Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Lead - A guide to assessment
This booklet explains the dangers of lead and using a series of questions and answers outlines how to make an assessment of the lead hazard in pottery workshops. Topics include: lead in glazes and colours; health hazards; employer's responsibilities; exposure evaluation; air sampling; blood tests; information of personnel. Methods to prevent or control exposure are also outlined.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Oct. 1992. 12p. Illus. 13 ref.
A manual of hazard and operability studies. The creative identification of deviations and disturbances
Hazard and operability (HAZOP) studies are introduced as a systematic approach to the identification of potential hazards in a manufacturing process. Each factor in the process is identified, the intended course of each step is described and the effect of deviations in the operation or behaviour of each element is predicted. Further contents: the principles of process safety and of HAZOP study (by guide words and by creative checklists), the HAZOP study procedure, its integration into the life cycle of a unit, management issues and the roles of personnel involved in such studies. Appendices provide guidance for study leaders, examples of applications, a brief history of the discipline, types and sources of training, benefits of HAZOP studies, uses made of HAZOP by enterprises and regulators, and illustrations of typical forms for recording and analysis of data.
Chemetics International Company Ltd., 1818 Cornwall Avenue, Vancouver, British Colombia V6J 1C7, Canada, 1992. x, 240p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: CAD 85.00 + shipping.
International Labour Organization (ILO)
Safety in the use of mineral and synthetic fibres
Seguridad en la utilización de fibras minerales y sintéticas [in Spanish]
Translation of the Working document and report of the Meeting of Experts on Safety in the Use of Mineral and Synthetic Fibres, held in Geneva (Switzerland), 17-25 Apr. 1989 (see CIS 90-1646). The fibres discussed are divided into three main classes: 1. man-made mineral fibres (MMMF): continuous filament (glass), insulation wool (glasswool, rockwool, slag wool), refractory fibres (ceramic and others), special-purpose fibres (glass microfibres); 2. natural mineral fibres (other than asbestos): erionite, attapulgite, wollastonite, etc.; 3. synthetic organic fibres (aramid fibres, carbon and graphite fibres, polyolefin fibres, etc.). The characteristics, manufacturing methods, occupational and non-occupational exposure of each type are reviewed. Information on health effects (irritation, respiratory symptoms, fibrosis, cancer), where available, is also reviewed, based on evaluations by IPCS and/or IARC. Other topics discussed: monitoring of airborne dust in the working environment; preventive and control measures; law and practice in selected countries. In annexes: ILO resolution (1986) concerning health risks of occupational exposure to fibres; Report of the Meeting; list of participants.
Ediciones Alfaomega, Apartado Postal 7-1032, 06700 México, D.F., Mexico, 1992. viii, 101p. Bibl.ref. For distribution in certain Latin-American countries only.
Risk assessment - International conference 1992
Proceedings of an international conference on risk assessment held in London, United Kingdom, 5-9 October 1992. Papers are presented under the following headings: what is risk assessment and what do we want from it? (views and needs of employers, employees, consumers and environmentalists); the role of risk assessment in international policy; risk assessment in practice (chemicals, pesticides, radiation, biotechnology, offshore installations, nuclear industry, transport); risk assessment in decision-making (environmental policy, cost analysis); communicating risk assessments; how well does risk assessment serve our needs?
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2 vols. 563p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques (CETIM)
Safety of automated systems - Conference report
Sûreté des automatismes. Recueil de conférences [in French]
Contents of this conference report (held in Senlis, France, 15 Oct. 1992): regulations, pending standards, EEC Directives 89/392 and 91/368; general aspects of safety in automated systems as recommended by the INRS; methodological tools available for the analysis of automated systems safety (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis and Criticity. Fault Tree Method); method designed to take into consideration machine malfunctions and the development of safer software; new methodology for the development of safer machines and facilities; safety of programmable automated systems; credibility of control-command systems: concepts and tools; compatibility of automated system languages with IEC standards; contribution of modelling and automated system simulation to safety; safety of automatic functions and testability: examples and counter-examples. Safety of a cable-car.
Publications CETIM, 52, ave. Félix-Louat, 60304 Senlis Cedex, France, 1992. 169p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Tardif R., Goyal R., Brodeur J.
