Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
The operation of the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 - Annual Report 1992-93
This report reviews the activities under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) set up under the 1989 Act (see CIS 91-1760). Contents: legislative changes resulting from the regulatory impact review (copy of a report on the impact review included); information provision and consultative arrangements; new chemicals (48 notification received, 46 assessments completed); priority existing chemicals; international activities; finance and staffing; future directions. Previous report abstracted under CIS 93-613.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1993. vii, 44p. 53 ref.
Stokell P.J., Robb J.D., Crick M.J., Muirhead C.R.
National Radiological Protection Board
Spider-1. Software for evaluating the detriment associated with radiation exposure
This report introduces a PC-based system, SPIDER-1, for investigating the application of measures of health detriment when considering the significance of radiation exposure. The system allows the user to investigate an extensive set of scenarios: exposure of individuals of given age and sex, or populations of any age and sex distribution; acute and chronic dose profiles; probability of effect and loss of life expectancy; the risk of fatal and non-fatal cancer and of hereditary effects; aggregated detriment. The health effects models used in SPIDER-1 are those developed at NRPB for a UK population.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Nov. 1993. iii, 27p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 9-16 February 1993. IARC final classifications: beryllium and beryllium compounds and cadmium and cadmium compounds are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1); methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B); metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). In the glass manufacturing industry, the manufacture of art glass, glass containers and pressed ware entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) while occupational exposures in flat-glass and special glass manufacture are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 444p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 75.00.
Vineis P., Soskolne C.L.
Cancer risk assessment and management: An ethical perspective
Different ways of evaluating acceptable risk in the work environment are described, with particular emphasis on their ethical aspects. Main topics: definition of acceptability of risks, assumptions in setting acceptable risks, measurement of risks, examples of acceptable levels of risk, principles of medical ethics, ethical models, and risk assessment, from the clinical setting to the population level.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.902-908. 96 ref.
A review of safety and health hazards of metalorganic compounds
This article presents a review of the available safety and health hazard information related to 10 metalorganic compounds, and also outlines other considerations with respect to their exposure, use, and storage. The compounds are discussed in three sections: highly pyrophoric and reactive, but relatively non-toxic, metalorganic compounds of gallium, indium, aluminum, and zinc; highly toxic, and some pyrophoric, compounds of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury; and metalorganic compounds of selenium and tellurium, which are neither pyrophoric nor very toxic.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.607-614. 66 ref.
US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment
Researching health risks
The Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress analyzed the nature and organization of federally funded research on health risk assessment in terms of the resources and priorities of the agencies concerned (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, among others), the linkage of research to decision-making and the limits of research-based information in making social policy. Assessment of the risks associated with radon exposure was taken as a case study. Promising areas for future research and factors of importance for successful assessment were identified. Risk assessment activities outside the USA were surveyed.
US Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328, USA, Nov. 1993. viii, 228p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 13.00 (+25% for international orders).
Kriek E., Van Schooten F.J., Hillebrand M.J.X., Van Leeuwen F.E., Den Engelse L., De Looff A.J.A., Dijkmans A.P.G.
DNA adducts as a measure of lung cancer risk in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Workers in the coking, foundry, and aluminium industry can be exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are at an increased risk for lung cancer. Theoretically, DNA adduct formation is a more relevant biological parameter for assessing exposure risk than PAH in the work atmosphere because adduct levels reflect that part of the dose that escapes detoxification and binds to DNA. The study analyzed white blood cell (WBC) DNA from coke-oven workers and from workers in an aluminium production plant and demonstrated the presence of PAH-DNA adducts. Forty-seven percent of the coke oven workers had detectable levels of PAH-DNA adducts in their WBC compared with 27% of the controls (p<0.05). In the aluminium workers, no PAH-DNA adducts were detected by ELISA. The more sensitive 32P-postlabelling assay showed the presence of PAH-DNA adducts in 91% of the aluminium workers. There was no correlation of WBC adduct levels with the concentration of PAH in the work atmosphere.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1993, Vol.99. p.71-75. Illus. 30 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Paper and Board Industry Advisory Committee
Manual handling assessment in paper and board mills
This booklet provides guidance on assessing the risk of injury from hazardous manual handling operations. Contents: factors which indicate that such an assessment is needed; numerical guideline weights for lifting and lowering; who should make the assessment; the assessment procedure; problems to look for when making an assessment; ways of reducing the risk of injury.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Oct. 1993. 19p. Illus. 11 ref.
