Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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Tourte J., Loriot J., Méreau P.
Contact lenses - Risks and advantages in the workplace
Les lentilles de contact - Risques et avantages en milieu de travail [in French]
Updated survey of the hazards and advantages of contact lenses in the workplace. The wearing of contact lenses is increasing in popularity, and it must be kept in mind that they do not substitute for safety glasses. A psychological study is made of the rumours concerning occupational accidents affecting contact lens wearers, which became widespread after an actual incident in Baltimore in 1967 affecting an arch welder. The results of recent experiments are summarized. Survey of mechanical, chemical, physical and infectious hazards to contact lens wearers in the workplace in the absence of preventive measures. The particular problems of sensitive workplaces (control centres etc.) long work-shifts and respirators are reviewed. Other topics covered: advantages of contact lenses in certain jobs, what to do after an accident, role of the occupational physician, legislation in France, medical supervision.
Le concours médical, 1989, Vol.111, No.39, p.3467-3475. Illus. 30 ref.
Tripartite seminar on major accident hazards control system in India - progress and prospects
Proceedings of a tripartite seminar held on 7th and 8th of November, in Bombay, India. Topics covered: the elements of the major hazards control system established in India, major hazards assessment, emergency planning, siting and land use planning, information to the public.
Central Labour Institute, N.S. Mankikar Marg, Sion, Bombay 400022, India, 1989. 59p. Illus. 6 ref.
Former Bureau of Labour and Management, Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection
Evaluation standard for safety inspection in building construction [China]
Jianzhu shigong anquan jiancha pingfen biaozhun [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Apr. 1989), ratified by the Ministry of Construction, sets out the categories of safety inspection required on building construction sites and the method of evaluation. It contains evaluation tables with a scoring system for the inspection of safety management, scaffolding, personal protective equipment and safety guards, electricity supply for construction, gantry and derrick for cranes, tower cranes, construction machines and tools, and the final overall evaluation.
China Construction Industry Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1989. 18p. Price: CNY 0.85.
Audran R., Falcy M., Meyer-Bisch C.
Protection against chemical and other industrial hazards
Toxicovigilance et vigilance industrielle [in French]
Official and informal systems for the surveillance of chemical and other hazards in the industrial environment are discussed. The success of such surveillance depends on the collection, validation, organisation and computerisation of data and on its centralisation.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications - Pathologie du travail, 1989. 2p. 5 ref.
Lafon D., Rousselin X., Merlin A.J.
Industrial production of cytostatic drugs. Occupational hazards and their prevention
Production industrielle des médicaments cytostatiques. Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
While the use of cytostatic drugs in hospitals has been widely documented, the risk of exposure and its possible adverse health effects in workers during the manufacture of these drugs have not been studied until now. The principal stages in the production of cytostatic drugs are reviewed along with the hazards during the different stages of production, preventive measures and medical supervision of personnel.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1989, No.39, p.225-232. Illus. 58 ref.
Large-scale handling of chemicals [Sweden]
Translation into English of the Regulations originally abstracted as CIS 83-1823. They became effective on 1 Jan. 1991 and apply to the large-scale handling of dangerous or hazardous chemicals, corresponding on the whole to EEC Council Directive 82/501/EEC "on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities" (see CIS 83-889). Contents: general stipulations (the employer must carry out a risk analysis of the activity concerned and he must take steps to prevent major accidents and limit their consequences), special documentation for the checking and maintenance of equipment and for particularly hazardous activities (those involving more than a specified quantity of ca. 200 enumerated substances/groups of substances) and the drawing up of an emergency plan in case of a major accident. Detailed commentaries are appended.
National Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 50p. 10 ref.
