definition of the concept of psychosocial hazards in occupational settings and a presentation of traditional evaluation methods, the article goes on to present the new approach which involves developing specialized computer-based tools for various sectors that are particularly concerned by psychosocial hazards (teaching, health care, services and administration, call centres). The objective of this approach, which relies on questionnaires and reference lists, is to help occupational safety and health specialists evaluate psychosocial hazards within the enterprise.
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2007, Vol.53, No.311, p.36-44. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 08-440 Gauron C.
Medical practice and ionizing radiation: Information sheet to help evaluate hazards in radiation therapy, together with current regulations
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide ŕ l'analyse des risques en radiothérapie et textes applicables [in French]
Following a survey carried out in the Ile-de-France region of France, a multidisciplinary working group compiled a series of information sheets aimed at helping analyse risks in conventional and interventional radiological services. The information sheet described in this article specifically addresses external radiotherapy (particle accelerators). It includes a synthesis of useful information in this field, together with a list of relevant French legislation on radiation protection in the medical field.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.161-171.$File/TC114.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-35 Domínguez Fernández M., Gabilondo Larrańaga E., Fernández Gómez E., Muńoz Fernández J., Rico Alonso F.
Employee participation in the evaluation of occupational hazards
Implicación de las personas en la evaluación de riesgos laborales [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational hazards in hospital operating theatres. The SOBANE methodology (screening, observation, analysis and expertise, see CIS 03-632) was adopted, which involves the participation of staff. It allowed obtaining specific information leading to the implementation of corrective measures. A high level of satisfaction (87%) was obtained. Findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr. 2007, Vol.LII, No.206, p.15-20. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-213 Benvant Nácher S., Machí Alapont M., Moliner Sales I., Soto Ferrando P.
Evaluation of biological hazards at the Rey Don Jaime hospital
Evaluación de riesgo biológico en el hospital Rey Don Jaime [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological hazards faced by the staff of a Spanish hospital and to recommend appropriate preventive measures. The biological hazards were evaluated using the Biogaval methodology. Work involved identifying the microorganisms most likely to be present, and evaluating their health hazards and transmission mechanisms, the percentage of the target populations that are vaccinated and the effectiveness of hygiene measures. High levels of airborne microbial transmission were observed, with the nursing staff of emergency units being particularly at risk.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr. 2007, Vol.LII, No.206, p.9-14. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-85 Durcy M.
Bladder cancer: Identifying and controlling the risks
Cancer de la vessie: identifier et réduire les risques [in French]
Each year, there are approximately 10,000 new cases of bladder cancer incidence in France, among which the number of cases due to occupational exposures is estimated at between 600 and 1100. In the construction sector, coal tar pitch used in roofing is a known carcinogen. Occupational exposures likely to cause bladder cancer have decreased. However, further progress is still required for screening and preventing this disease in occupational settings. Besides a brief review of occupational bladder cancer, an occupational physician answers a few questions on exposure hazards, the low proportion of bladder cancers that are recognized as being due to occupational factors and preventive measures.
Prévention BTP, May 2007, No.96, p.48-50. Illus.

CIS 08-240 Rodríguez I., González-Morales M.G., Carbonell S.
The AMIGO model and the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL methodology - Contributions and challenges in the prevention of psychosocial hazards
El modelo AMIGO y la metodología PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL - Aportaciones y retos en la prevención de los riesgos psicosociales [in Spanish]
Changes taking place in the world of work are causing the emergence of new psychosocial hazards and psychosomatic diseases. To address these risks, it is necessary to intervene at the organizational level. In turn, this implies being able to rely on a theoretical model such as the AMIGO model, which contrary to existing models, considers the various components of the organizational system as facets of a system which can only be approached holistically. The model served as the basis for the development of the PREVENLAB-PSICOSOCIAL diagnosis methodology, which is described in this article.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Apr. 2007, No.42, p.18-25. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 08-182 Olson K., Behnke J., Edlbeck D.R.
Liquefied natural gas - LNG safety and protecting a facility: Striving to be the safest in the industry
This article discusses effective fire protection systems for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, based on prevention, control and extinguishment (using dry chemical systems or high-expansion foam systems). It comments the United States National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 59A on the production, storage and handling of LNG.
NFPA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2007, Vol.101, No.1, p.44-49. Illus.

