Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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Turmo Sierra E.
Models for the assessment of vulnerability of the public in case of major accidents: The Probit method
Modelos de vulnerabilidad de las personas por accidentes mayores: método Probit [in Spanish]
Summary of this information note: criteria for the establishment of vulnerability of the public under present-day legislation (intervention zones, emergency alert zones); the Probit method in general; the Probit method used for the evaluation of vulnerability to the inhalation of toxic substances; the Probit method used for the evaluation of vulnerability to thermal radiation; the Probit method used for the evaluation of vulnerability to explosions.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 6p. 4 ref.
Crovari Tordecillas G.
Health self-assessment in the enterprise - A contribution to the fight against cholera and other illnesses spread by contamination
Autoevaluación sanitaria de la empresa - Un aporte frente al cólera y otras enfermedades debidas a la contaminación [in Spanish]
A sample questionnaire used to evaluate the risk of cholera and other related diseases in enterprises is presented. The main points included in this questionnaire, each point involving several aspects, are: site of the enterprise (rural, urban); plant analysis; drinking water; sanitary services; food facilities; waste products; waste water.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565 - Correo Central, Santiago, Chile, 1991. v, 20p.
Commission of the European Communities
Cosyma. A new programme package for accident consequence assessment
This report describes a computer programme system, COSYMA, for assessing the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere. The system comprises a series of computer programmes and data libraries for use in probabilistic risk assessments. The package provides a flexible system for carrying out accidents consequence assessments for a variety of applications.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1991. ix, 97p. Illus. 64 ref. Price: ECU 8.75.
COSHH - What's it all about? - A worker's overview; Understanding assessments
Two videotapes on chemical safety in the workplace in the light of the British Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH, see CIS 89-1092). The first tape (What's it all about) covers: introducing workers to everyday chemical hazards and their control; paths of entry; labelling; safety data sheets; application of COSHH; employer's obligations. The second tape (Understanding assessments) covers: the making of a good assessor; five steps to a COSHH assessment (checklists for gathering information, evaluating health risks, deciding on further action and recording the assessment; setting a date for review). Training guides accompany both videotapes.
TVS, Franks Hall, Horton Kirby, Kent DA4 9LL, United Kingdom, 1991. 2 videotapes (22 + 22min) + training guides (12p. + 7p.). Price: GBP 400.00 per tape (for hire: GBP 85.00 (5 days), GBP 160.00 (10 days)).
Vacek P.M., McDonald J.C.
Risk assessment using exposure intensity: An application to vermiculite mining
An exposure-response model for assessing lung cancer risk was developed and applied to vermiculite miners. The approach was applied to a study of lung cancer mortality (recorded up to July 1983) in 406 male miners employed for at least 1 year before 1963 at a vermiculite mine and mill in Montana. Exposure records for airborne fibres and occupational histories were reviewed. The exposure data were grouped into five categories having average fibre concentrations of 0.0, 2.1, 7.0, 24.1, and 82.0f/mL. Twenty-one lung cancer deaths occurred in the cohort between 1963 and July 1983. Negative nonsignificant lung cancer risk coefficients were found for the 2.1f/mL exposure group. The lung cancer risk coefficients for the 82.0f/mL group were similar to those of the 7.0f/mL group. When compared with a risk model that used cumulative exposure as the exposure indices, the lung cancer risk coefficients using cumulative exposure indices underestimated the risk for the 7.0 and 24.1f/mL groups significantly and overestimated the risk for the 82.0f/mL group. The authors conclude that in order to access exposure response relationships from epidemiological data accurately, exposure intensity as well as duration must be taken into account.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.48, No.8, p.543-547. 9 ref.
Imbernon E., Goldberg M., Guenel P., Bitouze F., Brement F., Casal A., Creux S., Folliot D., Huez D., Lagorio S., Lalande B., Langlois L., Niedbala J.M., Soncarrieu A., Warret G.
MATEX: A job-exposure matrix for the epidemiological surveillance of workers in a large company (EDF-GDF)
MATEX: une matrice emplois-expositions destinée à la surveillance épidémiologique des travailleurs d'une grande entreprise (EDF-GDF) [in French]
Large-scale epidemiological surveys cannot be carried out successfully through traditional survey methods. Despite their limitations, job-exposure matrices are among the reliable standardized tools which can best contribute to carrying out such surveys. The MATEX project, a job-exposure matrix specifically developed for the power and gas industry in France, includes assessments for about 30 possible carcinogens used in the French national power and gas company using the 1, 2A and 2B categories of IARC. For each of these substances, data are collected on tasks involving some form of exposure; these data are then used to derive indices of the probability and intensity of exposure which can be included in epidemiological surveys.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.559-566. 13 ref.
Mattila M., Korpinen L.