DNA and protein adducts: Evaluation of their use in exposure monitoring and risk assessment
Contents of this monograph: principles, fundamental assumptions and ethical considerations; mechanisms (adduct formation, reaction of chemicals with DNA and proteins, DNA adducts and biological effects); methods for detecting adducts, and comparisons of sensitivity, cost and time; DNA and protein adducts in animals and in man; evaluation of DNA and/or protein adducts as measures for exposure and for risk assessment; recommendations for further research; glossary. These techniques are very promising for measurement of low levels of human exposure to genotoxic chemicals, but cannot be used confidently to predict health risk.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Boîte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 1989. 89p. Illus. ca. 280 ref.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Risk assessment of major hazards: A brief overview of methods and information sources
This report provides an introduction to the techniques of risk assessment for manufacturers having duties under the Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards (CIMAH) Regulations (see CIS 89-1436) of the United Kingdom. Guidance is given on sources of information on the methods used to identify sources of major accidents and assess their likelihood of occurrence and potential consequences. The general approach to risk assessment and the linking together of the various models is also outlined.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Wigshaw Lane, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, 1989. 15p. 43 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Bernard A., Lauwerys R.
The mutagenic and carcinogenic risks of industrial chemicals
Les risques mutagènes et cancérogènes des produits chimiques industriels [in French]
This review article presents the mutagenic and carcinogenic risks of industrial chemicals, the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, the methods used for the detection of potential human carcinogens, the main industrial carcinogens (polycyclic hydrocarbons, asbestos, benzene, aromatic amines, halogenated hydrocarbons, alkylating agents, certain metals and their compounds) and the biological methods for identifying workers at risk in industry. Recent advances in the study of chemical carcinogenesis have led to the development of several methods permitting a more effective prevention of occupational cancer.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1989, Vol.50, No.8, p.779-790. Illus. 24 ref.
Occupational Safety Report: guideline for compilation [Netherlands]
Arbeidsveiligheidsrapport: leidraad voor het samenstellen [in Dutch]
This is the second publication in the series of directives concerning the occupational safety report. The first publication (P 172-1) describes the system of designating installations. This publication describes what data should be included in the occupational safety report. Subsequent to the introduction and a chapter on general considerations, the following items are discussed: general descriptions of the site; processes, organisation and emergency provisions; specific descriptions of installations; dangerous substances; predictable hazards; preventive measures. In the appendix: list of ca. 200 substances, with corresponding hazard classification and material factors; calculation method for the determination of the fire and explosion index F and toxicity index T.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1989 (English translation: 1990). 29p.
Guidance for the preparation of a risk management and prevention program
The California Risk Management and Prevention Program (RMPP) is designed to improve facility safety while handling Acutely Hazardous Materials (AHM) and to increase protection of the public and the environment from releases of AHM. This guide comprises 6 sections: 1. General RMPP overview and who may be required to develop one; 2. Statutory requirements; 3. Guidance on the development and implementation of an RMPP; 4. Definitions of RMPP terms; 5. Information sources and references with a list of professional, service and trade organisations; 6. Appendices (including lists of hazarous substances and concepts for the evaluation of chemicals).
Governor's Office of Emergency Services, 2800 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832, USA, 1989. 122p. Illus. 52 ref.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Development toxicology: Risk assessment and the future
Review of efforts to estimate the risk of developmental defects and disabilities in humans due to the exposure of parents to chemicals before conception, during pregnancy or during childhood. Emphasis is on areas of needed research identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency, including paternally mediated effects, nonbehavioural functional effects, pharmacokinetic and physiological models, structure-activity relationships and mathematical modelling. Carcinogenicity, interspecies differences and methodological issues are also discussed.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003, USA; Chapman and Hall, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, United Kingdom, Dec. 1989. 279p. Illus. Approx. 810 ref. Index. Price: GBP 32.50.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Chlorophenols other than pentachlorophenol
In the manufacture of chlorophenols, clinical symptoms associated with exposure include eye, nose and airway irritation, dermatitis, chloracne and porphyria. Abnormal liver function tests, changes in brain wave activity, and slowed visual reaction time have been reported in association with high-level exposure. In sawmill workers, sodium tetrachlorophenolate exposures have caused numerous cases of dermatitis and respiratory irritation. Epidemiological studies show conflicting results relating cancer incidence and mortality to occupational exposure.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 208p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: CHF 22.00.