Work: Prioritization of risk factors by activity sector
El trabajo: Priorización de los factores de riesgo por sector de actividad [in Spanish]
Training module on risk factor evaluation consisting of a diskette (MS-DOS) and an accompanying booklet. The main purpose of the diskette is to provide a tool for the teaching of priority setting in risk avoidance in workplaces. In addition to being a user's manual, the accompanying booklet contains the following supporting document: risk factors and preventive measures (elaboration by type of risk factor).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 27p. + 3.5" diskette (MS-DOS).
Sterling T.D., Collett C.W., Rosenbaum W.L., Weinkam J.J.
Comments on the Health Effects Institute-Asbestos Research (HEI-AR) Report: "Asbestos in public and commercial buildings", with emphasis on risk assessment methods used
A Health Effects Institute-Asbestos Research (HEI-AR) Report calculates the risk of exposure to environmental asbestos fibres (EAF) by downward extrapolation from the mortality of workers exposed for 20 years. This extrapolation is improper because 1) relative risks of asbestos exposure are very likely not linearly progressive; 2) the composition of EAF may not be equivalent to that in mining or fabricating; 3) the same environmental asbestos concentration probably represents different exposure doses for different populations; and 4) health effects of asbestos exposure on children, seniors, patients, the institutionalized, the handicapped, and the chronically ill may not be the same as those in healthy workers. Evidence of asbestos-related disease among family members of exposed workers demonstrates that the risk observed for EAF is substantially larger than that estimated from downward extrapolation and suggests a basis for an alternative approach to estimating asbestos-related health risks. Such epidemiologic procedures are well established and ought to form the basis for detecting the health effects of EAF. It is also unclear which industry supports HEI-AR.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.767-781. Illus. 42 ref.
Heseltine E., Peltonen K., Sorsa M., Vainio H.
Assessment of the health hazards of 1,3-butadiene and styrene
Report on a meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 18-21 April 1993, on the health hazards of 1,3-butadiene and styrene. The main topics were occurrence and exposure, dose measurement, protein and DNA adducts as markers of exposure, reproductive effects and neurotoxicity, genetic toxicity, cancer. The two substances have carcinogenic effects in laboratory studies but wide differences between species make extrapolation to humans difficult. Epidemiological evidence associating butadiene exposure with cancer is strong, but the data on styrene are still equivocal. Research in several areas is needed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.11, p.1089-1095. 6 ref.
Martin J.M., Lemoine P., Mouaddib A.I., Robaux P.
DST: A risk-based method and tool for the description of work situations
D.S.T.: Une méthode et un outil pour la description de situations de travail orientée vers les risques [in French]
The description of workstations is a difficult but essential activity for the occupational physician. This article suggests a method and software that would permit a risk-based description of workplaces and work situations. It emphasizes the usefulness of defining objectives before undertaking workplace studies. This operational suggestion is only a part of a more global system designed to facilitate occupational risk surveillance inside companies. Annex: Job description of a coal-mine worker.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.403-409. Illus. 28 ref.
Spencer A.B., Gressel M.G.
A hazard and operability study of anhydrous ammonia application in agriculture
Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) analysis was applied to the use of anhydrous ammonia (NH3) by farmers. The analysis evaluated the storage, transfer and application of NH3, and the identification of hazard scenarios, practical solutions and research needs. As a result of the analysis, 95 findings (i.e. recommendations) were developed for improvements in training and maintenance practices, equipment design, and the maintaining of material compatibility. Examples of these "findings" are given, as well as strategies for their dissemination to the agricultural community.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1993, Vol.54, No.11, p.671-677. Illus. 8 ref.