CIS 08-212 Moy L.
Spread cheat
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSSH) 2002 of the United Kingdom (see CIS 03-1023) also covers biological agents, which include microorganisms, cell cultures or human endoparasites that can cause infection, allergy toxicity, or otherwise create a hazard to human health. Biological hazards are present in many workplaces, but particularly so in hospitals and the health-care sector. They can pose a significant threat to workers' health. This article outlines how these risks can be reduced, based on a suitable and sufficient risk assessment, coupled with effective infection control measures.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2007, Vol.25, No.8, p.47-50. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 08-146 Korpi A., Lappalainen S., Kaliste E., Kalliokoski P., Reijula K., Pasanen A.L.
Controlling occupational allergies in the workplace
A systematic and comprehensive approach to assessing and managing allergen risks at workplaces has been developed. It relies on the cooperation and active communication during the whole process between management, employees and health care personnel, with the assistance of experts when needed. In addition to gathering background information, including allergic symptoms, through questionnaires addressed to the management and employees, hazard identification is also processed in the workplace through observations and measurements. The process must be carefully planned and documented to allow later follow-up and re- evaluation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.2, p.107-115. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 08-38 Romanowska-Słomka I., Słomka A.
The management of occupational hazards
Zarządzanie ryzykiem zawodowym [in Polish]
This publication on the management of occupational hazards presents the background, definitions and legal basis for hazard evaluations. It discusses the actions that need to be undertaken to correctly assess occupational hazards and to eliminate or limit these hazards. It explains the rules concerning the information of personnel. Examples of hazard evaluations for specific workplaces are included.
Wydawnictwo Tarbonus Sp. z o. o., ul. Sikorskiego 86, 39-400 Tarnobrzeg, Poland, 2007. 154p. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 08-216 Brun E.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health
Some 5000 workers die every year of communicable diseases in the European Union. The Community strategy 2002-2006 called on the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work to set up a risk observatory to anticipate new and emerging risks. This report presents the results of the forecast on emerging OSH biological risks, based on a survey of 36 experts using the Delphi method. The forecast emphasizes how important it is that biological risks are dealt with globally and in cooperation between disciplines such as OSH, public health, animal health, environmental protection and food safety. It also shows that knowledge about biohazards is still relatively undeveloped and that a proper assessment of biological risks is difficult. Better methods for determining the biological agents and measuring their concentration need to be developed in order to improve exposure assessment.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2, rue Mercier, L-2985 Luxembourg, 2007. 145p. Illus. 361 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-211 Pérez Bermúdez B., Nieto Sánchez A.B.
Biological exposure to blood-borne pathogens and temporary work
Exposición biológica a patógenos hemáticos y temporalidad laboral [in Spanish]
Incidents involving the risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, particularly through needle-stick injuries, are common in the health care sector. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of these incidents among regular and temporary health care workers at a Spanish university hospital. All reported incidents occurring within a period of twelve months were analysed. Logistic regressions were performed using the dependant variables of age, sex, level of seniority, place where the incident occurred, injured body part, causal agent, work shift, way in which the incident was caused, and the month and day of the injury. The odds ratio of such incidents was found to be 1.96 among temporary workers. No other variables were found to have a significant effect.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2007, Vol.LIII, No.207, p.13-19. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 08-167 Korpi A., Lappalainen S., Kaliste E., Kalliokoski P., Reijula K., Pasanen A.L.
A multi-faceted approach to risk assessment of laboratory animal allergens at two facilities
This article describes a versatile approach to assessing the risks posed by laboratory animal allergens (LAAs) which was implemented at two laboratory animal facilities in Finland. The approach includes questionnaires for management and employees, a hazard identification visit, measurements at the workplaces and the creation of a list of recommended procedures to reduce allergen exposure. The prevalence of work-related allergic symptoms was found to be 17%. Recommendations included changes in ventilation, changes in work practices, the reduction of unnecessary exposures, more comprehensive use of personal protective equipment and wider communication about LAA risks.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.50, No.2, p.127-135. 30 ref.

CIS 08-186 De Fex R.L.
Between HAZOP and FTA: Hazard analysis based on protection layers - LOPA
Entre HAZOP y FTA: Análisis de riesgos por capas de protección - LOPA [in Spanish]
This article describes a hazard analysis and evaluation tool based on layers or levels entitled LOPA (layer of protection analysis), a semi-quantitative instrument with improved objectivity for controlling risks in process industries. It is an intermediate between the HAZOP (hazard and operability) and FTA (fault tree analysis) methods. Its main function is to select high-risk scenarios defined as a set of causes and specific consequences though a preliminary analysis of risks that can be avoided or mitigated by means of safeguards consisting of existing layers of protection, or if these layers have a high failure probability, by means of additional and more effective layers of protection.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug.2007, Vol.53, No.314, p.32-39. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-106 Pistón Reyes J.M., Cubero Atienza A.J.
Work in public sewage networks: Study of risks
Trabajos en redes públicas de saneamiento: un estudio de riesgos [in Spanish]
The media regularly report accidents in which several workers undergo asphyxia or poisoning in a cesspit or a well. A common characteristic in these types of accidents is the severity of their consequences, both for the direct victim as well as for persons attempting to rescue them. Many of these accidents could have been avoided by appropriate training and the correct use of means of protection. This article describes the job of sewage workers and examines more specifically the risks involved in the cleaning and maintenance of sewage system networks, which are aggravated by the need to work in confined spaces.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2007, No.43, p.20-27. Illus. 23 ref.

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