Chlorine toxicity monograph - updated version
Conclusions of this updated review of chlorine toxicity: while there is little direct evidence on fatal concentration levels to humans, results from animal experiments provide a basis for predicting effects on humans. Animal data suggest that an average lethal concentration for 50% of healthy people would be around 400ppm for 30 minutes. Additional data cover chlorine toxicity criteria for hazard assessment and results of a special study on chlorine toxicity carried out in the Netherlands.
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1989. 44p. Illus. Bibl.
Turner R.M., Fairhurst S.
Assessment of the toxicity of major hazard substances
This paper proposes a systematic approach for expressing the toxicological hazard to human health posed by the airborne release of a major hazard substance. The importance of using reliable toxicity data from original sources is discussed. Criteria defining the level of toxicity on which risk calculations are based are described in terms of individual risk, i.e. the likelihood of an individual receiving an exposure which will produce a specified level of toxicity, and societal risk, the frequency of a given number of deaths from a specific cause. A method is described for deriving the relationship between the atmospheric concentration of the substance and the duration of exposure for a given level of toxicity. The parameters thus deemed may be used in major hazard risk analysis.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, May 1989. 13p. 32 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk criteria for land-use planning in the vicinity of major industrial hazards
This document outlines the approach taken in Great Britain by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in its formulation of advice to local planning authorities regarding the development of land in the vicinity of major hazard installations. HSE methods for quantified risk assessment are described and the uncertainties associated with the risk estimates produced by such techniques are discussed. Types of risk are explained in terms of individual risk, for which some numerical criteria are suggested, and societal risk, for which qualitative judgements are applied in relation to housing developments. Potential risks for other types of development including workplaces, retail and leisure, and large facilities are also considered. Some economic considerations are discussed.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 32p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Quantified risk assessment: Its input to decision making
This paper examines ways in which risks can be assessed and the contribution such assessments make to decisions on the significance of risks for a particular situation. Topics covered include possible purposes of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA), a general approach to risk regulation, quantification of the results of a major event expressed in terms of societal risk, and the extent and nature of risks and their effect upon prediction. Details are given of 16 cases in which a QRA was used in judging relative safety or applied to actual decisions. The varied nature of these analyses is examined together with decisions taken. It is concluded that there is no readily deductible and uniformly applicable upper level of acceptable societal risk. Although QRA contains some uncertainties, it should be a major component in risk decisions.
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 30p. 32 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Health risk of exposure to non-occupational sources of benzene
Repeated exposure to high concentrations of benzene is associated with the onset of leukaemia, and benzene is therefore classified as a human carcinogen. However, no case of benzene-induced leukaemia has been confirmed following repeated exposure at work to benzene at concentrations below 100ppm. Benzene also causes depression of blood formation, but again no case of benzene-induced depression of blood formation has been confirmed at below 25 to 30ppm. Benzene causes chromosal aberrations, but there is no evidence to link these with the occurrence of leukaemia. A maximum permissible time weighted average workplace exposure for benzene of 5ppm and an action level of 1.5ppm have been proposed in the EC.
Oil Companies European Organisation for Environmental and Health Protection, CONCAWE, 30-9A Koningin Julianaplein, 2595 AA Den Haag, Netherlands, 1989. 15p. 24 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
Cross index of synonyms and trade names in volumes 1 to 46
This index contains the synonyms and trade names used for each chemical or complex mixture evaluated in the IARC monographs (update of publication abstracted as CIS 83-1013). In the alphabetical listing, all synonyms and trade names refer to the specific common name as used in the body of the monographs. The name appears in bold type in the list and is followed by the volume and page number of the relevant monographs. Substances are also listed by Chemical Abstracts Services Registry Numbers. The data contained in the index is available in a computerised database which it is envisaged will be continually updated.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, Dec. 1989. 346p. Price: CHF 60.00.
Unit: COSHH Part 2 - Module: Assessment
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. Contents: outline of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations of Great Britain; assessments and COSHH; competence in making assessments; the assessment procedure; gathering basic information on hazardous substances; making conclusions about the risks; risk from injection, ingestion, skin/eye contact and inhalation; required control measures; record keeping; review of assessments; implementation of a programme of assessments.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1989. 93p. Illus.