An information system about job loads and hazards for occupational health care
A systematic job load and hazard analysis (JLHA) method for workplace investigation is described. The method involves information collection, evaluation of findings, development of occupational health care measures and follow-up. Physical and chemical hazards, physical workloads, mental stress factors and risks of injury are assessed on a three-point rating scale. A computer program was developed to collect and process the JLHA data and provide detailed outputs on job assessments, job rankings based on load and hazards, and appropriate health care programmes.
In: Industrial health and safety, Proceedings of the second international workshop on personal computers and databases in occupational health, Official Pubications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1991, p.245-250. 6 ref.
Mattila M., Kivi P.
Hazard screening and proposals for prevention by occupational health service: An experiment with job load and hazard analysis at a Finnish construction company
A systematic survey method for risk assessment at the workplace (job load and hazard analysis) was developed and tested as part of the regular occupational health care procedures in the construction industry. The method comprises the identification and assessment of health hazards and conclusions and proposals as to their prevention and follow-up. Tests carried out over a 2.5-year period showed that the method worked well as a central component of preventive health care. The contents of the occupational health care programme were enhanced, the number of preventive measures increased and the organizational climate improved.
Journal of Social and Occupational Medicine, 1991, Vol.41, No.1, p.17-22. Illus. 23 ref.
Mattila M., Kivi P.
Analysis of problematic working postures and manual lifting in building tasks
On the basis of earlier studies using Job Load and Hazard Analysis at three large construction sites, twelve jobs involving physical workload and having a probable or definite effects on health were subjected to a more detailed method of posture analysis (OWAS). All work situations studied by biomechanical analysis involved the risk of musculoskeletal injuries to a certain percentage of the work population. The multilevel analysis used in this study was useful in identifying the essential problems and in determining appropriate solutions.
In: Quéinnec Y. and Daniellou F. (eds.), Designing for everyone, Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 OPR, Hants, United Kingdom, 1991, p.281-283. 5 ref.
Richter E.D., Goldsmith J.
The IARC classification system: Input, internal logic, output and impact
The IARC Monographs "Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man" condense and classify information on carcinogenic hazards. They serve as a useful basis for the regulation of carcinogenic exposures, but are inadequate in several respects. 1. The monographs reflect only what is reported/published and do not generate support for studies on agents and processes for which information is lacking, partial, or inadequate. 2. Lack of absolute certainty on human carcinogenicity has been used as a basis for deferring regulations or other preventive action to restrict exposures. 3. The monographs ignore high-risk situations which may result from combined or interactive effects, because of their orientation toward specific agents. There is not adequate attention to frequently reported excesses of disease other than cancer in certain occupations with mixed exposures. 4. Control of carcinogenic exposures for workers has been less exacting and consistent than control of exposures for the community at large (water, air, food, and drugs). 5. The gap between knowledge of risks and action to control them is large and calls attention to the need for more aggressive professional input.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.3, p.385-397. 25 ref.
Sieber W.K., Sundin D.S., Frazier T.M., Robinson C.F.
Development, use, and availability of a job exposure matrix based on National Hazard Survey Data
A job exposure matrix was developed based on potential exposure data collected during the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOSH) in the US. The survey sample was representative of all U.S. non-agricultural businesses covered under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and employing eight or more employees. Potential worker exposure to all chemical, physical, or biological agents was recorded during the field survey if certain minimum guidelines for exposure were met. The job exposure matrix (JEM) itself is a computerised database that assists the user in determining potential chemical or physical exposures in occupational settings. The structure and possible uses of the job exposure matrix are presented. In one example, potential occupational exposures to elemental lead were grouped by industry and occupation. In a second example, the matrix was used to determine exposure classifications in a hypothetical case-control study. Present availability as well as future enhancements of the job exposure matrix are described.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.163-174. Illus. 32 ref.
Legislative decree No.277 of 15.8.1991 - Implementation of Directives 80/1107/EEC, 82/605/EEC, 83/477/EEC, 86/188/EEC and 88/642/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work, according to Art.7 of Law 212 of 30.7.1990 [Italy]
D.L. 15.8.1991: Attuazione delle direttive ... della CEE, in materia di protezione dei lavoratori contro i rischi derivanti da esposizione ad agenti chimici, fisici e biologici durante il lavoro, a norma dell'art.7 della legge 30.7.1990, n.212 [in Italian]
This decree implements into Italian legislation, as directed by Law No.212 of 1990 (see CIS 91-701), the provisions of certain EEC directives (see CIS 81-1610, 83-1783, 84-327, 87-45 and 90-1430) dealing with the protection of workers against various hazards. Contents: general provisions; definitions; protective measures; obligations of employers, management, supervisors, workers and occupational physicians; removal of workers from exposure; particular protective measures (hazard evaluation, information of workers, medical surveillance, technical prevention, etc.) relating to metallic lead (Pb) and its ionic compounds (8h TWA TLV = 150µg/m3 air), asbestos (8h TWA TLV = 1f/cm3 for chrysotile, 0.2f/cm3 for other types), noise (requirement to wear hearing protection when exposure >90dB(A), hearing examination obligatory when exposure > 85dB(A)); penalties. In annex: list of jobs where Pb exposure is common; indicators for clinical control of Pb exposed workers; analytical methods for evaluation of Pb exposure and for measuring Pb and asbestos concentration in air; criteria for noise measurement and for evaluating hearing damage; methods for evaluating exposure to chemicals.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 27 July 1991, No.200, Supplement, 24p.