Assessment of occupational health risk from multiple exposure - Review of industrial solvent interaction and implication for biological monitoring of exposure
This review is a critical survey and evaluation of recent literature on solvent interactions for the assessment of health risk. It addresses the implications of multiple solvent exposures by: (1) examining the influence of solvent-solvent and ethanol-solvent interactions on the biological indices of chemical exposure, and (2) indicating how the eventual modifying effects can be considered in the biological monitoring of mixed exposure. Reviewed studies reveal the effects of toxicokinetic interactions on the biological parameters, and the gaps in our knowledge. The measurement of potentially toxic molecular species is suggested for the biological monitoring of multiple chemical exposure. This approach appears to be important for drawing better quantitative conclusions on the internal exposure to biologically active chemical species. Finally, research needs arising from the critical analysis of the literature are briefly described.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, 1992, Vol.8, Nos.1-2, p.37-52. 58 ref.
Stebbins A.I., Horstman S.W., Daniell W.E., Atallah R.
Cobalt exposure in a carbide tip grinding process
A company producing carbide tip saw blades for the woodworking industry was investigated. Cobalt exposure was characterised by ambient air monitoring, particle size determination, and biological monitoring. Area sampling for cadmium, cobalt, and tungsten indicated low ambient air levels in all manufacturing areas except the grinding department, which had cobalt air levels approaching the threshold limit value of 0.05mg/m3. Area airborne cobalt exposure levels measured over six shifts in the grinding department ranged from 0.017 to 0.12mg/m3 for the total collection method and 0.002 to 0.028mg/m3 for the method collecting respirable particles. Cobalt content in the total and respirable fractions was similar. Urine monitoring indicated production workers have elevated cobalt levels, and the grinders' levels were higher than other production workers. The grinding coolant was found to have elevated cobalt concentrations. A survey of coolants from nine carbide grinding shops indicated that the elevated cobalt concentrations may be common.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.186-192. Illus. 25 ref.
Salsi S., Barlier A.
Skin hazards due to ultraviolet radiation emitted by tungsten halogen lamps
Risques cutanés présentés par le rayonnement ultraviolet émis par les lampes tungstène halogène [in French]
This article (to be read in conjunction with CIS 93-302) identifies and quantifies long-term dermatological risks related to various models of tungsten halogen lamps of various power and it assesses, in terms of risks, the efficiency of protective glass shields mounted on these lamps. Results show that risks, when tungsten halogen lamps are used under abnormal conditions (i.e. for direct lighting without protective glass shields), are not negligible. Aside from accidents or dangerous incidents, chronic exposure to the ultraviolet radiations emitted by these lamps seems to be the most dangerous in the long-run. On the other hand, when used for direct lighting, these lamps apparently represent no particular health risk when equipped with protective glass shields.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.51, p.295-301. 7 ref.
Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center
Systems of conducting the toxicity investigation of chemical substances based on the Industrial Safety Law
The Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law (CIS 92-352), as amended in 1977, is intended to institutionalise systems for determining the toxicity of chemical substances before they are introduced into the workplace. Employers are responsible for evaluating the potential hazards of new chemicals and registering them with the Ministry of Labour before their introduction in the workplace. The government maintains a list of existing chemicals, recognises appropriate test methods and publishes technical guidelines for protecting workers' health. To speed up the evaluation process, the government founded the Japan Bioassay Laboratory in 1982. The annual number of registrations has risen from 16 in 1979 to 524 in 1990. (A table gives the number for each year in 12 categories: inorganics, dyestuffs, etc.) In addition, the mutagenicity of 48 existing substances has been tested.
JETOC Newsletter, 1992, No.9, p.2-13.
Health and Safety Executive
Appleton Inquiry Report: Report of an inquiry into health and safety aspects of stoppages caused by fire and bomb alerts on London Underground, British Rail and other mass transit systems
Contents of this report: risks from fires and delays; assessment of risks; London Underground Ltd.'s approach and the way forward; fire legislation on the Underground and British Rail; incidents involving bombs and packages; parallels on other systems; main conclusions and recommendations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iv, 32p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.25.
Brouwer D.H., Brouwer R., De Mik G., Maas C.L., Van Hemmen J.J.
Pesticides in the cultivation of carnations in greenhouses - Part I. Exposure and concomitant health risk
Respiratory exposure and dermal exposure of the hands and forearms to four pesticides have been measured in 18 farms for carnation culture. For 94 workers, the geometric mean dermal exposure rate during flower cutting was 10.1mg/h and during sorting/bundling by 35 workers the dermal exposure rate was 7.3mg/h. The average concentration in air as measured by personal air sampling during cutting after a pesticide had been dusted was 0.7mg/m3. For the same area, pesticide spraying exposed the applicator to a dermal exposure seven times higher than dusting. However, during dusting respiratory exposure was higher. Generally, overall exposure is higher during manual activities in treated crops than during application. Risk to health occurs after application of pesticides that are relatively toxic and show relatively good skin-penetrating properties at relatively high application rates. The respiratory exposure to dusted pesticides may in some situations also result in health risks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.575-581. Illus. 36 ref.
