Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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Passive smoking in the workplace
Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Scientific background of the decision to include a new paragraph on "passive smoking" in the chapter on carcinogenic substances of the 1985 MAC list of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Commission for the Study of Harmful Industrial Substances analysed the conditions of exposure to tobacco smoke by the non-smoker, it reviewed the results of epidemiological research and it evaluated the results of research in man and in animals involving mutagenic and carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke. In conclusion, it is stated that tobacco smoke contains a mixture of substances harmful to the non-smoker in the workplace, that tobacco smoke is probably the harmful substance to which workers are most widely exposed and that tobacco smoke inhaled passively should be considered on the same basis as other harmful and carcinogenic substances or mixtures.
Senatskommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Kennedyallee 40, 5300 Bonn 2, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 34p. 95 ref.
Occupational hazards derived from the use of fuels in the ceramics industries of the province of Lérida
Problemática laboral derivada de la utilización de combustibles en las cerámicas de la provincia de Lérida [in Spanish]
This occupational health survey was conducted with the aim to identify the risks related to the various fuels used by the ceramics industry in the Spanish province of Lérida. Aspects covered: general description of the industry; different types of kilns and fuels; health hazards (inhalation of clay and lead-containing dust); mechanical hazards.
Salud y trabajo, May-June 1985, No.49, p.9-17. Illus.
Robinson T.J., Dranitsaris P., McTague L.C.
Occupational exposure to welding and cutting hazards in Ontario, Parts I and II
Aspects covered in this comprehensive study of welding: the processes (fusion and pressure welding, thermal cutting and spraying); hazards (fumes and gases, physical agents); variables influencing exposure (process, work area, human factors); exposure levels; health effects and injury experience; control techniques; population at risk; case studies; control programmes in Ontario; government intervention.
Occupational Health and Safety Division, Ontario Ministry of Labour, 400 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, Jan. 1985, 1st part: 320p. Illus. 118 ref. Appendices; 2nd Part: 306p. Illus. 13 ref. Appendices.
Wong O., Morgan R.W., Kheifets L., Larson S.R.
Comparison of SMR, PMR, and PCMR in a cohort of union members potentially exposed to diesel exhaust emissions
This comparison of 3 measures of mortality used in occupational epidemiological studies: standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMRs). The study was based on comparing the results of applying these measures to mortality data relating to 34,156 members of a heavy construction equipment operators' union. The influence of the "healthy worker effect" and of the "seesaw effect" (if certain causes of death are low, others will automatically be high, even without true risk) is taken into consideration, as is bias due to incomplete death ascertainment. On the whole, PMRs and PCMRs have a certain usefulness in generating hypotheses, but they cannot be used for an accurate measurement of the magnitude of risks or for the detection of trends in dose-response studies.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1985, Vol.42, No.7, p.449-460. 22 ref.
Wiernicki C., Karoly W.J.
Ultrasound: biological effects and industrial hygiene concerns
High power ultrasound, characterised by high intensity outputs at frequencies of 20-100kHz finds increasing applications throughout industry. The biological effects from contact exposure may include disruption of biological membranes, damage to the nervous system, the ear, the eyes, spermatogenic, teratogenic, genetic and cellular effects. The effects of airborne ultrasound include hearing loss, headaches, nausea, fatigue and raising of skin temperature. The calculated lethal dose for man is about 180dB at 20kHz. Exposure standards and industrial hygiene controls are discussed. The main recommendation is to avoid contact with ultrasound sources at all time.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1985, Vol.46, No.9, p.488-496. Illus. 64 ref.
Ashby J., De Serres J., Draper M., Ishidate M., Margolin B.H., Matter B.E., Shelby M.D.
Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens
Report of the Collaborative Study on In Vitro Assays of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the United Nations Environment Program). Identification and control of human carcinogens is based on data from rodent studies. The complexity and expense of rodent studies has led to the proposal of many short-term tests for preliminary screening of suspected carcinogens; the best-known of these is the Ames Salmonella test. The present volume contains 10 background summaries on non-mammalian test systems and 71 research reports on specific systems using microbial cells or animal tisues in culture. The appendixes include a review of the current regulatory requirements for mutagenicity testing.
Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1985. 752p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$139.00; Glds.375.00.
Crump K.S., Crockett P.W.
Improved confidence limits for low-dose carcinogenic risk assessment from animal data
Based on the multistage model of cancer, the improved procedure gives a maximum likelihood fit to the experimental data. The extrapolation procedure is different from an earlier one in that 2 improved methods for calculating statistical confidence limits are proposed. The integration of several data sets in the calculation of risk levels is also recommended.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos.2+3, special issue, p.419-431. 17 ref.
Risk analysis of hazardous materials in oil shale
A future oil shale industry will be a massive solids-handling industry generating large amounts of hazardous materials. A risk analysis performed on a hypothetical industry producing 1 million barrels/day to aid in the formulation and management of research is described. Model data indicate that the potential impact on a semi-arid, high altitude ecosystem would be minimal. Only aquatic systems would be potentially threatened under extreme conditions. Occupational and public health risks are also evaluated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos.2+3, special issue, p.317-350. 77 ref.
Kastenberg W.E., Solomon K.A.
On the use of confidence levels in risk management
A framework for incorporating uncertainty in risk management is developed and applied to 2 aspects of decision making: meeting standards or safety goals and cost-benefit criteria. The framework is applied to several case studies and proposes that decisions be based on a level of confidence in addition to comparing best estimate or point values with standards or goals.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos.2+3, special issue, p.263-278. 12 ref.
The management and assessment of risk from recombinant organisms
Description of the "untraditional" path followed to develop risk management policies for recombinant DNA research in the USA. Aspects covered: the recombinant DNA technique; potential risks; historical and institutions involved in rulemaking; the National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines; risk assessment.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos. 2+3, special issue, p.241-261. 58 ref.
Quantitative risk analysis for toxic chemicals in the environment
An overview and basic framework is presented for quantification of human health risks associated with toxic chemicals in the environment. Aspects covered: basic terminology (risk, cumulative risk, hazard, exposure, dose, toxicity, susceptibility); methodology; procedures for estimating ambiant concentrations, effect potency, human exposure and risk levels for a chemical substance. A numerical illustration of the calculation procedures is presented.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1985, Vol.10, Nos.2+3, Special issue, p.227-240. 9 ref.
(Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Methods for the determination and handling of hazards
Methoden voor het bepalen en verwerken van kansen [in Dutch]
This manual was compiled for the purpose of creating a basis for the evaluation of hazards due to flammable, explosive and otherwise dangerous substances. Summary: definitions; failures of systems and human failures; fault-tree analysis; event-tree analysis; hazardous event development; risks of human failure; probability calculations; reliability calculations; statistical evaluation; programmes for calculating fault-tree analysis results; evaluation of the results of calculations.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1985. 446p. Illus. Bibl. Price: Glds.100.00.
European Federation of Chemical Engineering
Risk analysis in the process industries: report of the International Study Group on Risk Analysis
This report covers various aspects of risk analysis connected with process engineering: definitions; hazard identification procedures; consequence analysis (including effect models for discharge, evaporation, dispersion, heat radiation, unconfined vapour cloud explosions); quantification of event probabilities and of risk; applications of risk analysis; failure logic analysis techniques.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, George E. Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1985. 92p. Illus. Bibl.
Bye E., Eduard W., Gjønnes J., Sørbrøden E.
Occurrence of airborne silicon carbide fibers during industrial production of silicon carbide
Fibres of silicon carbide (SiC) were identified in samples of airborne dust from the production of SiC by using various microscopy techniques. 80% of the fibres identified had diameters <0.5µm and a length >5µm. Fibre levels in the 3 Norwegian plants investigated were <1 fibre/cm3 of air. Dust samples from the handling of raw materials contained up to 5 fibres/cm3.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1985, Vol.11, No.2, p.111-115. Illus. 9 ref.