Dearfield K.L., Quest J.A., Whiting R.J., Stack H.F., Waters M.D.
Characteristics of the U.S. EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs' Toxicity Information Databases
Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP), toxicity testing data are submitted and entered into various databases which contain the information used for hazard evaluations as part of the OPP review of pesticides. The studies are listed in an archival database to catalogue and allow retrieval of the study for review. Reviews of toxicity studies are then placed in a separate database that can be retrieved to support a regulatory position. Toxicity information for health effects other than cancer and gene mutations from chronic exposure is reviewed through a reference dose (RfD) approach, and these decisions and supporting data are entered into an RfD database. Carcinogenicity data are peer reviewed and the decisions are entered into a database to show the regulatory decision with supporting data. The mutagenicity data are reviewed and acceptable data are entered into the Genetic Activity Profile system to catalogue and display the information.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.53-56. 8 ref.
Multifactor potency scheme for comparing the carcinogenic activity of chemicals
This paper describes a scheme for ranking the quantitative activity of chemical carcinogens. The scheme integrates dose-response relationships with other factors of carcinogenic activity. These factors include positive or negative weightings for the induction of tumours at tissues or organs associated with high historical control tumour incidences; the induction of tumours at multiple sites; the induction of tumours in both sexes of the species; the induction of tumours in more than one species. These factors were chosen because they represented qualitative descriptions of the general specificity or nonspecificity of chemicals with regard to the activity in rodents and have some bearing on the potential activity of chemicals in humans. Chemicals that are nonspecific with regard to tumour site, sex, and species of experimental animal are more likely to be a potential hazard to humans.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.17-21. 15 ref.
Hawkins N.C., Norwood S.K., Rock J.C.
A strategy for occupational exposure assessment
This manual on workplace exposure assessments conducted by industrial hygienists provides a common language as well as a basis for professional practice. Contents: the purpose of the occupational exposure assessment strategy and basic problems; characterisation of the workplace, the workforce and environmental agents and determination of homogeneous exposure groups; qualitative risk assessment and prioritisation; monitoring; interpretation and decision-making; recommendations and reporting; re-evaluation. An example is provided of an exposure assessment strategy for a hypothetical sodium chloride production plant. Glossary.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 345 White Pond Drive, P.O. Box 8390, Akron, Ohio 44320, USA, 1991. xv, 179p. Illus. 159 ref.
Wada Y., Kamiyama S., Koizumi A.
Negligible risk of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus among mechanics and salespersons in the automobile industry
Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among hospital patients and medical staff has been well documented. The high prevalence of hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) carriers in the Japanese population makes horizontal transmission in other occupational settings a real concern, but the actual risk of HBV infection has been unknown. The permanent work force of 44 automobile dealerships in Akita Prefecture (220 locations) was screened for HBsAg as part of routine medical examinations. Blood samples positive for HBsAg were tested for HBV core antigen to confirm the presence of persistent infection. The prevalence of HBV infection was much higher among subjects aged 35-44 than in other age groups. This reflects the hepatitis epidemics that followed the introduction of pertussis and polio vaccination programmes in 1948. The fact that infection did not spread into other age cohorts in these workplaces indicates that the risk of horizontal transmission is negligible when contact with biological fluids is unlikely.
Industrial Health, 1991, Vol.29, p.161-165. 12 ref.
Gérin M., Siemiatycki J.
The occupational questionnaire in retrospective epidemiologic studies - Recent approaches in community-based studies
In community-based studies, questionnaires are usually the sole source of information on occupational exposures. Three main categories of questions are presented, along with examples of appropriate questionnaires for each type. General questions elicit information on job history, tasks, and work environment in non-specific terms. Occupation-specific questionnaires obtain more detailed exposure information by detailing the tasks, processes, and materials associated with given professions or industrial activities. Questionnaires may also include exposure-specific questions in the form of checklists of materials and exposures. In order to maximise validity, it is recommended that they be developed and interpreted with the help of hygienists, be administered preferably by interview, include a detailed job anamnesis (general questions) to be followed by occupation or exposure-specific questions, and use a chemical vocabulary understandable by the subjects.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1991, Vol.6, No.6, p.495-501. 11 ref.