Park R.M., Nelson N.A., Silverstein M.A., Mirer F.E.
Use of medical insurance claims for surveillance of occupational disease - An analysis of cumulative trauma in the auto industry
Medical insurance claims, linked with work histories for a large automotive manufacturer over a three-year period, identified large numbers of cases of potentially work-related diseases, including 30,600 episodes of probable cumulative trauma disorders (CTD). CTD incidence rates were calculated within five plants, and high-risk areas identified. Little understood differences in medical insurance coverage by exposure group limited interpretation however. Case-control analyses, with controls also identified by insurance claims, addressed coverage and produced age-adjusted and sex-adjusted estimates of risks. All five plants had departments with statistically significant, elevated risks for one or more of the diagnoses carpal tunnel syndrome, CTD of other upper extremities, rotator cuff syndrome, CTD of the neck and of the lower back.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1992, Vol.34, No.7, p.731-737. 11 ref.
Vainio H., Magee P.N., McGregor D.B., McMichael A.J.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
Mechanisms of carcinogenesis in risk identification
This volume comprises the background documents prepared for a meeting of an IARC Working Group held in Lyon, France, on 11-18 June 1991, and the recommendations of the Group which form the consensus report. Topics covered: multistage and multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis; mechanisms of action of carcinogens and their identification; use of information on mechanisms in evaluating carcinogenic risks to humans; critical molecular targets in chemical carcinogenesis; animal carcinogenicity tests and their interpretation; biological markers in exposed humans; data analysis and modelling.
Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom, 1992. xiv, 615p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 65.00.
Veerkamp W., ten Berge W.
Hazard assessment of chemical contaminants in soil - Revised Appendix 3
This revised Appendix 3 of ECETOC Technical Report No.40 describes the concept of HESP, a computer programme to estimate the exposure of human beings to contaminants in soil. Background information on the HESP model is presented along with descriptions of the equations used in the programme and the model parameters used in the calculations. The calculated results represent the greatest cumulative intakes for individuals living at a contaminated site or exposed to predicted environmental concentrations.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, 250 Avenue Louise (Bte. 63), 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Apr. 1992. 50p. Bibl.ref.
The operation of the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 - Annual Report 1991-92
This is a report on the activities under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) set up under the 1989 Act (abstracted under CIS 91-1760). The Report concerns: assessment of new chemicals (60 notifications received, 37 assessments completed); establishment of the selection criteria for priority existing chemicals; declaration of the first priority existing chemical (1,3,5-triglycidyl isocyanurate, TGIC); transfer of the Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances to Worksafe Australia; review of government financing arrangements; regulatory impact review; legislative changes; committee activities; international cooperation; the Chemical Gazette and other publications; analysis of assessment time; future directions. In annex: list of chemical assessment reports published in 1991-92. The previous report for NICNAS was published together with the 1990-1991 Annual Report of the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) (see CIS 92-826).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, 1992. vi, 18p. 6 ref.
Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques (CETIM)
Safety of automated systems - Report
Sûreté des automatismes - Rapport [in French]
Summary of this report: history of safety engineering; vocabulary of safety; safety parameters; discussion of relevant French legislation (see CIS 77-899 and 81-346) and of the European Directive 89/392/EEC (see CIS 89-1442) concerning machine safety; safety analysis of components of automated systems; redundancy; methodologic tools for safety analysis (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - FMEA; fault tree analysis; Hazard and Operability Studies - HAZOP; MARKOV chains); comparative study of various methods of safety analysis; computerisation of methods; methodology for the safety analysis of an automated system; maintenance (systematic, conditional and predictive); efficiency ratio of maintenance; general tools as aids to maintenance (long-distance alarm systems and long-distance maintenance); expert systems and maintenance; computer-assisted maintenance (CAM). Useful addresses.
Publications CETIM, 52, ave. Félix-Louat, 60304 Senlis, France, 1992. 139p. Illus. 82 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Solar and ultraviolet radiation
This publication contains data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 11-18 Feb. 1992). IARC overall evaluation: solar radiation is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); ultraviolet A, B and C radiations are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); use of sunlamps and sunbeds entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); exposure to fluorescent lighting is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans (Group 3). Glossary.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 316p. Illus. ca. 900 ref. Price: CHF 65.00.
