Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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Gürcanli G. E., Müngen U.
An occupational safety risk analysis method at construction sites using fuzzy sets
This article proposes a method for assessment of the risks that workers are exposed to at construction sites, using a fuzzy rule-based safety analysis to deal with uncertain and insufficient data. Using this approach, historical accident data, subjective judgements of experts and the current safety level of a construction site can be combined. Based on the detailed analysis of 5239 construction accidents in Turkey and the subjective judgement of safety experts, three parameters were derived, namely the accident likelihood, current safety level and accident severity. These were used as input parameters for the fuzzy rule-based system. The method was then tested on a tunnelling construction site.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.39, p.371-387. Illus. 35 ref.
Targoutzidis A., Antonopoulou L.
A multidimensional approach to modelling for workplace risk assessment
The objective of this study is to develop a simple tool for risk identification and assessment in small enterprises by facilitating the incorporation of insights from accident, human error and risk perception models. It presents an approach that involves the grouping and classification of risk factors according to certain criteria, to fit the proper set of models to each situation. To further facilitate the process, the main guidelines of each model are presented. This simplified approach should help safety engineers in selecting the proper model for the workplace to better assess its risks.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.4, p.373-384. Illus. 41 ref.
A_multidimensional_approach.pdf [in English]
Panasevich S., Leander K., Rosenlund M., Ljungman P., Bellander T., de Faire U., Pershagen G., Nyberg F.
Associations of long- and short-term air pollution exposure with markers of inflammation and coagulation in a population sample
Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Potential mechanisms include systemic inflammation and perturbation of the coagulation balance. The objective of this study was to investigate the long- and short-term effects of air pollution exposure on serum levels of inflammatory and coagulation markers relevant for cardiovascular pathology. The study group consisted of a population sample of 1028 men and 508 women aged 45-70 years from Stockholm. Long-term air pollution exposure was assessed using spatial modelling of traffic-related NO2 and heating-related SO2 emissions at each subject's residential addresses over retrospective periods of 1,5 and 30 years. Short-term exposure was assessed as averages of rooftop measurements over 12-120 h before blood sampling. Long-term exposures to both traffic-NO2 and heating-SO2 emissions showed consistent associations with IL-6 levels. 30-year average traffic-NO2 exposure was associated with a 64.5% increase in serum IL-6 per 28.8 μg/m3 and 30-year exposure to heating- SO2 with a 67.6% increase per 39.4 μg/m3. The association appeared stronger in non-smokers, physically active people and hypertensive subjects. Short-term exposure to O3 was associated with increased, and SO2 with decreased, fibrinogen levels. These results suggest that exposure to moderate levels of air pollution may influence serum levels of inflammatory markers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.747-753. Illus. 38 ref.
Slager R.E., Poole J.A., LeVan T.D., Sandler D.P., Alavanja M.C.R, Hoppin J.A.
Rhinitis associated with pesticide exposure among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study
Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, based on data from 2245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators participating in a wider cohort study. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education and growing up on a farm, the associations between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year were evaluated. 74% of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis. There was no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.718-724. 19 ref.
Rhinitis.pdf [in English]
Bonzini M., Coggon D., Godfrey K., Inskip H., Crozier S., Palmer K.T.
Occupational physical activities, working hours and outcome of pregnancy: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey
The objective of this study was to investigate risks of physical activity at work by pregnancy trimester, including the effects on head and abdominal circumference. At 34 weeks of gestation 1327 expectant mothers participating in a wider cohort study were interviewed on their activities (working hours, shift work and work postures) in jobs held at each of 11, 19 and 34 weeks of gestation, and subsequently ascertained birth outcomes (preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA) and reduced head or abdominal circumference). Risk of preterm delivery was elevated nearly threefold in women whose work at 34 weeks entailed trunk bending for >1h/day. Small head circumference was more common in babies born to women who worked for >40h/week. However, no statistically significant associations were found with SGA or small abdominal circumference, and preterm delivery showed little association with long working hours, lifting, standing or shift work.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66. No.10, p.685-690. 24 ref.
Occupational_physical_activities.pdf [in English]
MacCarthy A., Bunch K.J., Fear N.T, King J.C., Vincent T.J., Murphy M.F.