Schulte P.A., Ringen K., Hemstreet G.P., Altekruse E.B., Gullen W.H., Patton M.G., Allsbrook W.C., Crosby J.H., West S.S., Witherington R., Koss L., Bales C.E., Tillet S., Rooks S.C.F., Stern F., Stringer W., Schmidt V.A., Brubaker M.M.
Risk assessment of a cohort exposed to aromatic amines - Initial results
A cohort of 1,385 U.S. workers potentially exposed to carcinogenic amines was evaluated to determine the extent of their risk of contracting bladder cancer. Initial results revealed 13 confirmed cases of bladder cancer. The latency period was found to be much shorter in black workers than in the general U.S. population.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.27, No.2, p.115-121. Illus. 19 ref.
Rapid ranking of process hazards
Description of a rapid and practical method for ranking hazards based on a coarse-scale comparative assessment of severity and likelihood. Aspects covered: basic assumptions; categorisation of severity (minor to total loss); estimation of frequency (very rarely to very often); ranking of hazards.
Process Engineering, Feb. 1985, Vol.66, No.2, p.19,21-22. Illus. 7 ref.
Model of potential hazards in coal mines
Modell der im Steinkohlenbergbau auftretenden Gefährdungen [in German]
Presentation of a mathematical model whose purpose is the prediction of accident and disease rates in Polish coal mines, and of the preventive measures to be taken on the basis of the model. Distinction is made between static, kinetic and dynamic evolutionary phases; safety measures corresponding to each phase are described. Evaluation of the static risk of occupational diseases (due to noise, vibration or toxic gases); comparison of accident risks and health risks due to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in air; evolution of fire risks and preventive measures in the various phases.
Glückauf-Forschungshefte, 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.39-45. Illus. 15 ref.
Process safety analysis - Incentive for the identification of inherent process hazards
Procesveiligheidsanalyse - Aanzet tot het opsporen van inherente procesgevaren [in Dutch]
Process safety analysis is a systematic investigation into the acute hazards inherent in a process, both under the desired process conditions and under forseeable abnormal conditions that may occur. This manual describes how to integrate safety analysis into process development at the research, design, construction and production stages. Physical and chemical causes of unsafe aspects of processes are discussed. Experimental methods and basic principles of processes are outlined in appendixes.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, P.O. Box 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1984. 91p. (English edition 1985, 86p.). Illus. Bibl.
Bee sting hypersensitivity
418 subjects involved with various aspects of the honey industry were studied from 1981 to 1983 in Alberta, Canada. An index of reactivity to bee stings, ranging from non-responsiveness to distinct likelihood of systemic reaction, was established.
Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Mar. 1984. 118p. Illus. Bibl. Appendices.
Fire hazards presented by wiring in cases of electrical malfunctions
Požarnaja opasnost' ėlektroprovodok pri avarijnyh režimah [in Russian]
Aspects covered in this guide for engineers, technicians and fire-protection specialists: theoretical and experimental data on overloads and short circuits; fire hazards due to metal particles formed in short-circuit arcs; probability and statistical methods of assessment of the hazardousness of electrical equipment; determining the contribution of electrical malfunctions to fires; fire hazards presented by lead-in-wires.
Izdatel'stvo Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 184p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: Rbl.0.55.
Principles for evaluating health risks to progeny associated with exposure to chemicals during pregnancy
This document is intended to aid in the design and assessment of studies concerned with exploring the association between exposure to chemicals during pregnancy and defective development. Aspects covered: processes involved in normal and abnormal development; methods for assessing prenatal toxic manifestations; postnatal manifestations; current and future applications of in-vitro developmental and non-mammalian animal systems; human risk evaluation; conclusions and recommendations for future activities; glossary of terms.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 177p. Bibl. Price: SF.16.00.