Allen F.R., Garlick A.R., Hayns M.R., Taig A.R.
The management of risk to society from potential accidents
This book is the main report of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Working Group on the Risks to Society from Potential Major Accidents. It examines the risk issues in general with particular emphasis on relevance to the nuclear industry. An executive summary of 17p. is followed by the main report, which contains chapters on: introduction, nature of risk, characterising and representing risks, existing risk, estimating risk, standards for social risk evaluation, risk targets in regulation, making risk management decisions, overall approach to social risk management, conclusions and recommendations. A glossary and list of acronyms is appended.
Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., Crown House, Linton Road, Barking 1G11 8JU, Essex, United Kingdom, 1992. vii, 174p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Occupational health in the chemical industry
This book contains selected papers from the 23rd International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Congress, Sep. 1990, Montreal, Canada, and the XIX Medichem Congress, Sep. 1991, Basle, Switzerland. It includes papers on adverse health effects of industrial chemicals on workers (such as N-vinylpyrrolidone, cypermethrin, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, nitrobenzene, benzene, and carbon disulfide) and their surveillance methods; risk assessment and risk management in the chemical industry, with case studies on firefighters and exposure to L-tryptophan, monochlorobenzene and 1,3-butadiene; occupational health responsibilities to customers and the public, with examples of petrochemical industry and odour control; and current topics in the chemical industry such as toluene exposure, work with simians, recombinant protein production, presbyopia, neurobehavioural tests, generic risk assessment and lead titanate zirconate exposure.
WHO Regional Office for Europe, 8 Scherfigsvej, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1992. xii, 305p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Estimating environmental concentrations of chemicals using fate and exposure models
This report provides details of the processes that determine the fate and exposure of chemicals in the environment, a discussion of selected models and their appropriate use and limitations, and guidance on quality assurance and validation of modelling. Models are categorised according to the media for which they are intended to be used (air, water, soil and multi-media models). The practical application of models is described and examples of models are given. It is concluded that such models can be powerful tools for evaluating the potential hazard of chemicals released in the environment. However, proper validation procedures should be developed to ensure the scientific quality of the models.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte. 6), 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 1992. 80p. ca. 150 ref.
Gideon J.A., Carmody T.W.
Process safety management - Resources from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers for use by industrial hygienists
The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is expanding the opportunity for interdisciplinary co-operation and education by producing a series of guidelines publications on the technical and scientific issues critical to the prevention and mitigation of major releases of toxic materials. Several guidelines contain specific examples that illustrate how industrial hygienists, engineers, and others can use the guidelines to help address chemical process safety problems. Another CCPS activity involves an effort to include an awareness of health, safety, and loss prevention as an integral part of undergraduate chemical engineering education. For practicing engineers and industrial hygienists, a number of continuing education courses on topics such as process hazard analysis, process risk assessment, and process safety are offered by the AIChE.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.404-410. 9 ref.
Simonsen L., Lund S.P.
A strategy for delineating risks due to exposure to neurotoxic chemicals
A method for delineating the risks due to exposure to neurotoxic chemicals based upon the linkage of four Danish national computer-based registers is described. Based on the information from the four registers, risk profiles for neurotoxic chemicals in 69 industrial groups were generated which describe the number of neurotoxic chemicals, their potency, the number of exposure measurements exceeding the occupational exposure limit (OEL), and the total and relative number of diseases caused by the chemicals in each group. Based on this linkage, twelve industries are noted to be potentially at high risk and 18 chemicals are identified as "risk chemicals". The evaluation helped to develop a mechanism for priority setting of preventive measures and may also serve as a tool for assessing improvements and selecting areas for further epidemiological studies. In annex: list of approx. 250 neurotoxic compounds, together with their CAS number and risk index.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.773-792. Illus. 27 ref. Appendix.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids and other industrial chemicals
These monographs consist of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 15-22 Oct. 1991). IARC final classification: occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); diethyl sulfate and 1,3-butadiene are probably carcinogenic in humans (2A); diisopropyl sulfate is possibly carcinogenic in humans (2B); sulfur dioxide, sulfites, metabisulfites and hydrochloric acid are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 336p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 65.00.