This monograph describes the clinical syndromes of respiratory allergy, the mechanisms associated with occupational respiratory hypersensitivity, and the clinical criteria used for diagnosis and methods currently available for the identification of respiratory allergens. As yet there exist no fully validated methods or guidelines for the prospective identification of potential respiratory allergens; most attention is given to animal models. The two methods described in this monograph require further development. An appendix provides details of the criteria used in the diagnosis of allergic asthma.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, 250 Avenue Louise (Bte. 63), 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Aug. 1993. ii, 49p. 104 ref.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
The use of lasers in the workplace - A practical guide
This ILO publication is one of a series of practical guides on occupational hazards arising from non-ionizing radiation providing basic knowledge of issues concerning the use of lasers in the workplace. The following topics are covered: characteristics of laser radiation; the biological and health effects; occupationally related exposure type and effects; hazard evaluation; instrumentation and measurement techniques; occupational exposure limits and safety standards; control of and protection from exposure to laser radiation; and the principles of an administrative structure needed to ensure laser safety in workplaces. Glossary.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. ix, 60p. Illus. Appendices. 33 ref. Price: CHF 17.50.
Ozone - A health risk for the roofer and other professionals working outdoors in the construction industry?
Ozon - Gesundheitsrisiko für Dachdecker und andere Freiluftberufe in der Bauwirtschaft? [in German]
At present, the stratospheric ozone concentration is diminishing, causing an increase in UV-radiation at the ground. At the same time, the ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere are increasing in industrialized areas. During the summer the statutory limit of 120µg/m3 is exceeded on the average on 10 to 50 days. From a review of the acute and chronic effects of ozone it is concluded that roofers and other professionals working outdoors face no health hazard at these ozone concentrations. However, they may experience reversible irritations of the mucous tissue of the eyes, nose and respiratory tract.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, June 1993, No.2, p.102-105. Illus.
COSHH - Making an assessment
This guide describes what is involved in carrying out a COSHH assessment and how to organize one within the workplace. Part 1 provides general guidance on assessments: legal requirements; persons competent to make an assessment; planning; identification of hazardous substances and who is exposed; monitoring and health surveillance; evaluation of health risks; assessment records. Part 2 presents a worked example of COSHH assessment for a single task using one hazardous substance. A sample assessment form is included.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1993. 24p. Price: GBP 10.00.
Hazard and operability studies leader training and manual
Schedule of a five-day course in hazard and operability studies for prospective leaders of such studies. The programme uses An introduction to hazard and operability studies - the guide work approach (see CIS 93-1327) and A manual of hazard and operability studies (see CIS 94-138).
Chemetics International Company Ltd., 1818 Cornwall Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V6J 1C7, Canada, no date. 20p.
van Dijk F.J.H., de Kort W.L.A.M., Verbeek J.H.A.M.
Quality assessment of occupational health services instruments
Interest in the quality of instruments for occupational health services is growing as a result of European legislation on preventive services stressing, for example, risk identification and assessment. The quality of the services can be enhanced when the quality of the applied instruments can be judged and improved. To judge quality aspects of instruments, a basic draft scheme and criteria are presented. A first category of criteria covers measurement objective and study design and comprises for example sample strategy and data aggregation level. Technical quality aspects are validity, reliability, standardization and precision. Acceptability of an instrument by employees, employers and professionals belongs to the process quality. At last, strategic quality or presumed utility has to be assessed. As an illustration, four instruments have been judged: periodic occupational health surveys, pre-employment medical examinations, the company audit on work and health, and specific working conditions assessment instruments. Finally, the presented basic scheme and criteria are brought into discussion.
Occupational Medicine, 1993, Vol.43, Suppl.1, p.28-33. 23 ref.
Mattila M., Kiviniitty J.