Bond G.G., Bodner K.M., Olsen G.W., Burchfiel C.M., Cook R.R.
Validation of work histories for the purpose of epidemiological studies
The validity and accuracy of work histories are discussed in the context of potential exposure misclassification and its impact on risk assessments. Misclassification that occurs independently of disease classification will usually lead to underestimates of the strength of the exposure-disease relationship, whereas misclassification that is not independent can produce over- or underestimates of risk. In the range of sample sizes that epidemiologists typically encounter, the chance probability is low that misclassification is independent of disease classification. Some suggestions for ways to enhance the validity of work history data for future epidemiology studies are offered. These include focusing on longer-term workers within an occupation or industry and soliciting work history data from multiple sources to offset the disadvantages of any single source. Finally, investigators are urged to validate their exposure estimates and adjust risk estimates for misclassification bias.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 1991, Vol.6, No.6, p.521-527. Illus. 45 ref.
Walsh M.L., Harvey S.M., Facey R.A., Mallette R.R.
Hazard assessment of video display units
This report describes the results of a study of potential health hazards of video display units (VDUs). The specific elements of the study included characterising the emissions of ionising and non-ionising radiation and exposures to electromagnetic fields. There was no evidence that operators are exposed to electric, magnetic, or ionising radiation fields significantly above ambient levels. Significant X-ray leakage cannot occur under any credible conditions. In addition to the ergonomic aspects of VDU work, reports on the health aspects of VDU operators were investigated. The results of the study, based on the specific hazards evaluated, do not support allegations that VDU operation is hazardous beyond the identified transient discomforts associated with characteristics of the work performed. A high-profile employee education programme was initiated to minimise discomforts and unwarranted concerns.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.324-331. Illus. 24 ref.
The questionnaire for safety analysis - Application and standardisation
Der Fragebogen zur Sicherheitsdiagnose (FSD) - Anwendungsmöglichkeiten und Hinweise zur Verfahrensstandardisierung [in German]
The purpose of the "Safety Diagnosis Questionnaire" (SDQ) described in this article was to provide a practical useful instrument to analyse directly hazardous situations, behavioural requirements and safety-relevant conditions in man-machine systems. About 400 jobs were analysed in order to gain data from a representative sample of accident-prone occupations in industry in western Germany. In 390 workplaces 2,373 types of hazards were identified, the most frequent being falls of persons and striking against objects. Data show a wide range of applications for safety diagnosis: description of safety conditions, analyses of single jobs to improve safety, comparison between jobs and firms, testing of hypotheses. Data collecting was also useful for further standardising the SDQ (e.g. item-analyses, reliability testing) and for developing a fourth revised version of the Questionnaire.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 2nd Quarter 1991, Vol.35, No.2, p.77-83. Illus. 18 ref.
Predictive value of animal studies in toxicology
In many instances, extrapolation of toxicological findings in animals to man is possible. Also, toxicological studies have sometimes failed to predict human toxicity. In many cases, this can be explained by biological differences between animals and man. A particularly difficult problem is the "low incidence responses" that occur only in especially sensitive individuals. Failure to predict toxic responses in man is sometimes also the fault of the toxicologist. It is essential to analyse the errors committed in the past and continuously evaluate and improve scientific performance. Society's demand for specific safe levels of exposure is difficult to meet. However, toxicology appears to be on the road to a truly science-based methodology for risk assessment.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Oct. 1991, Vol.14, No.2, p.167-177. 15 ref.
Lot F., Bouvet E., Laporte A.
AIDS and medical care personnel - Epidemiologic data
SIDA et personnel soignant - Données épidémiologiques [in French]
About 30 documented cases of transmission of HIV to health-care personnel have been published throughout the world. Reported cases of AIDS in France among health professionals are analysed in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of reported AIDS cases among them and to compare these cases with reported cases of AIDS among the active population in general. Another aim of the study was to examine cases of AIDS among health-care personnel for which the mode of contamination remained unknown.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.46, p.123-126. Illus.
Pott F., Rippe R.M., Roller M., Rosenbruch M., Huth F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Comparative studies on the carcinogenicity of nickel, different nickel compounds and nickel alloys
Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Kanzerogenität verschiedener Nickelverbindungen und Nickellegierungen [in German]
This study is divided into two sections. I. - Bibliographical review (in tabular form) of the carcinogenic effects on animals of nickel (Ni), nickel compounds and nickel alloys. II - Assessment, through animal experiments, of the carcinogenicity of nickel powder, and of six nickel compounds (chloride, sulfate, acetate, carbonate, subsulfide, oxide) as well as 3 nickel alloys. Highly soluble nickel compounds (Ni-chloride, -sulfate, -acetate) were very toxic but only weakly carcinogenic. Ni-subsulfide showed a lower toxicity but the strongest carcinogenicity of all tested substances (inducement of sarcomas and mesotheliomas in 56% of animals from 6mg Ni). Higher doses (25 to 50mg Ni) of two nickel alloys containing 50% or 66% of nickel oxide produced a carcinogenic but no toxic effect. 100mg Ni injected with a nickel alloy containing 29% Ni and 160mg of two iron oxides were not proven to be carcinogenic. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 59p. Illus. 45 ref.