Safety by inspection
Methods are described for ensuring that the workplace and its equipment receive regular scrutiny in order to discover hazards and assess risks. These include: safety audits in which every feature of the operational system is carefully scrutinised in order to identify all the loss factors (accident causes) within the workplace and to minimise and eliminate them; safety surveys in which a specific area of concern is examined in depth; routine schedules safety inspections of individual plants, departments, sections or work sites; safety tours; safety sampling; theme inspections; and inspection of documents.
Industrial Safety Data File, Oct. 1992, p.A:8:7:1-A:8:7:4
Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen
Methods for the calculation of physical effects resulting from releases of hazardous substances (liquids and gases)
Description of standard calculation procedures to be used for the evaluation of physical effects resulting from a release of hazardous substances (liquids and gases). Methods are described for the calculation of: evaporation; thermal radiation; dispersion; vapour cloud explosion; consequences of the rupture of vessels. Each chapter is accompanied by a detailed list of symbols and units. In annex: list of commonly used hazardous substances (26 gases and 27 liquids), together with their important physical constants (molecular weight, saturation pressure, heat of evaporation, etc.).
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 2nd ed., 1992. 386p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Quantitative assessment of human cancer risk
This paper presents a definition of risk and discusses the role of epidemiological observation in the quantitative assessment of cancer risk, the estimation of risk from epidemiological data, and the role of animal cancer bioassays in the quantitative assessment of cancer risk. It is emphasised that quantitative risk assessment is inevitably based on multiple assumptions. Where possible, the magnitude of errors associated with these assumptions should be stated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.90-96. Illus. 14 ref.
Proposal for future uses in epidemiology for cohort studies on the prevention of work-related cancer
A new use of the cohort method in cancer studies is proposed, which includes the individual collection of information on past exposure to major carcinogens. It is assumed that it is possible to determine individual cancer risk and, subsequently, to estimate the individual risks of cause-specific cancers on the basis of accurate individual data on exposure to carcinogens. As increased risk of work-related cancer is generally more strongly related to past than to current exposure, risk-determined intervention should be integrated into the daily routines of both occupational health physicians and primary care physicians.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.57-63. Illus. 31 ref.
Occupational cancer and carcinogenesis
This special issue considers the following aspects: exposure from occupational versus other sources, carcinogen metabolism and individual susceptibility, oncogenes and oncoproteins in occupational carcinogenesis, use of molecular biology techniques in cancer epidemiology, cancer morbidity by occupation, proposal for future uses in epidemiology for cohort studies on the prevention of work-related cancer, identification of carcinogens within the IARC monograph programme, quantitative assessment of human cancer risk, technological changes in cancer prevention, screening for occupational cancer, workplace cancer prevention.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, 117p. Illus. Bibl.
Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Methods for the determination of possible damage to people and objects resulting from releases of hazardous materials
Translation of the document originally issued in Dutch and abstracted as CIS 91-1770. Contents: description of methods to be used for the determination of risks during the establishment of safety studies in which hazardous substances are involved. Main topics covered: methods for the determination of effects of thermal radiation (effects of thermal radiation on humans, statistical model, protective clothing, damage by flash fires); a method for the determination of the effects of blasts on constructions (interaction between blast and construction, determination of dynamic response, strength of window panels, calculation of a defined damage level); investigation of the effects of explosions on victims; formation of toxic products during fires (combustion, pyrolysis, reactions of combustion products); acute inhalation toxicity study: a model based on extrapolation from data on 25 substances; protection from outdoor pollution by being indoors: a mathematical model for calculation of the reduction of the indoor concentration and dose.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1992. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Andersson L., Gabring S., Hammar J., Melsäter B.
Principles for identifying unacceptable pesticides
This report presents a set of general principles established by the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate for assessing when a pesticide is unacceptable from a health and environmental protection standpoint. Pesticides are classified as having clearly unwanted properties or particularly serious properties according to certain toxicological parameters (acute or chronic toxicity, corrosive and irritating properties, allergenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties and reproductive toxicity) and ecotoxicological parameters (degradability, bioaccumulation, mobility and effects on non-target organisms).
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 34p.
Center for Chemical Process Safety
Guidelines for hazard evaluation procedures
This manual is a revised version of the original guidelines issued in 1985 (see CIS 86-1741). The guidelines were brought together by a task force of the AIChE's Center for Chemical Plant Safety and reflect procedures that have been developed, adopted and used by many chemical and petrochemical companies throughout the world. Part 1 contains a brief overview of the purpose, benefits, costs and limitations of various hazard evaluation techniques, and describes methods used to identify and assess the significance of hazardous situations found in process operations or activities involving hazardous chemicals. Part 2 provides worked examples using various hazard evaluation techniques. Glossary.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, AIChE, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 2nd edition, 1992. xxxi, 461p. Illus. 132 ref. Index. Price: USD 170.00 (USD 120.00 N. America).