Job characteristics and occupational safety of manufacturing jobs at different levels of automation
Job and safety analyses were carried out on both manual tasks and tasks performed by CNC machine tools in two engineering machine shops. The study showed that although CNC technology incorporates improved safety, safety devices continued to be the most important factor contribution to the safety of the CNC operator's work. More advanced technology was, however, linked with an increased frequency of contact with other people and an improvement in the work environment. The incidents that occurred illustrated the inability of the operators to predict the current state of the machine.
International Journal of Human Factors in Manufacturing, 1993, Vol.3, No.3, p.243-252. Illus. 37 ref.
Vannas V., Perälä M., Mattila M.
Risk identification in FMS implementations
Safety analysis methods were used to identify potential risks in 22 Finnish companies using Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS). In addition, accidents and incidents were analyzed using an accident analysis model. Results show that although FMSs are recognized by workshops as being one of their safest functions, the safety design of such systems could be improved. The most critical factors contributing to accidents were identified as organizational factors, followed by the work environment, machines and human factors.
In: Nielsen R. and Jorgensen K. (eds.), Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety V., Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 OPR, Hants, United Kingdom, 1993, p.577-582. 8 ref.
Practical risk assessment - Guidance for SMEs
Booklet aimed at the managers of small and medium-sized enterprises. Although the regulatory framework is the UK Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992, the principles presented are of general applicability. The essential part or risk assessment is to inventory all the activities, materials, substances, equipment, people and procedures in the workplace, as well as the characteristics of the workplace itself. The hazards of each can then be identified and prioritized, and risk reduction measures undertaken. A checklist groups typical hazards under 13 headings: mechanical, transport, access, handling/lifting, electricity, chemicals, fire and explosion, particles and dust, radiation, biological, environmental, organizational and the individual.
Engineering Employers Federation, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London SW1 9NQ, United Kingdom, Apr. 1993. 24p. Illus. 17 ref.
Watterson A., Mercier M., Lotti M.
Exchange of views on chemical risk assessment
Letters to the editor concerning the credibility of the Environmental Health Criteria (EHCs) published by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Watterson (17 July), an academic, states that the involvement of industry in the drafting of EHCs and the absence of public-interest groups from the review panels undermines their public credibility. Mercier (18 Sep.), of the IPCS, replies by indicating the many sources of information and expertise that are drawn on in EHC preparation, and noting that the UN has specifically called on industry to supply data. Lotti (16 Oct.), an academic and chairman of a task group criticized by Watterson, defends the intellectual integrity of the scientists involved in the preparation of EHCs. Watterson's reply emphasizes the diversity of opinion that can exist within the scientific community and calls on IPCS to subsidize the attendance of non-academic, non-industrial persons at review meetings, and to publish registers of the interests, affiliations and funding of task group members.
Lancet, 17 July 1993, Vol.342, No.8864, p.131-132. 6 ref.; 18 Sep. 1993, Vol.342, No.8873, p.746.; 16 Oct. 1993, Vol.342, No.8877, p.993-994. 4 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures of hairdressers and barbers and personal use of hair colourants; some hair dyes, cosmetic colourants, industrial dyestuffs and aromatic amines
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France 6-13 October 1992. IARC final classifications: the manufacture of magenta entails exposures that are carcinogenic (Group 1); occupation as a hairdresser or barber entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic (Group 2A); 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) is probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); para-chloroaniline, CI Acid Red 114, CI Direct Blue 15, 2,6-dimethylaniline (2,6 xylidine), HC Blue No.1, CI Basic Red 9 and magenta containing CI basic red 9 are possibly carcinogenic in humans (Group 2B); 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, CI Acid Orange 3, CI Pigment Red 3, D&C Red No.9, 1,4-diamino-2-nitrobenzene (2-nitro-para-phenylenediamine), N-N-dimethylaniline, HC Blue No.2, HC Red No.3, HC Yellow No.4 and personal use of hair colorants are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 427p. Index. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 75.00.
Waters T.R., Putz-Anderson V., Garg A., Fine L.J.