Dutkiewicz T., Dutkiewicz B.B.
New toxicological indices for health risk evaluation in ecological hazardous areas
New toxicological indices for the quantitative evaluation of ecologically hazardous areas are presented. A method (the aggregation method) is proposed for the calculation of a general index of harmfulness. This method could serve for establishing priorities among areas of ecological hazad.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.4, No.1, p.3-9. 9 ref.
How dangerous is work in Canada? Estimates of job-related fatalities in 482 occupations
Data have been gathered from Labour Canada and the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board to examine estimates of mortality in 482 Canadian occupations. These data contain information on job-related fatalities within four-digit occupations (Standard Occupational Classification System) for 1980, 1981, 1985, and 1986. Compared with comparable data from the United States, the estimates indicate that the incidence of job-related fatalities is significantly higher in Canada.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1084-1090. 17 ref.
Yassi A., Gaborieau D., Gillespie I., Elias J.
The noise hazard in a large health care facility
A noise-level survey, dosimetry and audiometric testing were conducted in a large health care facility to determine the areas with hazardous noise levels, the number of employees at risk, and the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among the exposed. Nine high-risk areas were identified, with readings of up to 110dB(A) recorded. In the work force of approximately 6,000 employees, 321 were identified as exposed to potentially hazardous noise levels. Abnormal hearing patterns were observed in 59 (19%) of the 308 workers screened, with 36 cases of NIHL documented. The findings showed that noise is a serious hazard in many areas, that some cases of NIHL have developed from occupational exposure in this hospital, and that a control programme is essential.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1067-1070. 19 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures to insecticide application, and some pesticides
This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (16-23 October 1990, Lyon, France). The report concludes that spraying and application of nonarsenical insecticides entail exposures that are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A). Chlordane, heptachlor, DDT, dichlorvos, pentachlorophenol, atrazine are possibly carcinogenic in humans (2B) and captafol is probably carcinogenic in humans (2A). Aldicarb, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, permethrin, thiram, ziram, monuron, picloram, simazine and trifluralin are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 612p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 95.00.
Cox S.J., Tait R.S.
Reliability, safety and risk management: An integrated approach
The authors of this book advocate an integrated approach to safety, reliability and management which involves bringing together efficient engineering systems and controls of plant and equipment (hardware), efficient management systems and procedures (software), a practical understanding of people (liveware), and a general knowledge of other human factor considerations. They explain in an essentially non-mathematical manner how high levels of safety and reliability can be attained, how they are assessed, and how residual risk can be managed so as to minimise harm to humans and to the environment.
Butterworth-Heinemann, Reed Book Services Ltd., P.O. Box 5, Rusheden Northants NN10 9YX, United Kingdom, 1991. viii, 289p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Appendix. Index.
Hazardous Contaminants Coordination Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment
Scientific criteria document for multimedia standard development - No. 01-90: N-nitrosodimethylamine
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a stable organic compound that has the potential to leach into and persist in groundwater supplies. It is an inadvertent by-product of some industrial processes that use nitrites or amines under acidic conditions. Industries where NDMA may potentially be generated include: rubber and tyre; pesticide manufacturing; leather tanning; fish processing; foundries; dye manufacturing. This criteria document was prepared for use in setting environmental standards. Multimedia assessment of environmental exposure to NDMA indicated that the greatest source of human exposure is food.
Queen's Printer for Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1991. 1 vol. ca. 220 ref.
Safety in the use of mineral and synthetic fibres
Kōbutsu sen-i oyobi gōsei sen-i no shiyō ni okeru anzen [in Japanese]
Japanese translation of the working document and report of the Meeting of Experts on Safety in the Use of Mineral and Synthetic Fibres, held in Geneva (Switzerland), 17-25 Apr. 1989. The fibres discussed are: 1. man-made mineral fibres (MMMF): continuous filament (glass), insulation wool (glasswool, rockwool, slag wool), refractory fibres (ceramic and others), special-purpose fibres (glass microfibres); 2. natural mineral fibres (other than asbestos): erionite, attapulgite, wollastonite, etc.; 3. synthetic organic fibres (aramid fibres, carbon and graphite fibres, polyolefin fibres, etc.). The characteristics, manufacturing methods, occupational and non-occupational exposure of each type are reviewed. Information on health effects (irritation, respiratory symptoms, fibrosis, cancer) is also reviewed. Other topics: monitoring of airborne dust; preventive and control measures; law and practice in selected countries. In annexes: ILO resolution (1986) concerning health risks of occupational exposure to fibres; report of the meeting; list of participants. For bibliographic data on the original publication see CIS 90-1646.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. 89p. Bibl.ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidance note for determining and classifying a hazardous substance
Contents of this information note: definition of a hazardous substance; how to determine if a substance is hazardous - presence in the Consolidated List of Hazardous Substances and certain other criteria (e.g. whether or not it satisfies certain health effect or physiochemical property criteria); examples of determining if a substance is hazardous (toluene; a 70% w/w xylene - 30% w/w toluene mixture). In the appendix: detailed lists of criteria; deciding concentration cut-off levels for mixtures of chemicals; glossary of terms used.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, June 1991. ix, 37p. 16 ref.