AIDS - A summary of the occupational health concern
SIDA - Un résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [in French]
This document outlines the causes and transmission of AIDS, how it affects the body and how the disease is recognised. Occupational groups risking exposure to the AIDS virus are listed along with appropriate preventive measures. Statistics are given for predicted new AIDS cases in Canada by end 1993.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1989. 8p. 14 ref.
Large-scale handling of chemicals [Sweden]
Storskalig kemikaliehantering [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective 1 January 1991), which apply to the large-scale handling of dangerous or hazardous chemicals, correspond on the whole to Council Directive 82/501/EEC "on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial acitvities" (see CIS 83-889). Contents: general stipulations (the employer must carry out a risk analysis of the activity concerned and he must take steps to prevent major accidents and limit their consequences), special documentation for the checking and maintenance of equipment and for particularly hazardous activities (those involving more than a specified quantity of ca. 200 enumerated subsances/groups of substances) and the drawing up of an emergency plan in case of a major accident. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 6 Sep. 1989. 44p.
Olast M., Sinnaeve J.
Radiation protection - Seminar on applications, perspectives and limitations of comparative risk assessment and risk management
Papers presented at a seminar held in Nice (France), Sep. 1988. Topics covered include: the aims of comparative risk assessment and the issues likely to be faced by a decision maker; methods of risk assessment in a range of situations, and assumptions made; case studies in the areas of indoor pollution, radioactive and toxic wastes from power plants; limits of validity of application of the techniques from one field to another with reference to the need for decision making in the absence of absolutely determined technical information; risk management systems; use of psychological and social sciences as a way of improving the understanding of government decision making; future perspectives.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1989. 363p. Illus. Bibl. Price: ECU 32.50.
Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association
Council report: Formaldehyde
Literature survey of the toxicology of formaldehyde, with a discussion of its status as a "possible human carcinogen". Particular attention is paid to anatomists and persons in related professions, as they are regularly exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work. Statistical data are presented on the magnitude of this exposure and the resulting excess cancer risk. Regulatory status in the US and monitoring and control strategies are also discussed.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 24 Feb. 1989, Vol.261, No.8, p.1183-1187. 44 ref.
Hausen B.M., Jensen S., Mohnert J.
Contact allergy to colophony - IV. The sensitising potency of commercial products - An investigation of French and American modified colophony derivatives
The sensitising capacity of 15 commercial colophony products was studied experimentally in guinea pigs. The study included 8 French and 6 American colophony derivatives as well as French tall oil colophony. The results indicate that tall oil colophony is the strongest sensitising material within the tested group and that the maleic-modified products and the zinc-calcium-resinate are moderate sensitisers. Most of the modified products show a higher sensitising capacity than the genuine resin acids themselves. Cross-reactions between the resin acids and the derivatives are uncommon. Therefore, patch testing with high concentrations of colophony (e.g. 60%) will not help to detect patients with colophony-derivative allergy.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1989, Vol.20, No.2, p.133-143. Illus. 40 ref.
Occupational Health Programme - Synoptic report on preliminary hazard analysis in tanneries in Jajmau, Kanpur
A report of a preliminary hazard analysis covering different work-stations with respect to identification of hazard, effect of hazard, hazard index, recommended action and likely effects of action.
Regional Labour Institute, Sarvodaya-nagar, Kanpur, India, 1989. 14p.
Risk perception: Changing the terms of the debate
Involuntary risk has a new, quite different, meaning today than the term did when used in 1969 by Chauncey Starr. He believed that the public, in its trust in authority, would accept an imposed risk, and he saw the difficulty with involuntary risk as one of delay in feedback time. Today, public trust in authority is at a low ebb, and involuntary risks are more likely to be resented and rejected. Thus, "involuntary risk" represents a different kind of problem in 1989 than it did in 1969. With more historical perspective, differences over risk assessment and risk perception will not be entangled in differences in the meanings of the terms.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1989, Vol.21, No.3, p.261-272. 17 ref.