Revised NIOSH equation for the design and evaluation of manual lifting tasks
The NIOSH lifting equation as revised in 1991 reflects new findings and provides methods for evaluating asymmetrical lifting tasks, lifts of objects with less than optimal hand-container couplings, and also provides guidelines for a larger range of work durations and lifting frequencies than the 1981 equation. This paper describes the rationale for selecting the three criteria (biomechanical, physiological and psychophysical) that were used to define the equation, and demonstrates how they were used to determine the equation values. The lifting index, an index of relative physical stress that can be used to identify hazardous lifting tasks, is also described.
Ergonomics, July 1993, Vol.36, No.7, p.749-776. 96 ref.
Quantitative risk assessment for environmental and occupational health
This manual presents a methodology for assessing the level of health risk associated with exposure to toxicants. Contents: qualitative and quantitative evaluation of human and animal studies; the risk analysis methodology; methods for determining the acceptable concentration of a toxicant in air, water or food; an example risk assessment involving environmental and occupational exposure to a hypothetical industrial toxicant with solutions based on animal and epidemiological studies. Appendices include a glossary of terms and a US FDA risk analysis method for carcinogens.
Lewis Publishers Inc., 121 South Main Street, Chelsea, MI 48118, USA, 2nd ed., 1993. xiv, 224p. Index. 37 ref. Price: GBP 40.00.
International Agency for Research on Cancer
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some naturally occurring substances - food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins
This publication represents the views and expert opinions on an IARC Working Group (Lyon, France, 9-16 June 1992). IARC final classification: Chinese-style salted fish and naturally occurring aflatoxins are carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) is probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); pickled vegetables (traditional Asian), caffeic acid, MeIQ (2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine), aflatoxin M1, fumonisins B1 and B2, fusarin C and ochratoxin A are possibly carcinogenic in humans (Group 2B); other salted fish, d-Limonene, zearlenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenone X and T-2 toxin are not classifiable as to their carninogenicity in humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 608p. Index. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 95.00.
Haberlin G.M., Heinsohn R.J.
Predicting solvent concentrations from coating the inside of bulk storage tanks
A technique is presented for assessing health risks associated with coating the inside surface of a bulk storage tank. The technique uses a sequential box model to predict the time-varying solvent concentrations at arbitrary points inside the vessel during an ongoing coating process. Input parameters include volumetric flow rates of exhaust and makeup air, solvent threshold limit values and evaporation rates, and a set of exchange coefficients that characterise air circulation inside the vessel. This technique enables engineers to rate quantitatively the anticipated health risks of applying a combination of coatings. The technique also provides engineering managers a predictive tool to organise work schedules so that health and safety can become input parameters to an engineering enterprise.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1993, Vol.54, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 21 ref.
Hazard assessment of chemicals. Volume 8
This volume comprises six subject reviews in area of chemical hazard assessment: risk assessment in the remedy selection process at hazardous waste sites; the status of interactions data in risk assessment of chemical mixtures; essentiality versus toxicity - some considerations in the risk assessment of essential trace elements; hazard ranking system for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites; contamination assessment of sediments in freshwater ecosystems; monoclonal antibodies and their use in measurement of environmental contaminants.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 0PR, Hants., United Kingdom, 1993. xii, 332p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 71.00.
Barton J., Rogers R.
Chemical reaction hazards
Guide to the assessment of chemical reaction hazards for persons responsible for designing and operating chemical plant and processes, in the context of the UK Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. Contents: introduction (background, legislation, assessment strategy); process assessment and process definition; techniques for evaluating chemical reaction hazards; interpreting data with respect to process operation and plant design; process risk analysis; selecting and specifying a basis of safety; general hazards of plant operation; operating procedures and instructions; glossary; references; appendices (example of the use of HAZAN; assessing fire and explosion hazards in a simple batch reactor; typical table of contents for the technical description of a process).
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, Warwickshire, United Kingdom, Apr. 1993. vi, 184p. Illus. 130 ref. Index. Price: GBP 32.00.