Paternal occupation and retinoblastoma: A case-control study based on data for Great Britain 1962-1999
The objective of this study was to examine the association between paternal occupational exposures and retinoblastoma using birth registration data for cases from the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) and controls from the general population of Great Britain. It was conducted in the form of a case-control study of paternal occupational data for 1318 cases of retinoblastoma, born and diagnosed between 1962 and 1999, and 1318 controls matched on sex, date of birth and birth registration sub-district. Paternal occupations at birth were grouped according to inferred exposure using an occupational exposure classification scheme. A conditional (matched) case-control analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for each paternal occupational exposure group. For non-heritable retinoblastoma, a statistically significant increased risk was found with father's definite occupational exposure to oil mists in metal working (OR 1.85). No statistically significant associations were observed for other exposure groups.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.644-649. 22 ref.
Vézina M., eds.
Matrix for the identification of psychosocial risks at work
Grille d'identification des risques psychosociaux au travail [in French]
Occupational health professionals are increasingly concerned by the extent of work-related mental health problems. A growing number of cases relate to psychological distress, burnout, depression or, more generally, to occupational stress. Within this context, an important need has arisen for a tool allowing a simple evaluation of the probability of high psychosocial risks in certain occupational settings, thus allowing judging whether a further investigation of the case is warranted. This document presents a simple quantitative tool which also includes educational features, aimed at assisting professionals in identifying actions to be implemented or targets to be reached within the enterprise.
Institut national de santé publique du Québec, 94, avenue Wolfe, Quebec G1V 5B3, Canada, 2009. 38p.
Grille_d'identification.pdf [in French]
Ricaud M., Witschger O.
Nanomaterials. Definitions, toxicological risk, characterisation of occupational exposure and prevention measures
Les nanomatériaux. Définitions, risques toxicologiques, caractérisation de l'exposition professionnelle et mesures de prévention [in French]
That workers are occupationally exposed to nanomaterials is already an established fact. Considering the many unknowns surrounding these new chemicals, their potential health effects and the problems faced in attempting to characterize exposures, quantitative risk assessments remain difficult to carry out in most occupational settings. In all work situations involving exposure to nanomaterials, the most appropriate course of action is therefore to apply caution and introduce specific policies aimed at avoiding risks. Although it is still too early to provide definitive answers, this guide brings together current knowledge concerning the characteristics and applications of these materials, their toxicology, the tools available for evaluating occupational exposure and finally the means of prevention.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2009. 27p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: EUR 4.30. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6050/EN.pdf [in English]
ED_6050/FR.pdf [in French]
Torma-Krajewski J., Wiehagen W., Etcheverry A., Turin F., Unger R.
Using ergonomics to enhance safe production at a surface coal mine - A case study with powder crews
Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery or uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from a coal company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, p.D55-D62. 4 ref.
Using_ergonomics.pdf [in English]
Ledoux E., Cloutier E., Ouellet F., Gagnon I., Thuilier C., Ross J.
Occupational risks in the performing arts - An exploratory study
The overall goal of this project was to better identify occupational safety and health issues in the performing arts, particularly in the areas of theatre, music, singing, dance and the circus. The specific objectives of this project were to better understand the production context, the producers' difficulties and needs in occupational safety and health management; to highlight the risks during the preparation of a performance; to identify the causes of accidents during the preparation of a performance; to document the professional paths and health paths of the artists in relation to the performance context; to identify the strategies and means of prevention developed elsewhere as input into the sector's preventive actions. Data were collected by means of literature surveys, job observations, interviews and focus groups. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. vii, 82p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-607.pdf [in English]
Ostiguy C., Roberge B., Ménard L., Endo C.A.