Rodricks J.V., Taylor M.R.
Comparison of risk management in US regulatory agencies
Although regulatory agencies in the United States have achieved substantial uniformity in the assessment of risks to human health from hazardous substances, it is not difficult to identify what appear to be quite different approaches to the agencies' management of these risks. One of many examples appears in the different levels of cancer risk (and corresponding levels of allowable exposure) found acceptable by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for the human carcinogen vinyl chloride. Even within EPA, permissible vinyl chloride exposure levels differ among programmes. Thus, one can experience quite different levels of permitted vinyl chloride exposure depending on whether one is breathing air near a manufacturing facility, working within that facility, drinking contaminated water, or ingesting beverages stored in certain plastic bottles. Inconsistencies such as these are partly explained by differences in statutory requirements, but also exist because of inadequacies in technical analyses regarding the meaning of terms such as "significant risk".
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1989, Vol.21, No.3, p.239-253. 13 ref.
Robins J.M., Blevins D., Schneiderman M.
The effective number of cigarettes inhaled daily by passive smokers: Are epidemiologic and dosimetric estimates consistent?
Since the early 1980's, a number of epidemiologic studies have implicated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a cause of lung cancer among non-smokers passively exposed to other people's tobacco smoke. A recent National Academy of Science Report (USA) on environmental tobacco smoke (NAS, 1986) summarised 13 such studies. Each study provided an estimate of the ratio of the lung cancer mortality rate among non-smokers with smoking spouses to the mortality rate among those with non-smoking spouses. The weighted average of the 13 study-specific rate ratios was roughly 1.3. It is shown that if this summary rate ratio is causally related to ETS and not to bias then the estimated number of lung cancer deaths attributable to ETS exposure occurring in US non-smokers in 1985 lies in the range of 2500-5000. Further it is examined whether the summary rate ratio of 1.3 is consistent with the existing epidemiologic data on active smokers and the dosimetric measurements that have been made on mainstream and environmental tobacco smoke. If consistent with this other data, the hypothesis is that the rate ratio of 1.3 is causally related to ETS exposure will be strengthened.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1989, Vol.21, No.3, p.215-238. 18 ref.
Robinson T., Yodaiken R.
The evolution of chronic hazard evaluation
The history of modern epidemiology is briefly reviewed from the early observational studies to the nested case control technique. The lessons learned from the investigation of nickel, benzene, chromates, smoking and many other hazards which were too long ignored must be applied, otherwise the tragedies of the past will recur. To accomplish the preventive goals inherent in occupational medicine, cooperation between industry, government, physicians and scientists is necessary. Toxicological, epidemiological and medical research must continue to improve our understanding of environmental hazards. New chemicals or new uses of old agents should be assumed to be potentially hazardous and worker exposure kept to a minimum until the long risk assessment process indicates otherwise.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1989, Vol.21, No.3, p.201-214. Illus. 36 ref.
Solomon K.A., Alesch K.A.
The index of harm: A measure for comparing occupational risk across industries
This paper presents an index of harm methodology that compares occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and non-radiological agents. It extends the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) by considering American rather than European and Japanese industry groups, by treating the relative importance of various occupational risks as a parameter rather than an arbitrary constant, and by identifying several ways in which both the methodology and the database could be improved. In the analysis, 6 types of adverse occupational effects - 3 non-radiological outcomes (death, accidental injury, and disease or illness) and 3 radiological outcomes (somatic effects, genetic effects, and somatic effects involving foetuses) are examined. The results of this analysis show that radiological workers exposed to the current industry average of 0.35rem/year are among the least endangered workers, and the riskiest industries appear to be: mining; agriculture, fishing, and farming; construction; transportation; and manufacturing, roughly in that order.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, June 1989, Vol.11, No.1, p.19-35. Illus. Bibl.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
Hazard assessment and control technology in semiconductor manufacturing
Presentations from a symposium (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 20-22 Oct. 1987) co-sponsored by the Semiconductor Industry Association, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The meeting provided a forum for the exchange of information among researchers, health and safety personnel from industry, equipment and material suppliers and representatives of US governmental agencies. The areas covered were: health studies, hazard control technology of manufacturing processes, catastrophic releases and emerging technologies. The health studies include statistics on occupational injuries and illnesses in the industry for the period 1980-1985.