Technical Physical Research (TNO) Institutes
Method for the inspection and assessment of the working environment
De Inspectiemethode Arbeidsomstandigheden [in Dutch]
This training manual in modular format can be used for the evaluation of the working environment according to the Dutch Working Conditions Act (CIS 92-351), and for choosing the appropriate measures for the improvement of health, safety and well-being at work. The method is intended for use by labour and ergonomic specialists in industries and for use by the Dutch Labour Inspectorate. The method acts as a guide, inventorying ergonomic concerns across various topics (modules), such as: noise; vibration; lighting; indoor climate; gases, vapour and dust; physical workload; workplace design; working hours and rest periods; job content and time pressure; tools and machinery; presentation of visual information. Each module contains three levels. On the first level the most frequent critical situations are identified for a specific topic. On the second level measures to be used for each situation are presented. The third level contains criteria to be applied, in the form of legal requirements, standards, and/or guidelines.
Kerckebosch Uitgeverij, 3700 VB Zeist, Netherlands, 1992. 13 modules + annex. Illus. Price: NLG 89.00.
Fourrier A., Antona D., Abiteboul D., Bouvet E., Brucker G., Descamps J.M.
Risk of exposure to blood among nursing personnel: Results of a one-year monitoring programme in 17 hospitals
Risque d'exposition au sang pour le personnel infirmier - Résultats d'un an de surveillance dans 17 hôpitaux [in French]
This multi-centre study was conducted during the calendar year 1990. It was a follow-up to a 3-month study in 1989 (see CIS 92-1366), and examined the incidence and the circumstances of accidents involving exposure to blood among hospital nursing staff of intensive care and medical departments, the two departments most at risk according to the 1989 study. Main conclusions: it is essential to improve preventive efforts, if only for their educational value; medical equipment should be designed with safety in mind; work planning should also take safety into consideration. Nursing activities at the time of accident are analysed by type, frequency by department, seniority, and time elapsed since the beginning of the shift. In annex: list of participating hospitals.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.49, p.61-71. Illus. 19 ref.
Papazoglou I.A., Christou M., Nivolianitou Z., Aneziris O.
On the management of severe chemical accidents - DECARA: a computer code for consequence analysis in chemical installations - Case study: ammonia plant
A computer programme (DECARA) for assessment of the risk of accidental releases of hazardous substances is presented. DECARA provides an integrated risk analysis including source-term strength evaluation, estimation of the hazardous cloud dispersion and quantification of health impacts. Multiple accidents, each with a certain probability of occurrence can be handled and dispersion of heavier, as well as lighter-than-air gases, released instantaneously or continuously, can be simulated. The programme is described with reference to the probabilistic safety analysis of an ammonia storage plant. The programme is available for personal computers.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1992, Vol.31, No.2, p.135-153. Illus. 19 ref.
Chemical risk assessment - A tool for disaster prevention
A general procedure for developing a dangerous goods database and its use for risk assessment is outlined with reference to the database introduced by the city of Winterthur, Switzerland. Each of the main project tasks are described: data acquisition by questionnaire; evaluation of damage potentials and threshold limit values for damage potential; inspection of critical factories; approximate risk analysis; risk reduction measures. Although the procedure does not allow the prediction of specific probabilities of dangerous goods accidents, it is a valuable tool for obtaining an overview of existing damage potentials and enables the assignment of safety measures where they are needed most urgently.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 1992, Vol.31, No.3, p.233-239. Illus. 1 ref.
Documentation of hazard and operability studies
In the United States, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Process Safety Management Standard both require that hazard evaluations be completed on all facilities that handle hazardous chemicals. Reports of the hazard evaluations must be kept on file and will be subject to inspection during an OSHA compliance audit. This paper presents a suggested outline and format for the completion of a Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) Study. The goal of the HAZOP report is to allow a person who was not a member of the original HAZOP team to understand what was reviewed and what needs to be done to improve the system. Included in this paper are a list of documents needed to complete a HAZOP review, a typical HAZOP worksheet, and a suggested table of contents for a final HAZOP report.
Hazard Prevention, 1st Quarter 1992, Vol.28, No.1, p.14-17. 4 ref.