Best practices guide to synthetic nanoparticle risk management
This best practices guide on the risks related to synthetic nanoparticles proposes a prevention strategy applicable to workers and researchers producing, transforming or using nanoparticles. It is intended for enterprises, researchers and occupational safety and health professionals involved with nanotechnologies. It identifies health, safety and environmental hazards, proposes a procedure for risk evaluation and control, documents current practices worldwide and proposes the content of an enterprise or organization company prevention programme.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. iv, 59p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-599.pdf [in English]
Workforce diversity and risk assessment: Ensuring everyone is covered - Summary of an Agency report
Diversité de la main-d'œuvre et évaluation des risques: pour que tous soient couverts - Synthèse d'un rapport de l'Agence [in French]
Diversidad de los trabajadores y evaluación de riesgos: garantizar la cobertura para todos - Resumen de un informe de la Agencia [in Spanish]
Diversity and diversity management in the workplace are important issues in occupational safety and health today. However, diversity has seldom been studied from the perspective of risk assessment. Practical risk assessment tools that take into account the specific risks faced, for instance by people with disabilities, migrant workers, older workers, women and temporary workers, are still rare. This fact sheet presents the key findings of a report describing why and how risk assessment can and should cover the whole workforce, aimed at increasing awareness about the importance of assessing the risks for all workers. The fact sheet is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
Facts_87/EN.pdf [in English]
Facts_87/FR.pdf [in French]
Facts_87/ES.pdf [in Spanish]
Assessment, elimination and substantial reduction of occupational risks - Summary of an Agency report
Evaluation, élimination et réduction significative des risques professionnels - Résumé d'un rapport de l'Agence [in French]
Evaluación, eliminación y reducción sustancial de los riesgos laborales - Resumen del informe de la Agencia [in Spanish]
Risk assessment is the basis for successful safety and health management, and the key to reducing work-related accidents and occupational diseases. If implemented well, it can improve not only workplace safety and health, but business performance in general. This fact sheet summarizes a report on the European "Healthy workplaces campaign 2008/09" by providing information on successful interventions in the workplace to eliminate or substantially reduce risks. The report is aimed at those who are responsible for carrying out risk assessments in the workplace and for making decisions on preventive measures. The fact sheet is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
Facts_85/EN.pdf [in English]
Facts_85/FR.pdf [in French]
Facts_85/ES.pdf [in French]
López Mena I.
Continuous improvement in the prevention of occupational hazards
La mejora continua en prevención de riesgos laborales [in Spanish]
This article explains how a continuous improvement system based on the Deming cycle (or PDCA; plan, do, check, act) can be applied to the occupational safety and health plan of the enterprise as well as to each of its work procedures or instructions, including the hazard evaluation. A continuous improvement system to correct unsafe acts can help in changing behaviours by means of internal safety inspections coupled to workers' training.
Prevención, Apr.-June 2009, No.188, p.6-12. Illus.
International Labour Organization (ILO), Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food
This criteria document describes general principles and methods for the risk assessment of additives, contaminants, pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues and natural constituents in foods. It also includes general guidance on the risk assessment of novel and non-traditional whole foods. Some general guidance is also given on risk assessment related to upper levels for nutrients and other beneficial food components. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2009. lxix, 656p. Illus. Bibl. Ref. Index.
Guidance note - Working alone 2009
This note provides guidance for employers and workers on the management of safety and health hazards that arise from working alone, together with relevant legislative and regulatory requirements in Western Australia. Contents: definition of isolated work; planning for the safety of persons who work alone; factors that may increase the risk for persons working alone; reducing the risks; communication with isolated workers in certain industries; communication systems; additional hazards; glossary.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2009. PDF document, 18p.
http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/WorkSafe/PDF/Guidance_notes/working_alone.pdf [in English]
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Principles for modelling dose-response for the risk assessment of chemicals
Main topics covered by this criteria document on the principles for modelling dose-response for the risk assessment of chemicals: risk analysis; basic concepts of dose-response modelling; when and why to use dose-response modelling; principles of dose-response modelling; communication of the results of dose-response modelling; conclusions and recommendation. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2009. xx, 137p. Illus. 100 ref.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241572392_eng.pdf [in English]
Skin exposure to biological, physical and chemical hazards
Exposition de la peau aux risques biologiques, physiques et chimiques [in French]
This article summarizes the contents of a report prepared by the European Risk Observatory on how European Union Member States are organized to address the issues of identification, evaluation and prevention of skin exposures to biological, physical and chemical agents. Contents: methodology; types of skin diseases; compensation of skin diseases and skin exposures in the EU; notification of skin diseases; diagnosis, quantification and hazard evaluation; prevention methods in case of skin exposure; conclusion. Boxes summarize the situation of the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Finland, France and Germany. The full report can be downloaded from the following URL: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE7007049ENC_skin_diseases
Prevent Focus, Feb. 2009, p.16-19. Illus. 1 ref.