Gressel M.G., Gideon J.A.
An overview of process hazard evaluation techniques
Process hazard evaluation techniques are used to avoid catastrophic chemical releases from chemical plants. These techniques can provide a systematic method for evaluating a system design to ensure that it operates as intended, help identify process areas that may result in a hazardous chemical release, and help suggest modifications to improve process safety. The paper discusses 8 different techniques, with examples of how they may be applied. These techniques include: checklists; "what if" analysis; safety audits and reviews; preliminary hazard analysis; failure modes and effect analysis; fault tree analysis; event tree analysis; hazard and operability studies. The uses, advantages, and disadvantages of each method are shown. They can also be used to protect chemical plant workers from chronic exposures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr.1991, Vol.52, No.4, p.158-163. Illus. 8 ref.
Major hazard assessment - A survey of current methodology and information sources
This report reviews the methods and models that can be used to identify the sources of potential major accidents and their consequences as a basis for discussion of the predictive aspects given in a CIMAH safety report. It covers flammable, toxic and explosive substances and discusses the identification of potential accidents, the size of a release of hazardous material, its consequences and the criteria and approaches that can be used to assess the frequency of an accident. An assessment strategy for the environmental impact of accidents is also discussed.
Health and Safety Executive, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1991. vi, 48p. 110 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapour may be followed by chest pains, dyspnoea, coughing, haemoptysis, and sometimes interstitial pneumonitis leading to death. The ingestion of mercury compounds, in particular mercuric chloride, has caused ulcerative gastroenteritis and acute tubular necrosis. The central nervous system is the critical organ for mercury vapour exposure. Subacute exposure has given rise to psychotic reactions characterised by delirium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency and occupational exposure has resulted in erethism. The kidney is the critical organ following the ingestion of inorganic divalent mercury salts and occupational exposure to metallic mercury is associated with the development of proteinuria. Both metallic mercury vapour and mercury compounds have given rise to contact dermatitis. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 168p. Illus. 418 ref. Price: CHF 20.00 (CHF 14.00 in developing countries).
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Very little information is available on the acute toxicity of n-hexane to humans, but the available data suggest that it has a low acute toxicity. In human studies, signs of central nervous system depression have been reported following exposure to a commercial level of 1000-5000ppm for 10-60min, and prolonged occlusive skin contact caused erythema and blistering. Peripheral neuropathy has been reported in humans exposed industrially to n-hexane or through solvent abuse of glues or solvents containing n-hexane. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 164p. ca. 380 ref. Price: CHF 20.00 (developing countries: CHF 14.00).
McDiarmid M.A., Gurley H.T., Arrington D.
Pharmaceuticals as hospital hazards: managing the risks
The recognition of pharmaceuticals as biologically active harmful substances is a recent occurrence. Focusing primarily on the hazard potential of antineoplastic drugs, many hospitals have adopted the safe handling guidelines proposed by OSHA. More recently, occupational health professionals are acknowledging that other drugs also are potentially hazardous to hospital workers and therefore require review. The approach used by one univeristy hospital to identify other potentially hazardous drugs and to develop handling procedures for them involved assembling a multidisciplinary committee to perform drug reviews, prioritise agents for evaluation, define criteria for a "hazardous drug" determination, specify handling procedures for "hazardous drugs", and require detailed toxicological data from hospital studies on investigational drugs.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.33, No.2, p.155-158. 18 ref.
Hall J.R., Sekizawa A.
Fire risk analysis: general conceptual framework for describing models
A general conceptual framework has been developed as an aid to discussions of alternative approaches to fire risk analysis. The purpose is to show how each alternative seeks to address a few common concerns. Basic concepts and key elements - notably scenario structures, appropriate probability functions, and severity and outcome measures - are defined and discussed, as are types of modelling approaches. A number of diverse examples are then presented using the framework to illustrate its value in making comparisons.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1991, Vol.27, No.1, p.33-53. 11 ref.