Lewis Publishers Inc., 12 South Main Street, P.O. Drawer 519, Chelsea, MI 48118, USA, 1989. 329p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: USD 45.00.
Developments in computer-based probabilistic safety analyses
Entwicklung auf dem Gebiet rechnergestützter probabilistischer Sicherheitsanalysen [in German]
Probabilistic safety analyses are used to detect faults during construction of nuclear power plants or upon completion. Recent developments point to their additional use for operation optimisation. Risk detection models used for this purpose in the U.S.A. are programmed, for instance, to determine the effects of system changes or improvements.
Atomwirtschaft, Feb. 1989, Vol.34, No.2, p.91-92. 8 ref.
Dooner R., Marshall V.
Pressure testing and its hazards
Description of the pressure testing procedures, the hazards inherent in pressure testing and the means by which the hazards can be controlled. A number of case studies are also given.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Apr. 1989, No.086, p.5-15. 6 ref.
Job safety analysis in an industrial laboratory environment
This data sheet is designed to assist in the hazard recognition training of technicians involved in laboratory and pilot plant work. Contents: job hazard analysis; jobs to be analysed; getting started; basic steps in job hazard analysis; using the analysis; an example of job hazard analysis.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1989. 4p. Bibl.
The study of toxicity mechanisms of chemical substances: a valuable tool in occupational risk assessment
La connaissance du mécanisme d'action d'une substance toxique: un atout dans l'évaluation du risque en milieu de travail [in French]
The environment, particularly the occupational setting, generates hazards that need to be identified and for which risk estimates have to be made. Quantitative risk assessment in humans is a difficult task. One crucial problem is related to the use of experimental animals as surrogates for humans, since epidemiological studies showing a definite dose response curve are rare. Selecting a proper animal model for risk assesment represents one of the greatest challenges in toxicology, in particular when the toxic response is not comparable across animal species, strains, or sexes. The study of the mechanism for a given toxic chemical in an animal model may indicate specific biological parameters to be evaluated in humans. An example is presented in order to illustrate this point. A group of hydrocarbons have been shown to cause, in male rats only, a specific type of nephropathy. A male rat specific low-molecular-weight protein has been demonstrated to be a major factor in the nephropathy. This example illustrates the importance of knowing the mechanism of toxic action of a substance when selecting an animal model for predicting hazards to human health.
Travail et santé, Spring 1989, Vol.5, No.1, p.S3-S7. Illus. 39 ref.
Suokas J., Kakko R.
On the problems and future of safety and risk analysis
A review on the problems with the identification of hazards and assessing the risks is first presented. Special emphasis is given to the critical evaluation of the problems with the gas dispersion modelling. Ideas and attempts for avoiding the existing problems and for improving the cost/benefit relation of safety analysis are then discussed. These include the use of computer support and knowledge engineering, validation of methods and models, analysis of human and organisational factors, and evaluation of the quality of safety analysis. Finally, the European legislation concerning safety analysis is shortly discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 1989, Vol.21, No.2, p.105-124. Illus. 83 ref.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures in petroleum refining; crude oil and major petroleum fuels
The classes of chemicals evaluated are: crude oil, gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuels and fuel oils (heating fuels). Occupational exposures in petroleum refining have been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans (2A). The degree of evidence for carcinogenicity of gasoline diesel fuels and fuel oils is inadequate or limited (2B), and that of crude oil, jet fuels and light fuel oils is inadequate (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989, Vol.45, 322p. Bibl. Price: CHF 65.00.
Clay G.A., Fitzpatrick R.D., Hurst N.W., Carter D.A., Crossthwaite P.J.