Lissner L., Schmitz-Felten E., Munar L.
Assessment, elimination and substantial reduction of occupational risks
This report features cases from a variety of workplaces that demonstrate how a risk assessment process has led to a risk being identified and successfully eliminated or substantially reduced. The main aim of the report is to illustrate how risk elimination or risk reduction at source can be achieved at workplace level. Using case studies grouped under the following headings: ergonomics and design; accident prevention; dust, chemical and biological risks; work organization, psychosocial load; noise, electricity and climate. The common basic success factors of all these cases are highlighted.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 140p. Illus. Price: EUR 15.00 (excluding VAT). Downloadable version free of charge.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TEWE09001ENC [in English]
Buffet A., Munar L.
Workforce diversity and risk assessment: Ensuring everyone is covered
This report highlights the need to carry out inclusive risk assessment to take into account the diversity of the workforce when assessing and managing risks. Its main aim is to describe why and how risk assessment can and should cover the whole workforce, and to increase awareness among those responsible for and affected by safety and health at work about the importance of assessing the risks of all workers. Main topics covered: legal background and aim of the report; groups of workers at increased risk (migrant, young, disabled, older and temporary workers, gender-sensitive approach to OSH); examples of good practices (workplace adaptation, development of training and information).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 115p. Illus. Price: EUR 15.00 (excluding VAT). Downloadable version free of charge.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE7809894ENC [in English]
Occupational safety and health programmes faced with the challenge of uncertainty. Example of the precautionary principle applied to nanoparticles
La prévention à l'épreuve de l'incertitude. L'exemple de la précaution à l'égard des nanoparticules [in French]
Using the example of nanoparticles, this article discusses various decision-making and reasoning theories relating to the hazards, allowing societal concerns to be taken into account when designing occupational safety and health programmes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.216, p.53-58. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_date1_view_view/8C7A1423147B25AEC1257642003986CD/$FILE/pr40.pdf [in French]
Chaineaux J., Janes A., Sallé B., Petit J.M.
Conditions for the formation of explosives atmosphere when using a flammable liquid
Conditions de formation d'une atmosphère explosive lors de la mise en œuvre d'un liquide inflammable [in French]
When using flammable liquids, the conditions in which an explosive atmosphere (ATEX) can form depend to a great extent on the liquid itself (flash point, temperature); if the liquid is in an open space, they are also linked to the evaporation flow rate, which in turn depends on the air renewal conditions at the surface of the liquid. An evaporation model was developed using the results of a series of measurements carried out with volatile solvents, where the vaporization flow rate and the vapor concentration at the surface of the liquid were measured. Knowledge of these different features enables implementing the ATEX regulations in a precise and realistic way.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.216, p.23-31. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202313/$File/ND2313.pdf [in French]
Triolet J., Héry M.
Chemical risk assessment methods - A critical analysis
Les méthodes d'évaluation des risques chimiques - Une analyse critique [in French]
Within the framework of agreements intended to improve how the CMR (carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic substances) risk is taken into account in the chemicals, paint manufacturing and mechanical engineering sectors, an inventory of the available chemical risk assessment methods was drawn up and a critical analysis was carried out. Seven of these methods, sufficiently similar so as to be comparable, were then applied to a test case designed to be representative of an enterprise of the chemicals and paint sectors. Findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.216, p.11-22. 8 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202312/$File/ND2312.pdf [in French]
Medicine and ionizing radiation: Data sheet aimed at helping hazard evaluation in exobuccal dentistry radiology
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide à l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire exobuccale [in French]
Based on the findings of a survey conducted in the Ile-de-France region, a multidisciplinary working group developed a series of information sheets aimed at helping evaluate the hazards related to the use of radiology in dental services. This data sheet presents an overview of useful information applicable to exobuccal dentistry. Contents: personnel concerned; sequence of steps and filming; hazards; "ionizing radiation" hazard identification; hazard evaluation and determination of exposure levels; risk management strategies; evaluation of the risk management system; other hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.119, p.291-297. 19 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20127/$File/TC127.pdf [in French]
Plamondon A., Arjmand N., Gagnon D., Shirazi-Adl A., Salazar E.