Development and utilization of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for toxicological applications
Recent advances in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) modelling have introduced novel approaches for evaluating toxicological problems. Because PB-PK models are amenable to extrapolation of tissue dosimetry, they are increasingly being applied to chemical risk assessment. This paper reviews the development of PB-PK modelling for toxicological applications. It briefly compares and contrasts the fundamental differences between conventional compartmental analysis and PB-PK modelling. The theory and principles, data requirements and the methodologies to obtain them, and the steps to construct PB-PK models are described. A comprehensive listing of PB-PK models for environmental chemicals developed to date is provided. Salient applications of PB-PK modelling to toxicological problems are illustrated with examples. Finally, the uncertainties and limitations in PB-PK modelling are also discussed.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1991, Vol.32, No.3, p.247-267. Illus. 84 ref.
Computer-aided consequence analysis and some future needs
Computerised consequence analysis has many obvious advantages. The aim of this review is to give an overall picture of computer-aided consequence analysis, computer models available and future needs in modelling. The four important components of computer consequence analysis are described: input data required for computer modelling, source term computer models, dispersion computer models and hazard effect computer modelling considerations for releases of gas.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 1991, Vol.26, No.2, p.105-125. Illus. 90 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Coffee, tea, mate, methylxanthines and methylglyoxal
Monographs evaluate the carcinogenic risks to humans of coffee, tea, mate, caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and methylglyoxal. IARC final classification: coffee is possibly carcinogenic to the human urinary bladder (Group 2B); hot mate drinking is probably carcinogenic to humans (2A); the other compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3). The monographs are the result of the meeting of an IARC Working Group, held in Lyon (France), 27 Feb.-6 Mar. 1990.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 513p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 80.00.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
While a statistically significant reduction in red blood cell cholinesterase has been reported in some workers, there has been no evidence of neurological disease in workers in a triphenyl phosphate (TPP) manufacturing plant. There have been no reports of delayed neurotoxicity in cases of TPP poisoning. Contact dermatitis due to TPP has been described. The available data indicate no hazard to humans. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 80p. 112 ref. Price: CHF 11.00; CHF 7.70 (for developing countries).
Carcinogenically active chemicals: A reference guide
This reference guide contains data for over 3400 known or suspected carcinogens grouped into 3 classes: confirmed, suspected and questionnable carcinogens. For each entry the following data are provided when available: entry name and number; CAS and US Department of Transport numbers; molecular formula and molecular weight; a description of the material and its physical properties; synonyms; carcinogenic and mutagenic data with references; data from leading cancer research and regulatory bodies such as reviews from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and US National Toxicology Programme (NTP) Carcinogenesis Testing Program results; US permissible exposure levels and threshold limit values. Each entry concludes with a safety profile, which discusses the carcinogenic, toxic and other hazards of the entry. Three introductory articles discuss the definition of a carcinogen, quantitative risk assessment and the carcinogenic potential of implanted materials.
Chapman and Hall, Scientific Division of Associated Book Publishers Ltd., 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, United Kingdom, 1990. US Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10003, USA. 1153p. Indices.
Binetti R., Cappelletti F., Graziani R., Ludovisi G., Sampaolo A.
Indexed method for the analysis and evaluation of risks in certain industrial activities
Metodo indicizzato per l'analisi e la valutazione del rischio di determinate attività industriali [in Italian]
This evaluation method is designed for hazards in industrial plants where the risk of accidents is relevant both during the construction and the operating phase. As regards the first phase, the research identifies the potential risk level or category, based on the properties and quantities of substances, the operating conditions and the type of process; the second phase deals with the reduction of the risk category taking into consideration the safety system and prevention measures installed in the plant. In particular, the various risk indexes related to fire, combined explosion, explosion in air and toxic risk are determined. In the risk index reduction phase, or "compensation" phase, the method leads to the calculation of several value coefficients to be used as multipliers, taking into account the safety and prevention systems that reduce the number and potential consequences of accidents. Detailed tables provide the index numbers connected with various substances and substance classes, in some cases in function of the type of exposure, flammability, etc.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1990, Vol.2, No.1, p.37-119. Illus. 57 ref.
Unit: Risk assessment and control - Module: Risk assessment methodology
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are eight segments: risk acceptability; hazard analysis and risk assessment; failure modes and effects analysis; fault tree analysis; event tree analysis; case studies; design and reliability of protective systems; quantification of human reliability.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1990. 159p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
This monograph describes various aspects of the assessment of the skin irritation/corrosive potential of substances and preparations including a description and critique of the current EEC methodology and the use of alternative testing procedures. The way in which skin irritation test results can be interpreted in terms of hazard to man is also discussed along with the classification of skin irritants. A sequential procedure for the assessment of skin irritation potential is proposed which is conservative in the use of animals and compatible with regulatory needs.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, 250 Avenue Louise (Bte. 63), 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, July 1990. 77p. 118 ref.