European major hazards
Proceedings of a conference held in London, United Kingdom, 22-23 May 1984. Aspects covered include control of major hazards, risk assessment, the problem of toxic chemicals, major hazards research, emergency planning and response, legislation, information of the public.
Oyez Scientific & Technical Services Ltd., Bath House, 56 Holborn Viaduct, London EC1A 2EX, United Kingdom, Sep. 1984. 202p. Illus.
(Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda)
Guide to the evaluation of harmful industrial factors in the laser processing of some polyvinyl chlorides and metals
Metodičeskie ukazanija po ocenke vrednyh proizvodstvennyh faktorov pri lazernoj obrabotke nekotoryh polivinilhloridnyh i metalličeskih materialov [in Russian]
Description of methods for the determination of harmful and dangerous occupational factors. Contents: general provisions, determination of laser danger zones; monitoring of harmful and dangerous occupational factors; hygienic, technical and organisational means of guaranteeing safety. In annexes: calculation of the dimensions of a laser danger zone; instrumental determination of the limits of the zone; gas chromatography of aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic alcohols, reactive gas chromatography of carbon monoxide and polarographic determination of some metals.
VCNIIOT VCSPS, Obolenskij per.10, 119829 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 61p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: Rbl.0.70.
Industrial Health Foundation
Proceedings of a symposium on an industry approach to chemical risk assessment - Caprolactam and related compounds as a case study
Papers presented at a symposium in Arlington, Virginia, USA (15-17 May 1984). Titles: an overview of risk assessment; summary of toxicology literature reviews - caprolactam and hydroxylamine salts; assessing the hazards of chemicals to aquatic life; aquatic toxicity and environmental fate studies - caprolactam; an overview of nephrotoxicity; effects of subchronic dietary caprolactam on renal function; 90-day dog study - caprolactam; caprolactam: no evidence of carcinogenicity in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice; acute, subacture and subchronic toxicity of cyclohexanone oxime; the philosophy and practice of rapidly identifying workplaces safe for the conceptus; rat and rabbit teratology studies of caprolactam; a three-generation reproduction study with caprolactam in rats; inhalation teratology studies on caprolactam; autoradiography of 14C-caprolactam; mutagenic assessment of hydroxylamine sulfate; multiple genetic endpoint assay of cyclohexanone in CHO cells; combustion toxicity of nylon 6; cataractogenesis studies with cyclohexanone; validation study of a method for monitoring personnel exposure to caprolactam.
34 Penn Circle West, Pittsburgh, PA 15206, USA, 1984. 301p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$25.00 plus postage and handling.
Fischhoff B., Lichtenstein S., Slovic P., Derby S.L., Keeney R.L.
The authors construct a framework for making decisions about risks and offer recommendations for research, public policy and practice. Chapter headings: how safe is safe enough?; why is it so hard to resolve acceptable-risk problems?; choosing an approach to acceptable risk: a metadecision problem; professional judgement; bootstrapping (using the level of risk that has been tolerated in the past as a basis for evaluating the acceptability of proposed risks); formal analysis; comparison of approaches; what have we learned? (general conclusions about acceptable-risk decisions); recommendations for improving acceptable-risk decision making; what do we need to learn? (proposals for future research).
Cambridge University Press, the Edinburg Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom, 1984. 185p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £5.95.
Agricultural chemicals and farm health safety
Aspects covered in the 3rd of 3 reports prepared to serve as a basis for implementing safety and health programmes in Ontario agriculture: background information; legislation on farm chemicals; pesticides (exposure routes, transport, storage, handling, mixing, disposal); toxicology of major pesticides used in Ontario (organophosphates, carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, dithiocarbamates and phthalimide, phenoxy, bipyridyllium, triazine, anilide, urea and phenolic compounds); toxic effects of other farm chemicals (dust, gases, mycotoxins, bacteria); epidemiological data (cancer and other diseases).
Ontario Task Force on Health and Safety in Agriculture, 434 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, Dec. 1984. 146p. Illus. 209 ref.