Comparison of two articular biomechanical models in the assessment of lumbar loading
Comparaison de deux modèles biomécaniques articulaires dans l'évaluation du chargement lombaire [in French]
The risk of occupational back injuries still remains high. These injuries have serious consequences on workers (with manual handlers being the most affected), and constitute an economic burden for companies and society in general. To assess precisely the risks from a preventive standpoint, articular biomechanical models are available that are capable of estimating tissue loading; however, they yield variable results. This study involved the comparison of two of these models, as well as improving their validity and applicability. Results enabled a better quantification of the intensity of tissue loading so that these risks can be reduced.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. ix, 34p. Illus. 75 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-620.pdf [in French]
Bracker A.L., Morse T.F., Simcox N.J.
Training health and safety committees to use control banding: Lessons learned and opportunities for the United States
Control banding (CB) strategies are designed to control workplace chemical exposures after the completion of a qualitative risk assessment. Joint labor/management teams and individuals from 34 workplaces attended a control banding workshop and learned how to use a specific CB model, that of HSE's COSHH Essentials Toolkit (see CIS 00-675). Follow-up workshops, questionnaires, site visits and case studies were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this CB approach. It was found that that the model is easily learned, although several areas for improvement were identified.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2009, Vol.6, No.5, p.307-314. 37 ref.
Mohaghegh Z., Mosleh A.
Incorporating organizational factors into probabilistic risk assessment of complex socio-technical systems: Principles and theoretical foundations
This article proposes a set of principles for organizational safety risk analysis based on probabilistic risk assessment, which are then applied to the development of a safety risk framework which formally integrates the technical system risk models with the social (safety culture and safety climate) and structural (safety practices) aspects of safety prediction models. It also provides a theoretical basis for the integration.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1139-1158. Illus. 115 ref.
Safety is the antonym of risk for some perspectives of risk
Safety is closely related to risk, but does it extend beyond the realm of risk? Is safety just the antonym of risk, or the same as acceptable risk? This issue has been given due attention in the literature and in this paper explores how different perspectives of risk affect the relationship between safety and risk. If risk is defined as an expected value or as a measure of the probability and severity of adverse effects, the conclusions would be different than if the essential component of risk is uncertainty. For risk understood as uncertainty about and severity of the consequences of an activity, it is argued that safe means acceptable risk. Three dimensions of safety are discussed; events and their consequences, probability and uncertainty.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.925-930. 31 ref.
Wong D.K.Y., Pitfield D.E., Caves R.E., Appleyard A.J.
The development of a more risk-sensitive and flexible airport safety area strategy
This two-part paper presents the development of an improved airport risk assessment methodology aimed at assessing risks related to aircraft accidents at and in the vicinity of airports and managing airport safety areas as a risk mitigation measure. The methodology is more quantitative, risk-sensitive, flexible and transparent than standard risk assessment approaches. A first part of the paper presents the methodological advances made in the development of accident frequency models, while second part presents the analysis of accident locations, including the plotting of Complementary Cumulative Probability Distributions for the relevant accident types. The improved risk assessment technique and management strategy was also demonstrated in two case studies based on two airports in the United States.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.903-912. Illus. 35 ref. (Part 1); p.913-924. Illus. 5 ref. (Part 2).
Monteau M., Leclercq S., Cuny X.
Accidents induced by movement disturbance - A new model prompts new prevention
Les accidents consécutifs à une perturbation du mouvement - Nouvelle conception, nouvelle prévention [in French]
Accidents, the causes of which include disturbances in the victim's movements, cannot be explained as phenomena involving a person encountering a hazard defined as an element a priori incompatible with human presence. These accidents include, in particular, falls on the level, which form a very high proportion of occupational accidents. In the event of an accident resulting from movement disturbance, damage partly results from the victim's own movement energy. Based on this initial observation, this article firstly recalls the challenge represented by the prevention of this type of accident in France, which is indeed contrary to the accepted idea that these occupational accidents are frequently minor. Aspects specific to the considered accidents are then identified, specifically in terms of exposure and hazard. The consequences of the specific characteristics are then discussed in terms of the difficulties, even the impossibility, of implementing risk-focused prevention in the strict sense. Finally, two acknowledgements are obvious: the need to give broader consideration to the genesis of these accidents and thus prompt the emergence of prevention options, and the practical value of seeking a typology for these accidents.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2009, No.215, p.13-18. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202308/$File/ND2308.pdf [in French]
Kjellén U., Motet G., Hale A.