Risk assessment for installations where liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is stored in bulk vessels above ground
Methods of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) are described which will be used by the Health and Safety Executive for the risk assessment of installations where LPG is stored in bulk vessels above ground. Models are used to calculate the consequences of potential accidents involving fireballs, flash fires, vapour cloud explosions and jet flames. Levels of thermal radiation, blast overpressure and individual risk are calculated. If the population distribution around the installation is included, levels of societal risk can also be calculated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 1988, Vol.20, p.357-374. Illus. 15 ref.
Experiments and modelling: An overview with particular reference to fire engulfment
This paper discusses general modelling and experimental requirements, various modelling approaches currently used and model validation in the light of available data. The consequences and physical processes involved in losses of containment of pressurised liquefied gases are also discussed. Computer models for assessing the consequences of fire on LPG type storage vessels are reviewed along with experimental data currently available for model validation purposes.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 1988, Vol.20, p.149-175. Illus. 33 ref.
Baldratti G., Mossa F., Bernamonti M., Briatico-Vangosa G., Farina G., Macchi P.G., Visconti E.
The characterisation of risk agents - A methodological proposal for the collection, processing and organisation of information
La caratterizzazione degli agenti di rischio - Proposta metodologica per la raccolta, l'organizzazione e l'elaborazione delle informazioni [in Italian]
The continuous proliferation of information systems used to characterise risk agents has led to a production of documents which are often different in approach though similar in content. In an attempt to rationalise the various problems involved, a method is proposed for the collection, processing and organisation of the information that will best define the profile of risk agents. A global framework is envisaged within which the information is arranged according to not only technical and scientific but also logical criteria; the information can then be extracted in various aggregates according to requirements. A logical development takes place within the sections of the framework, processing initial raw data into statements of risk and hence into precautionary procedures, providing at each step a justification which guarantees the reliability of the information.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.79, No.4, p.269-279. Illus. 9 ref.
Arduini L., Borgia P., Perucci C.
Evaluation of occupational hazards through notifications by the enterprise - An experience in two Italian regions
La ricognizione dei rischi lavorativi tramite notifica delle imprese - L'esperienza in due regioni [in Italian]
The need for an occupational hazard surveillance system has recently been emphasised as a means of monitoring exposures to substances with known adverse effects on health. This should be considered a complementary approach to occupational disease surveillance, which lacks in specificity and timeliness. In Italy, the Health Reform Act (Law No.833/78, see CIS 79-900) provides for the implementation of a hazard surveillance system whereby industry is required to provide the health authorities with all necessary information. The Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene proposed a special survey of occupational hazards via reporting from industry as the quickest and most economical method of developing profiles of potentially hazardous industries and providing criteria for setting occupational health priorities within a given geographical area. This method has so far been applied in 2 Italian regions, Lombardy and Lazio. The paper describes the essential steps of the method with special reference to specific criteria developed for evaluating and summarising the data so collected (classification of industries and description of each class, analysis of manufacturing processes, identification of potential health hazards).
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.79, No.4, p.259-268. 15 ref.
Britter R.E., McQuaid J.
Workbook on the dispersion of dense gases
This workbook considers simple methods of estimating the dispersion of dense gases in the atmosphere and hence the consequences of accidents involving the release to the atmosphere of hazardous gases. Current knowledge is presented in a form which can be readily applied by non-specialists faced with meeting the requirements of regulations. Contents: scope and purpose of the workbook; information needs of the user; development of the workbook methods; influence of peripheral variables (surface roughness, atmospheric stability, source geometry, obstacles and buildings, relevance of topography, releases from elevated sources); examples in the use of the workbook and comparisons with experimental results; limitations of the workbook and identification of research needs.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1988. 162p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 35.00.
Laye P., Singh M.
Hazard evaluation by thermal analysis
This report describes briefly the most frequently cited 'named' methods for kinetic analysis using thermo-analytical techniques. Some were developed for thermo-gravimetry and differential thermal analysis, but the concern here is only with their application to differential scanning calorimetry, a technique commonly employed by the Health and Safety Executive in investigating the exothermicities and decomposition of energetic materials.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1988. 13p. 42 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
EPA Final Rule - Oleylamine; Final test standards and reporting requirements [USA]
This final test rule is issued under the Toxic Substances Control Act (see CIS 89-23) specifying the test standards and reporting requirements to be used by manufacturers and processors of oleylamine (synonym: 9-octadecenylamine or ODA). Extensive commentary.