Farm machinery industry and farm safety
Aspects covered in the 2nd of 3 reports prepared to serve as a basis for implementing safety and health programmes in the Ontario agriculture: characterisation of the farm machinery industry (structure, relations farmer/manufacturer, distribution networks); hazardousness ratings of farm equipment; safety and health organisations related to Ontario farmers.
Ontario Task Force on Health and Safety in Agriculture, 434 University Avenue, Toronto M7A 1T7, Ontario, Canada, Sep. 1984. 85p. 7 ref.
Hazop and hazan - Notes on the identification and assessment of hazards
This manual for managers, engineers and students is one of the Institution of Chemical Engineers Hazard Workshop Training Modules. Contents: hazard identification and assessment; hazard and operability studies (hazop); hazard analysis (hazan); a manager's guide to hazard analysis; objections to hazop and hazan; sources of data; the history of hazop and hazan. Hazop is undertaken during the design or reevaluation of a plant or process; it attempts to identify the consequences of deviations in operating conditions. Hazan applies numerical methods and fault-tree analysis to the determination of the cost-benefit balance for proposed safety measures.
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, no date. 81p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £8.00; US$15.00.
Report of the working group on visual display terminals and workers' health
Rapport du groupe de travail sur les terminaux à écran de visualisation et la santé des travailleurs [in French]
Aspects covered by this report: the environment (work stations, equipment, potential hazards); health problems (visual and eye problems, cataracts, biological effects, dermatitis, stress); recommendations; bibliography.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec, 505, boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, 1984. 77p. 251 ref.
Analysis of occupational hazards: a global approach to prevention
L'analyse des risques du travail: une démarche globale en matière de prévention [in French]
This report describes the methodology of hazard identification in a given working environment, and that of the evaluation and technical prevention of such hazards.
Centre d'intervention et de recherche pour l'amélioration des situations de travail, 300, ave. des Ursulines, Rimouski, Québec G5L 3A1, Canada, 1984. 39p. Illus. Appendix.
Frucht A.H., Krause N., Nimtz G., Schaefer H.
Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (1kHz-1000GHz) on man
Die Wirkung hochfrequenter elektromagnetischer Felder auf den Menschen (1kHz-1000GHz) [in German]
This report surveys important research results in the international literature. Contents: outline of the problem; medical and technical use of high-frequency electromagnetic waves; the interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter; protective measures (permissible levels, safety rules); general effects (particularly, heat) and special problems (effects on certain organs or physiologic systems); 2 case studies illustrating the effects of extreme exposure to diathermic fields and to radar waves. The conclusion of the study is that harmful effects do not occur if the recommended field-strength limit of 10mW/cm2 is not exceeded. There is no confirmation of non-thermal effects (e.g. on the eyes, on the haemato-encephalic barrier and on reproductive functions), often reported in the literature. Epidemiologic research aims and results are analysed.
Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany; Medizinisch-technischer Bericht 1984. 127p. Illus. 330 ref.
This data sheet covers the hazards, handling and properties of sodium and provides data on protective equipment and preventive measures. Other aspects covered: storage, sodium dispersions, ventilation, fire extinguishing, first aid, waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, rev. 1984. 4p. 4 ref.
Tsai S.P., Wen C.P.
The impact of competing risks on relative risk in occupational cohort studies
A method was developed for the adjustment of competing causes of death in the calculation of relative risk in epidemiologic studies. 3 factors are of particular importance: the overall mortality risk of the study population, the differential risk (or adjustment factor) for mortality different from the risk under study, and the age intervals used in mortality calculation. Examples from a study of refinery workers and another of the US national population show that, among certain age groups unadjusted for competing risks, relative risks can be overestimated by up to 9%.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1984, No.4, Vol.13, p.518-525. 25 ref.