International conference on hazard identification and risk analysis, human factors and human reliability in process safety
Proceedings of an international conference held in Orlando, Florida, USA, 15-17 January 1992 and sponsored by the Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the Health and Safety Executive (UK) and the European Federation of Chemical Engineering. Topics covered include: predicting domino effects from pressure vessel fragmentation; seismic assessment of chemical facilities; safety-related plant modifications and cost-risk benefit analysis; electrostatic hazards; alarm and interlock testing; fires in warehouses containing toxic materials; risk analysis of human exposure to process system failures; location of on-site buildings close to hazardous chemical processing plant; human factors in loss prevention; quantification of human reliability; a model for training cognitive skills for severe accident management; integrating human reliability analysis into process hazard evaluations; managing human error in the chemical process industry.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, AIChE, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1992. viii, 476p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Hazop and hazan - Identifying and assessing process industry hazards
Third edition of the manual previously analysed as CIS 88-1138. It is primarily aimed at university students and those attending in-house training courses in industry. Contents: hazard identification and assessment; hazard and operability studies (hazop), including examples of accidents that could have been prevented by hazop; hazard analysis (hazan); a manager's guide to hazard analysis; objections to hazop and hazan; sources of data and confidence limits; history of hazop and hazan.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1992. 150p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Health effects and dose-response assessment for hydrogen chloride following short-term exposure
This report reviews current US regulations and recommended standards on hydrogen chloride exposure and presents a new method for assessing risk from short-term exposure. A critical review of the literature showed that there is limited information available on the inhalation toxicity of hydrogen chloride in humans. The proposed model was found to estimate values for hydrogen chloride that closely agree with reports of human exposure and established regulatory criteria and it may thus provide a useful risk assessment tool.
Air Risk Information Support Center, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA, Jan. 1992. 90p. 43 ref.
Nomenclature for hazard and risk assessment in the process industries
This revised edition reflects relevant legislation implemented in the United Kingdom since publication of the first edition in 1985 (see CIS 89-1340). 142 terms are discussed under the headings "hazard and risk", "consequences" (explosions, fires, toxic substances), "release and dispersion" (mechanisms of release, behaviour of releases, dispersion), "assessment techniques" (general terminology, hazard identification techniques, analytical techniques, quantification of event frequency and of event consequences), and "criteria".
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 2nd edition, 1992. 43p. 25 ref. Index. Price: GBP 12.50.
Hawkins N.C., Jayjock M.A., Lynch J.
A rationale and framework for establishing the quality of human exposure assessments
Exposure assessments, performed as input to an evaluation of potential human health risk, are an element of risk assessment. The paper explores a rationale and framework for establishing the quality of human exposure assessments and proposes a set of good exposure assessment practices (GEAP). The components of the proposed GEAP include the writing of a study protocol before conducting the study, consideration of available resources, specification of an exposure model, a study design (including sampling and analytical methods and data analysis), quality assurance, archiving, communications, and a statement of overall uncertainty in exposure estimates. The GEAP concept is offered as a starting point for developing a consensus among the community of exposure assessors regarding a minimum standard for good practices.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1992, Vol.53, No.1, p.34-41. 28 ref.
Finnish divers' view of occupational risks and risk taking
An interview study was made of divers' perceptions of risk and risk-taking. Results are discussed in terms of potential risks and dangers, decision-making by divers faced with a dangerous situation, use of technical equipment and work satisfaction and the need for knowledge. The method used did not provide quantitative data which could be used to evaluate risk perception theories described in the literature, but did yield a detailed picture of the risks of diving.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1992, Vol.23, No.3, p.202-206. 6 ref.
Babrauskas V., Levin B.C., Gann R.G., Paabo M., Harris R.H., Peacock R.D., Yusa S.
Toxic potency measurements for fire hazards analysis
This report is the principal product of a long-term research programme to provide a technically sound methodology for obtaining and using smoke toxicity data for hazard analysis. It establishes an improved bench-scale toxic potency measurement which represents the important combustion conditions of real fires, along with a design and analysis framework which will allow the toxic potency data to be used in a rational, consistent, appropriate and adequate way. The method focuses on post-flashover fires, although it is also applicable to pre-flashover fires.
Fire Technology, May 1992, Vol.28, No.2, p.163-167.
Hurst N.W., Nussey C., Pape R.P.