Health and Safety Executive
A step by step guide to COSHH assessment
This booklet provides advice and guidance to employers in Britain for the assessment of their activities under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (CIS 89-1092). Contents: gathering information about the substance, the work and the working practices; evaluating the risks to health; deciding on the necessary measures to comply with Regulations 7 to 12 of COSHH; recording the assessment; when the assessment needs to be reviewed; competence of those carrying out the assessment; decisions on reasonable practicability. A number of examples of the application of the COSHH Regulations in particular industries are included.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. viii, 44p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
Agricultural Industry Advisory Committee (AIAC)
A guide to producing a farm COSHH assessment
Guidance book aimed at farmers who wish to learn how to produce a COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988, see CIS 89-1092) assessment. Attention is drawn to hazardous substances commonly used in farming, warning symbols used, assessing exposure on farms, control measures, health surveillance, implementing the assessment. A check list is presented (exposure prevention, hazards and risks, control, protective equipment, instruction and training, health surveillance).
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 12p. Illus. 12 ref.
Risk analysis of the transportation of dangerous goods by road and rail
Details are given of a methodology developed for the analysis of the risks arising from the carriage in bulk of toxic and flammable substances by road and rail as part of a major study into the risks faced by the British population from the transport of dangerous substances. Models are given for the interaction of passenger and dangerous goods trains taking into account the ability of signals and other systems to detect and stop approaching trains. In the case of road transport, the models allow for the characteristics of different road types and the behaviour of motorists to be simulated. The relative risks of transporting hazardous materials by road or rail are explored.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1993, Vol.33, No.2, p.229-259. Illus. 7 ref.
Fairhurst S., Turner R.M.
Toxicological assessments in relation to major hazards
A general approach for determining the toxicological hazard posed by the release of a substance from a major hazard is outlined. The aim of the toxicological assessment is to derive a "toxic load" value and relationship which will be representative of all sets of exposure conditions predicted to produce a chosen Specified Level of Toxicity (SLOT). This "toxic load" can then be used as the basis for calculating the risk from the major hazard. The limitations of the approach and the assumptions made in its adoption are discussed, and reference is made to toxicological assessments produced for specific substances.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1993, Vol.33, No.2, p.215-227. 30 ref.
The history and development of emergency response planning guidelines
The development of a series of documents, Emergency Response Planning Guides (ERPGs), published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Committee is described. The guidelines provide estimates of concentration ranges above which one could reasonably anticipate observing adverse effects as a consequence of exposure to the specific substance. The review procedure of the guidelines is also described. The 35 chemicals for which the Committee has so far developed planning guides are listed along with a further 25 currently under review.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1993, Vol.33, No.2, p.193-202. 16 ref.
Environmental hazard assessment of substances
This report describes the development of a process for the environmental hazard assessment of substances, including principles and practical approaches. The assessment of whether a substance presents a hazard to environmental organisms is based on a comparison of the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) with the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) to organisms in ecosystems. In this approach, the estimation of PEC values is based on exposure model calculations and PNEC values on toxicological data. It was demonstrated that, for the limited number of substances tested and using PNEC values for aquatic organisms only, the proposed approach represents a workable system for the aquatic environment.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Boîte 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Jan. 1993. 92p. 46 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Toxicology of substances in relation to major hazards - Hydrogen fluoride
This revised review (see CIS 91-582 for previous edition) examines the "dangerous toxic load" (DTL) for hydrogen fluoride, in accordance with the principles of toxicological assessment described in the HSE publication "Assessment of the toxicity of major hazard substances" (see CIS 90-1985). Contents: physicochemical properties of hydrogen fluoride; toxicological data available in humans and animals; derivation of DTL. Tables show LC50 values for hydrogen fluoride in animals and observations from single exposure inhalation studies in animals. A DTL value of 12,000ppm/min is suggested for use in risk analyses.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, revised 1993. 11p. 18 ref. Price: GBP 3.25.