Methodologies for hazard analysis and risk assessment in the petroleum refining and storage industry - Parts I and II
This report, prepared by the Ad-Hoc Risk Assessment Group of the Oil Companies' International Study Group for Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe (CONCAWE), provides an overview of methodologies which can supplement risk management practices with particular reference to major hazards. Aspects covered: hazard analysis, risk assessment and the causes of incidents; management of risk; analytical procedures; assessment of the consequences; practical applications; conclusions and recommendations. A glossary provides definitions of the technical terms used.
Fire Technology, Part I. Aug. 1984, Vol.20, No.3, p.23-38; Part II. Nov. 1984, Vol.20, No.4, p.43-56. Bibl.
Electromagnetic fields - Potential hazards
Elektromagnetische Felder - Potentielle Gefährdung [in German]
A review of the potential health hazards of exposure to electromagnetic fields in the range of 1Hz-100kHz, and suggested exposure limits. Principles of hazard evaluation, a frequency-power density diagram, TLVs for organic effects, disturbances in heart function, stimulation of individual cells, stimulation threshold of alternating current, induction of tensions in the cellular membrane by electric fields, observed phenomena in connection with power densities below the stimulation threshold, range of harmless power densities; potential differences of 0.1mV produced by electromagnetic fields, phosphene and flicker phenomena, dangerous and harmless fields, power densities from electric and magnetic sources. Field strengths as a function of frequency, recommended at head and heart level.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Oct. 1984, No.10, p.17-25. Illus. 68 ref.
Metalworking fluids - Description and analysis of research needs from viewpoint of work environment problems
Report by the Swedish Work Environment Fund's programme committee for research and development concerning work environment problems in connection with the use of lubricants and coolants in metalworking. Contents: analysis of needs and proposals for research and development (product choice and risk evaluation, technical measures preventing exposure, maintenance, handling and control methods); information material and its dissemination; establishment of priorities, time-schedules and follow-up. Appended are a list of the Fund's projects concerning lubricants and coolants, an estimate of the number of workers exposed to lubricants and coolants, and a report on the current situation in this field.
The Swedish Work Environment Fund, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1983. 35p.
Rickard T.J., Angus R.M.
A personal risk assessment for craftsmen and artists
This booklet contains a questionnaire designed for a self-evaluation of the occupational hazards surrounding artists and provides information such as advice on conducting the evaluation, addresses of safety and health institutions and information sources.
Ontario Crafts Council, 336 Dundas St. W., Toronto, Ontario M5T 1C5, Canada, 1983. 17p.
Kupka J., Görner P., Bobro K., Weiss K.
Objective criteria for evaluating dust hazards
Objektívne kriteria hodnotenia rizika z prašnosti [in Slovak]
In the given system for evaluating dust hazards in ore mines, risk is evaluated in terms of the dose of inhaled dust and the so-called specific harmfulness of dust. The probability of pneumoconiosis is defined as the ratio of the number of patients to the total number of examined persons, expressed as a percentage. Methods and time tables for measurement in workplaces, the division of workplaces according to potential dust nuisance with a view to work operations and mode of ventilation, methods for recording measurement results and the evaluation of the risk in a computing centre are described.
Rudy, 1983, Vol.31, No.4, p.113-115. 2 ref.
Workbook for designated substance assessments
This workbook provides the methodology for assessing the workplace hazards from toxic substances designated as regulated substances under the Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act. Contents: worksheet samples and assessment methods (presence of substance, likeliness of exposure, process description, existing controls, exposure analysis, health effects, floor plan, walk through survey and survey conclusions); assessment conclusions; data sheets on the designated substances (asbestos, silica, lead, mercury, isocyanates, vinyl chloride).
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street East, 23rd Floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1983. 60p + workbook. Illus.
Frolov M.A., Reznik L.A.