Development and application of a risk assessment tool (RISKAT) in the Health and Safety Executive
The development and application of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) risk assessment tool, RISKAT, is described. RISKAT is used by risk assessment inspectors to quantify the risks to populations and individuals living in the vicinity of plants storing and processing toxic and flammable materials. Examples of both types of application are outlined. The difficulties in applying the procedures for complex multi-hazard sites are discussed along with uncertainties in the procedures and use of the results for providing advice to local planning authorities on the development of land near major hazard sites.
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, July 1989, Vol.67, No.4, p.362-372. Illus. 31 ref.
Heino P., Poucet A., Suokas J.
Computer tools for hazard identification, modelling and analysis
Recent developments in software tools for the documentation and calculation tasks of plant safety and reliability analysis are reviewed. The main emphasis is on describing and evaluating the possibilities of knowledge engineering to support human reasoning in hazard identification and system modelling. An example of an advanced software environment, STARS, for carrying out multi-level knowledge-based safety and reliability analysis is presented.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1922, Vol.29, No.3, p.445-463. Illus. 35 ref.
Kakko R., Virtanen J., Lautkaski R.
Experiences in planning process changes on the basis of consequence and risk assessment
An overview of chemical risk assessment and its limitations is given along with a discussion of the use of safety analysis in the siting and layout design of chemical process plant. Two practical applications of a quantitative consequence and risk assessment are described using studies made in the feasibility or preliminary design stage of a liquefied natural gas storage facility. It is concluded that consequence analysis can reveal effective measures to reduce risk.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol. 29, No.3, p.427-443. Illus. 20 ref.
Brockhoff L., Styhr Petersen H.J., Haastrup P.
A consequence model for chlorine and ammonia based on a fatality index approach
A simple consequence model for chlorine and ammonia is proposed based on the concept of fatality indices, i.e. that a given release amount will on average result in the same number of fatalities. The model uses actual data from accidents involving the two chemicals. Consequences were estimated for three different population density classes: rural, semi-urban (industrial), and urban. Results are presented as curves showing the frequency of getting a certain number of fatalities. The curves show that the fatality index model gives results closer to actual observations than do traditional models and its use is therefore recommended for public policy-related risk assessments.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol.29, No.3, p.405-425. Illus. 10 ref.
van Steen J.F.J.
A perspective on structured expert judgment
The appropriate use of expert judgment as a data source for the quantitative phase of risk analysis requires a structured approach and the development and introduction of specialised methodological tools. The state of the art of the use of expert judgment, in particular in risk analysis, is reviewed. The key characteristics which underline the need for a structured approach are discussed, along with the procedures which may be used in applying structured expert judgment. Practical experiences of the use of expert judgment are described along with an outline of the lessons learned and unresolved issues requiring further attention.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol.29, No.3, p.365-385. 65 ref.
Amendola A., Contini S., Ziomas I.
Uncertainties in chemical risk assessment: Results of a European benchmark exercise
In this European Community project a chemical risk analysis of an ammonia storage facility was carried out by 11 teams representing control authorities, research organisations, engineering companies and industries. In the first phase, a complete risk assessment was performed and results were compared as to methodologies, data and models employed. In the second phase, an attempt was made to identify the sources of the overall spread of the results obtained from phase one. The project resulted in a comprehensive overview of currently available methodologies for chemical risk assessment in Europe, and triggered an important common learning process towards sound analytical procedures.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1992, Vol.29, No.3, p.347-363. Illus. 5 ref.
Department of Health, Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment
Guidelines for the evaluation of chemicals for carcinogenicity
Contents of these guidelines: general issues in chemical carcinogenesis; epidemiologic studies in the assessment of cancer risk; major classes of carcinogenic chemicals and the mechanisms by which they exert their carcinogenic effects; use of short-term predictive tests for screening the carcinogenic potential of chemicals; design of carcinogenicity tests; interpretation of carcinogenicity studies; assessment of the hazards and risks from exposure to chemical carcinogens. Glossary.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. x, 80p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 7.30.
Turmo Sierra E.
Models for the assessment of vulnerability of the public in case of major accidents: The Probit method
Modelos de vulnerabilidad de las personas por accidentes mayores: método Probit [in Spanish]
Summary of this information note: criteria for the establishment of vulnerability of the public under present-day legislation (intervention zones, emergency alert zones); the Probit method in general; the Probit method used for the evaluation of vulnerability to the inhalation of toxic substances; the Probit method used for the evaluation of vulnerability to thermal radiation; the Probit method used for the evaluation of vulnerability to explosions.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 6p. 4 ref.
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