Comparative strategy for the safety of horizontal injection moulding machines
This paper considers the application of probabilistic risk assessment as a modern approach to machinery safety. Investigation of a recent fatal accident involving a 700-ton horizontal injection moulding machine is described and a risk assessment study is used to compare three strategies for the prevention of trapping injuries between the platens of such machines. The study highlights the difference in the principles of accident prevention on these machines in the USA, the UK and the rest of the European Community. Attention is drawn to the role and design of monitoring systems. Summaries in French and German.
Safety Science, Jan. 1993, Vol.16, No.1, p.67-88. Illus. 176 ref.
Occupational hazards in the manufacturing of ceramic products - Report on the current situation
Riesgos profesionales en fabricación de productos cerámicos - Informe de situación [in Spanish]
A survey was conducted of occupational hazards among the approx. 40,000 workers (1989 data) in the Spanish ceramics manufacturing industry. This report covers: characteristics of the sector (number and distribution of workers, technology, accident statistics); definition and aims of the study (risk maps); methods used (analysis of the manufacturing process, description of the study sample, evaluation, data collection and analysis); results (general data; fire prevention; electrical safety; compressed air; materials movement; risks connected with work processes); conclusions and proposals for prevention. In annex: health risks due to the work environment; questionnaires used in the study.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1992. 227p. Illus.
Baracco A., D'Allio G., Mercurio G., Leante E., Berra A.
Risk control in activities linked to battery charging
Il controllo dei rischi nell'attività di carica batterie [in Italian]
Occupational exposure of 158 male workers assigned to the charging of lead batteries was monitored and their health was compared with 295 controls (285 men + 10 women), in order to evaluate the risks connected with lead as required by Italian Decree No.277/91 (CIS 93-1404). No environmental lead pollution was observed, these activities being performed in conformity with CEI (Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano) Regulations 21-4 and 64-2. Since blood lead levels in the exposed workers was below the OSHA (U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) standard, it was suggested to re-evaluate the hazard values of various activities listed in the Italian Decree and to delete the "battery handling" work category as a hazardous occupational activity.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.4, No.3, p.13-24. Illus. 10 ref.
Calculated risks - the toxicity and human health risks of chemicals in our environment
This book provides an introductory guide to the toxic properties of chemicals and the assessment of chemical risks. Contents: fundamentals of chemistry; natural and industrial sources of chemicals; human exposure (exposure routes, dose, concentration, sampling); absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of chemicals in the body; toxicity and toxic risk; acute toxicity of highly toxic chemicals; subchronic and chronic toxicity of slow poisons and their effects on target systems; carcinogens; mechanisms of toxicity; dose and response; assessing risks; regulation of toxic substances; recommended improvements and new challenges.
Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbuury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom, 1992 (paperback edition 1994). xxvi, 256p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 9.95.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Hazard identification and evaluation in a local community
Identification et évaluation des risques dans une localité [in French]
This manual, part of the UNEP's Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL) programme, is designed for all those concerned with the identification and evaluation of hazards in the community (local government, police, fire, rescue services, etc). It comprises three parts: an introduction (definitions, use of the handbook); a description of the hazard analysis method with examples; a series of annexes providing more information to enable local communities to identify and evaluate hazards.
Industry and Environment Programme Activity Centre (IE/PAC), 39-43 Quai André-Citroën, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, 1992. 86p. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Whose risk is it anyway?
Videotape and printed material concerning risk assessments in the workplace, now compulsory in Great Britain. Both factories and small enterprises are dealt with.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1992. Videotape. Length: 17min. Accompanying booklets. Price: GBP 11.05. ###
Safe evaluation of hazards posed by contaminated sites
Arbeitssicherheit bei der Erkundung von Altlasten [in German]
For evaluating the hazards posed by contaminated sites, air and soil samples are taken and analyzed. The organization of protective measures for this work involves the collection of information on the history of the site to get clues as to what kind of contaminants are to be found. Sites are classified according to the estimated toxicity and concentration of the substances present. Four classes are to be distinguished; they require different protective equipment such as different types of protective clothing, gloves, shoes and respirators.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.12-19. Illus. 2 ref.