Effect of the method of comminution on the chemical activity of freshly prepared coal dust
Vlijanie sposoba razrušenija uglej na himičeskuju aktivnost' svežeobrazovannoj pyli [in Russian]
Free radical concentrations were higher in coal dusts resulting from drilling than in those resulting from crushing operations, regardless of the origin or degree of metamorphosis of the coal. This effect must be kept in mind in assessing the risk of pneumoconiosis posed by a given coal, and in the choice of methods for coal comminution.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1983, No.5, p.56-57. Illus. 7 ref.
Veličkovskij B.T., Korkina L.G., Suslova T.B.
Determining the cytotoxicity of a dust by chemiluminescence
Opredelenie citotoksičnosti pyli metodom hemiljuminescencii [in Russian]
When phagocytic cells engulf foreign bodies, they produce active oxygen species which are chemiluminescent, and the time course of the chemiluminescence depends on the nature of the interaction of the cell with the foreign matter. To examine the potential of this phenomenon for the testing of dusts, rat peritoneal macrophages were exposed to 11 dusts of known cytotoxicity. Exposure took place in a recording photometer. The ratio of the intensity of chemiluminescence evoked by a dust to the half-life of the chemiluminescence was compared to the ratio for a reference dust. Dusts with cytotoxicities greater than that of the reference dust had higher ratios, and less cytotoxic dusts had lower ratios. As cytotoxicity is correlated with fibrogenicity, this method may be useful for assessing the dangers of exposure to particular dusts.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1983, No.5, p.31-34. Illus. 7 ref.
Uncertainty in risk assessment
The theory of probabilistic risk assessment is presented. Appropriate mathematical formulae are developed, and the variables involved are explained in detail. As an example, the case of toxic gas (chlorine) release near a populated area is considered in detail.
Health and Safety Executive, Research and Laboratory Services Division, Red Mill, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1983. 19p. Illus. 25 ref.
Covello V.T., Flamm W.G., Rodricks J.V., Tardiff R.G.
The analysis of actual versus perceived risks
Risk analysis is discussed in the context of major safety issues in these 21 papers presented at an international workshop sponsored by the Society for Risk Analysis (1-3 June 1981, Washington, D.C., USA). Sections cover: automobile accidents and passenger restraints; nuclear power plants (European and US perspectives); cancer chemotherapy; smoking; toxic wastes; depletion of stratospheric ozone.
Plenum Publishing Corporation, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA, 1983, Vol.1, 377p. Illus. 796 ref. Bibl. Index. Price: US$55.00.
Chiazze L., Lundin F.E., Watkins D.
Society for Occupational and Environmental Health (USA)
Methods and issues in occupational and environmental epidemiology
Contributors from industry, labour, government and academia provide information on topics including available sources of data, design and analysis of epidemiologic studies, various sources of bias, multiple aetiologic factors, quantification of risk and impediments to epidemiology. Sections cover: design and analysis of epidemiologic studies (cohort, longitudinal, case-control, cross-sectional); selection bias; quantification of risk and multiple factors; epidemiology and society.
Ann Arbor Science Publishers, The Butterworth Group, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 8PH, United Kingdom, 1983. 242p. Illus. 246 ref. Index. Price: £36.50.
Use of data on air contaminants when judging exposure in environmental and epidemiological studies
Användbarheten av luftföroreningsdata från arbetsplatser för bedömning av exponering i samband med yrkeshygieniska och epidemiologiska studier [in Swedish]
In addition to uncertainties in the measurement of substances in the air and in biological materials, short-term and long-term fluctuations in contaminant levels (changes occurring on time scales of hours and months, respectively) and empirically unfounded assumptions about the relation of exposure to uptake lead to systematic bias in the estimation of contaminant uptake from exposure data. Uptake is probably usually overestimated, which means that many exposure limits may have been set at unrealistic levels. Bias can be counteracted by accompanying exposure data in files with information on the circumstances of measurement. English translation may be obtained from: Health and Safety Executive, Translation Services, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN, United Kingdom.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 32p. Illus. 32 ref.
Fäng G., Larsson T.J.