Hazard assessment of floating chemicals after an accidental spill at sea
A classification system has been developed for hazard identification of compounds transported in bulk by sea. Assessment of the hazard resulting from an accidental spill requires data on both toxicity and environmental exposure concentrations of the spilled product. Procedures for acute toxicity testing are described along with methods for the assessment of environmental concentrations of the spilled product. A computer model called CHEMSPIL is described which may be used to predict the exposure resulting from an accidental spill of a poorly water soluble, volatile and low-density product under calm sea conditions.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, 250 Avenue Louise (Bte. 63), 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, July 1990. 55p. Illus. 37 ref.
Escámez S. de Amoraga A., García García F., Morente Sánchez A., Rodríguez del Castillo J.A., Periago Jiménez F., Tejedor Traspaderme J., López Arbeloa J.F., Nogareda Cuixart C.
Occupational risks in the manufacture of wood furniture (I - Summary of the Report; II - Products used in the woodworking sector; III - National survey on conditions of work in the woodworking industry)
Riesgos profesionales en fabricacíon de muebles de madera - I-Resumen del informe; II-Productos empleados en el sector de la madera; III-Encuesta nacional de condiciones de trabajo en la industria de la madera [in Spanish]
A study to investigate occupational risks in the manufacture of wood furniture was carried out in Spain in 1988-89 by the National Institute of Safety and Health. Part I is a report of the study involving a total of 7,322 workers from 432 enterprises, 95% of which have a staff less than 26. Most significant safety risks were: cuts, being crushed by machinery, fires and explosions, and falling objects. Most significant health risks were: noise exposure, and inhalation of wood dust and organic fumes. Part II discusses the different chemical products used in this sector, in particular solvents, and their toxicological mechanisms and health effects. Part III deals with working conditions in this industry in terms of physical environment, chemical products, safety conditions, and psychosocial aspects. Detailed statistics are included.
Salud y trabajo, 1990, No.81, p.5-27. Illus.
Settimi L., Boffetta P., Comba P., Terracini B.
Epidemiologic study for the evaluation of the cancerogenic risk associated with pesticides
Proposal for a large-scale case-control study of the carcinogenic risk associated with pesticide exposure. During a two-year period (1990-1992) cases of cancer in people between the ages of 20 and 74 are to be identified in five Italian hospitals in a region where agricultural workers constitute at least 10% of the active male population. For each case, a detailed questionnaire (including questions related to job history) is to be administered to the patient. The answers are to be compared with those from a referent group. It is hoped that the existence or absence of cancer risk associated with specific types of agricultural work can be confirmed as a result of this study. The total number of cancer cases investigated is expected to be ca. 2,200 per year. This study is likely to be a powerful tool for the identification of cause-effect relationships for cancers among agricultural workers, should such relationships exist.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1990, Vol.81, No.6, p.494-498. 13 ref.
Abiteboul D., Fourrier A., Bouvet E.
Risk of exposure to blood by health care personnel. Setting up of an active supervision system: Presentation of the network and preliminary results
Risque d'exposition au sang pour le personnel soignant. Mise en place d'une surveillance active: présentation du réseau et résultats préliminaires [in French]
In 1989, a 3-month prospective study was carried out in 12 French hospitals at the initiative of the Department of Health. Accidental exposures to blood among health care personnel were described and their monthly incidence was estimated. This first study phase has shown the need for a more elaborate system of supervision and evaluation, enabling us to have a better idea of the frequency of incidents, the health care procedures and materials contributing to them, and the application of preventive measures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.421-426. Illus. 9 ref.
Schröder H., Wolf J.
Comparison of the hazards posed by chipboard presses - Proposal of a method of statistical analysis
Risikovergleich Spanplattenpressen - Vorschlag einer statistischen Analysemethode [in German]
Data on accidents with chipboard presses in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1981 and 1985 were statistically evaluated. The connection of the severity of accidents with various operational stages of the machines was analysed. It was found that severe accidents occur primarily at repair work when the feeding section is kept operating.
Die BG, Aug. 1990, No.8, p.457, 460-463. Illus. 3 ref.
Daniell W.E., Vaughan T.L., Millies B.A.
Pregnancy outcomes among female flight attendants
An examination of Washington State birth certificates over a period of 4 years showed no significant relationship between maternal employment as a flight attendant and any of the adverse pregnancy outcomes examined (low birthweight, prematurity, low Apgar scores, abnormal sex ratios). Although the study confirmed a previously reported finding that female flight attendants were nearly twice as likely to report a spontaneous foetal loss as the outcome of their last pregnancy, the relative risk was only 1.3 when comparison was restricted to women employed outside the home.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1990, Vol.61, N.9, p.840-844. 25 ref.
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