Health risks from hazardous substances at work: Assessment, evaluation and control
This manual is arranged in four parts: I. Biological effects of exposure to hazardous substances: how hazardous substances enter the body, diseases from hazardous substances; understanding the thresholds; toxico-kinetic data. II. Occupational exposure limits: published exposure limits; use of human experience and animal experiments in setting exposure limits; length of exposure. III. Assessment of health risks: assessment procedures; measurement of atmospheric exposure; measuring exposure at work; health risk surveillance; managing the issues. IV. Getting control over health risks: physical environment control; ventilation; personnel control.
Elsevier Science Ltd., The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom, 1992. lii, 513p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 83.00, USD 130.00.
Human error identification in human reliability assessment. Part 1: Overview of approaches. Part 2: Detailed comparison of techniques
The first of these two papers discusses probabilistic risk assessment and human reliability assessment and reviews 12 techniques for the identification of human errors in human-machine systems. An initial assessment is made of the techniques which range from simple error classifications to sophisticated software packages based on models of human performance. The second paper compares the way these techniques perform against a range of criteria. While there are techniques available for human error identification, there is significant scope for improvement; areas for further research and development are suggested.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1992, Vol.23, No.5, p.299-318. 30 ref.; Dec. 1992, Vol.23, No.6, p.371-381. 25 ref.
Baratto G., Guérin J.J., Mongis J., Tournier C., Vieu A.
Morphological analysis of machine part failure - A guide
Analyse morphologique des défaillances d'organes de machines - Guide [in French]
A method of failure analysis is described. It involves a classification of failures, with particular attention paid to deformations, breakages and surface wear. Illustrated technical information notes provide examples of sudden breakage, and of breakage due to metal fatigue, corrosion, surface deterioration and wear on various machine parts.
Centre technique des industries mécaniques (CETIM), 52, avenue Félix-Louat, B.P. 67, 60304 Senlis Cedex, France, 2nd ed., 1992. 67p. Illus. 28 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
COSHH - A guide to assessment
Contents of this guide devoted to COSHH (CIS 89-1092) as it is applied in the ceramics industry: employer's responsibilities under the COSHH Regulations; persons competent to make an assessment; identification of hazardous substances and their adverse health effects; occupational exposure limits; product information; making an assessment; deciding on measures to prevent exposure or control the risk; record keeping; information of personnel.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 15p. Illus. 9 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Proceedings of the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances du 24 mai, du 15 novembre et du 13 décembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): Health and safety in the use of composite materials in the aircraft industry; comments on the problems associated with the notification of occupational diseases under the French Scheme (example of Schedule 64 (intoxication due to carbon monoxide); repercussions of work on perinatal problems in rural settings (survey of 534 women); conditions of work; comparison of the results of objective and subjective analysis; work in tropical countries: update of specific preventive measures; medical problems due to laser check-out workstations in supermarkets; problem of aptitude to apprenticeship in the case of a subject suffering from tuberous sclerosis: a case study; survey of occupational deafness cases diagnosed in the unit of occupational diseases in Bordeaux; the concept of occupational risk (danger, risk, cyndinics); compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B (Law of 18 Jan. 1991; Order of 15 March 1991: CIS 91-1754).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.426-442.
Types of risks in the operation of tower cranes
Risiko-Typen beim Betrieb von Turmdrehkranen [in German]
From accident records collected in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1980 and 1988 the types and causes of accidents in which tower cranes were involved were identified. Assembling and disassembling of tower cranes was found to lead most frequently to severe accidents. Failure of safety devices ranked second and breaking apart of the weight-carrying parts through faulty welding ranked third.
Hebezeuge und Fördermittel, Feb. 1992, Vol.32, No.2, p.58-63. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Lead - A guide to assessment
This booklet explains the dangers of lead and using a series of questions and answers outlines how to make an assessment of the lead hazard in pottery workshops. Topics include: lead in glazes and colours; health hazards; employer's responsibilities; exposure evaluation; air sampling; blood tests; information of personnel. Methods to prevent or control exposure are also outlined.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Oct. 1992. 12p. Illus. 13 ref.
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