Resolving multiple criteria in decision-making involving risk of accidental loss
The case studies and industries reviewed in this collection of articles on safety engineering include: road safety; traffic safety; oil and gas exploration in the Arctic Sea; chemical production; computer software; steel plant maintenance; pathogens in biotechnological research.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.795-901. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Mearns K., Yule S.
The role of national culture in determining safety performance: Challenges for the global oil and gas industry
This article addresses the issue of occupational safety and how the process of globalization can potentially influence the beliefs and behaviour of disparate national workforces working across the globe for the same multi-national company. It reviews published literature on cross-cultural differences in attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding safety and presents the findings of a study examining the relationship between cultural value dimensions, safety climate and risk-taking behaviour in workforce members of a multi-national engineering organization operating in six countries. The results suggest that perceived management commitment to safety and the effectiveness of safety measures exert more impact on workforce behaviour and accident rates than national cultural values.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.777-785. 34 ref.
Globalization and workplace hazards in developing nations
Multinational corporations are rapidly introducing technological activities into less-developed nations. This poses potential risks to the safety and health of workers involved and the neighboring populations, as well as to the environment. This article presents an evaluation of approaches taken by international and industrial organizations to address these hazards by means of codes of conduct and voluntary self-regulation. Arguing that these approaches have repeatedly failed, it presents a new approach for assuring that the transfer of technology is accompanied by the transfer of good practices for using it safely. The key features of this approach include defining a standard of care which provides equivalent treatment of worker safety and health across all nations, and establishing contractual relationships between multinational companies and host countries as a means of implementing the standard.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.756-766. 40 ref.
Olsen O.E., Lindøe P.H.
Risk on the ramble: The international transfer of risk and vulnerability
With reference to data from the Norwegian petroleum industry, this article discusses how the transfer of technology implies the risk of new failures, misuse, accidents and unhealthy workplaces. Production technologies are often transformed through a steady stream of incremental changes appropriate to their social context. In a transfer process, technological risks may arise due to incomplete transfer of mastering capacity, mismatch between transferred technology and the environment, transfer of latent conditions for failure and the transformation of latent conditions or known risks when the technology is installed in a new environment.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.743-755. Illus. 61 ref.
Prevention of risk in practice: Good practice related to risk assessment
This report presents practical examples among the entries in the 9th annual Good Practice competition run by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, including the eight winning entries. The aim of this competition is to support the dissemination of good practice information about risk assessment and promote the application of practical solutions throughout workplaces across Europe.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 26p. Illus.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE7809580ENC_good_practice_award [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Working with substances hazardous to health - What you need to know about COSHH
This information note describes how to control hazardous substances at work so that they do not cause ill health among workers. It explains in particular what needs to be done to comply with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 (see CIS 03-1023). Topics addressed: responsibilities of employers; substances that are harmful; safety data sheets; hazard evaluation; limitation of exposure; exposure monitoring; personal protective equipment; REACH (registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals ) regulations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2009. 10p. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg136.pdf [in English]
Engineering controls for the prevention of chemical hazards
Prévention technique des risques chimiques [in French]
Enterprises that produce or use dangerous chemicals in view of their physical, chemical or toxicological properties expose their workers to the risk of occupational accidents and diseases. With the coming into force of the REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) Regulations and the new General Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labelling, the use of chemicals is undergoing a profound change, with the ultimate objective of achieving a better understanding of the hazards due to the most commonly-used substances, together with a global harmonisation of labelling.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2009, No.162, 8p. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Managing skin exposure risks at work
Many materials used at work can affect the skin or can pass through the skin, potentially causing diseases elsewhere in the body. This booklet provides practical advice to employers and safety and health specialists to help prevent these diseases. It covers the protective role of the skin, ill-health arising from skin exposure, recognising potential skin exposure at the workplace and managing skin exposure to prevent disease. It can help employers comply with their legal duties by preventing or controlling exposure to the hazards by using and maintaining suitable controls.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2009. iv, 24p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 8.95.