Federal Register, 1 Dec. 1988, Vol.53, No.231, p.48542-48547.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
The predicted BLEVE frequency of a selected 2000m3 butane sphere on a refinery site
This study describes the use of fault tree analysis to determine the possible routes to a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE) in a spherical butane storage vessel. The dominant event was shown to be a severe earthquake occurring with sufficient strength to sever the 14 inch pipe connected to the bottom of the sphere. The study concludes that the hardware associated with the sphere is adequate to ensure that the frequence of a BLEVE is very low. The general technique used in the study is suitable for application to other LPG storage spheres.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Athority, Culcheth, Warrington WA3 4NE, United Kingdom, Aug. 1988. 68p. 31 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.
Health and Welfare Canada
The safer arts: the health hazards of arts and crafts materials
This training booklet describes the major hazards associated with specific arts (painting and printmaking, dyes and fibres, pottery and ceramics, stained glass and glassblowing, metalworking, jewellery, holloware and enamelling, sculpture, woodwork and photography) and explains how the risks may be minimised. General information is given on how hazardous materials enter the body, the assessment of exposure risks, and extra protection required for children. Canadian occupational health centres offering advice are listed. Also available in French.
Publishing Centre, Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0S9, Canada, 1988. 39p. 11 ref.
Safety and Reliability Directorate
Assessment of missile hazards: Review of incident experience relevant to major hazard plant
The main part of this paper is devoted to a review of experience of incidents in which pressure vessels containing liquefied gases have suffered major failure. The modes and patterns of failure, which dictate whether fragments are projected and how many pieces the vessel break into, are discussed. The incident experience covers major failures of 138 vessels, the majority due to flame impingement. The information available varies from knowledge only of whether fragments were projected to virtually complete details of the failure circumstances, number, range and direction of projected fragments. This data has been analysed with a view to providing information which may be useful in assessments of major hazard plant.
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington WA3 6AT, United Kingdom, 1988. 177p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 9.00.
Commission of the European Communities
Corporate risk management - Industrial responsibility for risk communication in the European Community and in the United States
This report on corporate management focuses on the responsibility of private firms in the EEC and the USA to communicate hazard and risk information to government officials and persons at risk. It covers: an overview and analysis of the industrial risk management function and its goals; a review of the emergence of risk communication policies in the EEC and the USA which apply to private firms dealing with hazardous substances; legal requirements for the use of risk communication to protect worker health in the EEC and the USA; an evaluation of the influence of such requirements on industrial risk management programs; conclusions.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1988. 116p. Bibl.
Ammonia toxicity monograph
Topics covered in this document: effects of toxicity studies on animals and prediction of effects on humans from animal data, medical aspects of exposure, and statistical evaluation of lethality versus concentration. It is concluded that animal data on acute lethal toxicity are directly applicable to man, and that an average concentration value is 11,500ppm for 50% lethality at 30 minutes exposure time. Evidence from case histories suggests that for major releases the most severe injuries occur at high concentrations within comparatively short distances from the release.
The Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 27p. Illus. 13 ref.
Graham J.D., Green L.C., Robers M.J.
In search of safety: chemicals and cancer risk
This book analyses the controversies that arise in the US concerning the regulation of chemicals that are known or suspected to cause occupational cancer and gives some recommendations designed to clarify and strengthen the important role that science can play in the resolution of these problems. Contents: objectives and methods; setting regulatory priorities; interpreting the scientific evidence on formaldehyde and cancer, and on benzene and cancer; the problem of setting standards; quantifying cancer risks; science and policy conflict.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, USA, and 126 Buckingham Palace Road, London SW1W 9SD, United Kingdom, 1988. 260p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 27.95 (in the UK).
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