Risk analysis and occupational safety - A bibliography
Riskanalys och arbetarskydd - en bibliografi [in Swedish]
Annotated bibliography drawn from several databases. Contents: generalities of methods developed for risk analysis; methods based on technical systems (fault tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis); methods based on man (human failure, analysis of occupational safety, critical incident technique); treatment by connection between man and his environment (management oversight and risk tree, analysis of the man-machine system); quantitative evaluations; question of acceptable risks; risk analysis as part of occupational safety.
Arbetsolycksfallsgruppen, Tekniska högskolan, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Oct. 1983. 58p. Illus. 119 ref.
Dinman B.D., Sussman N.B.
Uncertainty, risk, and the role of epidemiology in public policy development
The development of methods to determine occupational and other risks and of chronic disease and mortality epidemiology are reviewed. A scoring procedure for epidemiologic assessment of human carcinogenesis is proposed. A prerequisite step for this is a set of criteria for acceptance or rejection of any published study. Factors that must be considered in so doing are the epidemiologic method used, the level of significance, the dose-response relationship, and consistency with biological models and/or with other epidemiologic reports. All of these are discussed, and a scoring system proposed in each case. A test case, studies of coal-tar volatiles, is used as illustration. An information/option nomogram is presented for application of data-scoring schemes for policy development, with a view to constructing an array of action options that respond to specific needs. The development of the scoring scheme and any formulation that combines animal scoring systems would require a coordinated, multi-disciplinary group effort.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1983, Vol.25, No.7, p.511-516. Illus. 14 ref.
Job hazard analysis in an industrial laboratory environment
This data sheet is designed to assist in the hazard recognition training of technicians involved in laboratory and pilot plant work. Contents: job hazard analysis; jobs to be analysed; getting started; basic steps in job hazard analysis; using the analysis; an example of job hazard analysis.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1983. 4p. Illus. Bibl.
Whorton M.D., Schulman J., Larson S.R., Stubbs H.A., Austin D.
Feasibility of identifying high-risk occupations through tumor registries
6424 workers (asbestos workers, bakers, painters, plasterers, plumbers and roofers) were studied. The California Tumour Registry file for 1976 and 1977 indicated increased cancer incidence (trachea, bronchus, lung, pleura) among asbestos workers (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 498) and painters (SIR = 199). Strengths and weaknesses of the approach are discussed. Many technical and methodological problems limit the utility of the system for routine cancer incidence surveillance.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1983, Vol.25, No.9, p.657-660. 25 ref.
Collins J.J., Lundy R.T., Grahn D.
A demographic model for performing site-specific health risk projections
A life table model for estimating health risks in occupationally exposed workers is extended to incorporate specific fertility assumptions and to produce a model that is able to perform health risk projections for populations living in or around sites that release agents with potentially adverse health consequences. Fertility patterns are important for short-term projections. The interaction of initial age structure, competing risks from other causes of death, and fertility patterns are important in determining future levels of excess mortality from various pollutants.
Health Physics, July 1983, Vol.45, No.1, p.9-20. Illus. 10 ref.
Strategy of monitoring for chemical contaminants in the environment
Strategi vid undersökning av kemiska miljöfaktorer [in Swedish]
This report covers: choice of strategy (trends, legislation and TLVs; future developments; main tasks of the administration); principles of workplace monitoring (survey, hazard evaluation, environmental monitoring); investigation strategy (monitoring, data collection, in-depth studies, preventive measures); future philosophy of exposure measurements; choice of measuring techniques and of representative substances to be measured; measuring methods; sampling frequency; interpretation of results. The appendix contains: glossary; suggestions for research projects (optimisation of sampling for chemical contaminants in air; significance of sampling locations for accuracy of measurement; simplified monitoring of the workplace; emission measurements; measurement techniques for emission and by-product monitoring; standardised workplaces; emission measurement at fixed points or at a distance; OSH measurement data-bases); literature survey; significant Swedish initiatives.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Dec. 1983. 65p. 19 ref.
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