Zalk D.M., Nelson D.I.
History and evolution of control banding: A review
This literature survey on control banding (CB) explains how CB strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents often encountered in the workplace. The CB approach utilizes models for the dissemination of qualitative and semi-quantitative risk assessment tools being developed to complement the traditional industrial hygiene model of air sampling and analysis. Existing research of the components of the most available CB model, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Essentials (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023), has shown that exposure bands do not always provide adequate margins of safety, that there is a high rate of under-control errors, that it works better with dusts than with vapors, that there is an inherent inaccuracy in estimating variability, and that when taken together the outcomes of this model may lead to potentially inappropriate workplace confidence in chemical exposure reduction in some operations. Implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations are proposed for further research aimed at improving the accuracy of toxicological ratings and hazard band classifications.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2008, p.330-346. 79 ref.
History_and_evolution_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Papadakis G.A., Chalkidou A.A.
The exposure-damage approach in the quantification of occupational risk in workplaces involving dangerous substances
This study proposes a new approach for the quantification of occupational risk, overcoming the limitations of the common qualitative methodologies widely used by industry and authorities. The proposed methodological approach is based on the principles of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances. The index of individual occupational risk is introduced as a probability function of four variables, normalized over actual working time: the frequency of an active hazard, the probability of an employee being present at a work-place, the extent of distinct consequence zones and the employee vulnerability. The methodology was applied to several industrial environments and has verified its potentiality to provide documented support on important decisions on occupationa lsafety and health measures related to process safety conditions, job management, protective systems, consequence mitigation measures and personal protective measures.
Safety Science, 2008, Vol.46, p.972-991. Illus. 24 ref.
The_exposure-damage_approach.pdf [in English]
Failure rates for underground gas storage - Significance for land use planning assessments
The United Kingdom Government is considering the possibility of storing natural gas in a variety of underground gas storage (UGS) facilities. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) to identify the main types of facilities currently in operation worldwide and any documented or reported failures and incidents which have led to release of stored product. This report presents a summary of such identified failures, calculated accident rates and consequences of cavern failure, and proposes a number of recommendations for safe underground gas storage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 25p. 22 ref.
RR_671.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Novel slip characteristics of conglomerate tiles
This study found that the slip potential of many conglomerate stone floor tiles changed after comparatively little wear. Decreases of up to 30% in the measured slip resistance of floor surfaces in both dry and water-wet conditions were observed. Although this was a rapid change that tended to level out, it showed a difference between the ex-factory slip resistance and that of the installed floor. This could lead to duty holders having a false impression of the slip resistance of the floor under their management, potentially leading them to provide unsuitable control measures for the management of slip hazards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 14p. Illus. 3 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_653.pdf [in English]
Kaskutas V.K., Dale A.M., Lipscomb H.J., Evanoff B.A.
Development of the St. Louis audit of fall risks at residential construction sites
This article describes the development and pilot of a worksite audit system to assess fall prevention safety practices on residential construction sites. The audit was tested at sixteen residential construction sites in the city of St. Louis, United States, showing excellent inter-rater reliability. Results suggest that the audit has good face and content validity and is a reliable instrument for measuring fall safety risks at residential construction sites. It is practical, easy, and safe to administer, making it a potentially useful instrument for field research as well as regular safety monitoring by foremen and crew.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.243-249. Illus. 24 ref.
Aguiar Coelho J.
Introduction to the psychology of occupational health - Prevention of psychosocial hazards
Uma introdução à psicologia da saúde ocupacional - Prevenção dos riscos psicossociais no trabalho [in Portuguese]
The psychology of occupational health is a new field which finds its justification in the increase of psychosocial hazards at work. Within the European Union, there exists since 1989 a requirement for the prevention of occupational psychosocial hazards. This publication, which is primarily aimed at psychology professionals and students, presents this new field together with methodologies and techniques for the evaluation of psychosocial hazards.
Edições Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Praça 9 de Abril 349, 4249-004 Porto, Portugal, 2008. 143p. Illus. 84 ref.
Evaluating road-related hazards at the enterprise: Pathways for action
Evaluer le risque routier en entreprise: pistes d'action [in French]
According to the most recent Belgian statistics which concern the year 2006, there were 20,448 commuting accidents, of which 4% were fatal. In France, several occupational safety specialists addressed the issue and developed tools aimed at better evaluating road-related risks and implementing preventive measures. This article comments these tools in light of the general conditions prevailing in Belgium as well as national legislation.
Prevent Focus, Oct. 2008, p.4-8. Illus.
Deep defence - Nuclear safety contribution to industrial safety
La défense en profondeur - Contribution de la sécurité nucléaire à la sécurité industrielle [in French]
This publication presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of deep defence by examining its application in the nuclear field, and subsequently explores its transfer to an industrial context with the help of a specific example, a liquefied natural gas storage and distribution site.
Editions Tec et Doc Lavoisier, 11, rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xii, 66p. Illus.43 ref. Index. Price: EUR 32.00.
International Labour Office
My life, my work, my safe work - Managing risk in the work environment
A minha vida, o meu trabalho, o meu trabalho em segurança: gestaõ dos riscos no ambiente de trabalho [in Portuguese]
Portuguese version of the booklet entitled "My life, my work, my safe work - Managing risk in the work environment". Contents: occupational hazards; four steps to reduce risks; management of workplace risks. English original, please see CIS 08-807.
Escritorio da OIT, Rua do Viriato n°7, 7° e 8° andar, 1050-233 Lisbon, Portugal, 2008. 11p. Illus.
A_minha_vida.pdf [in Portuguese]
Wicker S., Jung J., Allwinn R., Gottschalk R., Rabenau H.F.
Prevalence and prevention of needlestick injuries among health care workers in a German university hospital
Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to various bloodborne pathogens through job-related risk factors including needlestick injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and causes of needlestick injuries in a German university hospital. Data were obtained by an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. The share of reported needlestick injuries which could have been prevented by using safety devices was estimated. 31.4% of participant HCWs had sustained at least one needlestick injury in the last 12 months. A wide variation in the number of reported needlestick injuries was evident across disciplines, ranging from 46.9% among medical staff in surgery and 18.7% among HCWs in pediatrics. Of all occupational groups, physicians have the highest risk to experience needlestick injuries (55.1%). On average 34% of all needlestick injuries could have been avoided by the use of safety devices. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.347-354. Illus. 37 ref.
Wada K., Sakata Y., Theriault G., Aratake Y., Shimizu M., Tsutsumi A., Tanaka K., Aizawa Y.
Effort-reward imbalance and social support are associated with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan
The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of effort-reward imbalance and social support with chronic fatigue among medical residents in Japan. A total of 104 men and 42 women at 14 teaching hospitals participated in this study. Data on chronic fatigue, effort, reward, overcommitment and social support were collected by means of questionnaires. Sleeping hours for the last 30 days were estimated based on the number of overnight shifts worked, the average number of sleeping hours, and the number of hours of napping during overnight work. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between these variables and chronic fatigue. In both men and women, effort-reward imbalance was positively associated, and higher social support was negatively associated with chronic fatigue. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.331-336. Illus. 29 ref.
Watson S., Metcalfe R., Bond A.
Scoping calculations for releases from potential UK underground gas storage facilities
The British Geological Survey undertook a project for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), to examine the potential for leakage of stored natural gas from underground salt caverns and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Leakage scenarios were developed and simple scoping calculations were carried out to evaluate the likely significance of leakage. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 74p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr606.pdf [in English]
Evans D.J., West J.M.
An appraisal of underground gas storage technologies and incidents, for the development of risk assessment methodology
The objective of this report was to assess the safety issues associated with the underground storage of natural gas. This has arisen because of the need to consider a number of applications submitted by various operators in the United Kingdom who wish to develop such facilities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. xvi, 264p. Illus. Approx. 300 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr605.pdf [in English]
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